227. It is characteristic of Homer to form a species of compound by combining two prepositions.
ἀμφὶ περί: like our round about; also περί τʼ ἀμφί τε round and about
Il. 22.10 ὄχθαι δʼ ἀμφὶ περὶ μεγάλʼ ἴαχον
in Compοsitiοn, ἀμφιπεριστρώφα (Il. 8.348), etc.
παρέξ: out besides, out along, out past
Od. 14.168 ἄλλα παρὲξ μεμνώμεθα
with the accusative
alongside the sea
παρὲξ τὴν νῆσον
past the island
beyond ( = contrary to) reason
with the genitive.
aside from the way
ὁπέξ: with a genitive away from under
Il. 13.89 φεύξεσθαι ὑπὲκ κακοῦ
διέξ: with a genitive right through
ἀποπρό: quite away, used adverbially and with a genitive.
διαπρό: right through, adverbially and with a genitive.
περιπρό: round about
Il. 11.180 περιπρὸ γὰρ ἔγχεϊ θῦε
In all these instances the meaning and construction are mainly determined by the first of the twο prepositions (so that e. g. παρέξ is used nearly as παρά, διέξ and διαπρό as διά, etc.). The second does little more than add some emphasis.
The triple preposition ὑπεκπpό is found in composition: ὑπεκπροθέω, ὑπεκπρορέω, etc. The sense is represented by dividing the vwοrds ὑπεκ-προθέω, etc.
A curious variety is found in the compound προ-προκυλινδόμενος rolling forward before, where a second πpό is added to give emphasis to the first.
228. The term "Improper Preposition" may be applied to any adverb used to govern a case. The following are some of the most important words of the kind.
Used with a genitive
near, close to
- ἐγγύθι, ἐγγύς
- ἄντα, ἀντίον, etc.
in frοnt of
- ἐντός, ἔντοσθε, ἔνδοθεν
- ἐκτός, ἔκτοθι, ἔκτοσθε(ν)
- ἄνευ, ἄνευθε(ν)
apart from, without
- ἑκάς, ἑκάτερθε(ν)
- τῆλε, τηλόθι
- εἵνεκα (ἕνεκα)
on accοunt of
by the favor of
The genitive with some of these words may be ablatival (§ 152). In general, however, it appears to be used with little or no reference to the meaning of the governing adverb, and merely in order to connect the two words. Hence these constructions are best brought under the general rule that a noun governs the genitive (§ 147).
With a dative
in company with
in like manner
ἀμφίς takes a genitive in the meaning aside from (Il. 8.444, 23.393, Od. 14.352). It is also found with the accusative in the same sense as ἀμφί, in the phrase θεοὶ Κρόνον ἀμφὶς ἐόντες, Il. 14.274, 15.225 (see also Il. 11.634, 748, Od. 6.266); and once with a dative viz. in Il. 5.723 σιδηρέῳ ἄξονι ἀμφίς. Also as an adverb = around in Il. 9.464, 24.488.
εἴσω generally takes an accusative
but a genitive in Od. 8.290.
ὁ δʼ εἴσω δώματος ᾔει
went inside the house (not merely to the house)
The word ὡς was supposed to govern an accusative in one place in Homer, viz.
Od. 17.218 ὡς αἰεὶ τὸν ὁμοῖον ἄγει θεὸς ὡς τὸν ὁμοῖον
But the true construction is (as Mr. Ridgeway has pointed out) ὡς . . . ὡς as Gοd brings like as he brings like, i.e. deals with a man as he dealt with his like (see Journal of Philology, vol. xvii. p. 113).
Nοte the frequency of compounds formed by one of these words following a preposition.
Cp. ἄν-διχα, διαμπέρες, κατ-αυτόθι, etc.
These are not true compounds (σὐvθετα), but are formed by παpάθεσιs, or mere juxtaposition: i.e. they do not consist of two members, of which the first is wholly employed in limiting or qualifying the second, but of twο adverbial words qualifying the same verb. Thus they are essentially akin to the combinations formed by a preposition and its case: see § 178.