29. The Simple Thematic Present. The stems which fall under this description generally contain the same vowels (or diphthongs) as the strong stem of the athematic present (§§ 6, 12). They may be classed according to the stem vowel, as follows.
- η, Ionic for ᾱ:
I waste away
The η of these stems is 'pan-Hellenic' i. e. answers to η, not ᾱ, in other dialects.
- νειφέμεν to snow1
For ἵκω I come the Doric form is εἵκω.
I learn (by hearing)
were urged on
also, with loss of υ before the thematic vowel
- ερ (ρε):
to be warmed
I am willing
ρῑ from ερ appears in
ῐρ (ρῐ, ρῑ) for r̥ appears in certain combinations
set as a covering
with loss of σ
τρεῖ (τρέει, for τρεσ-ει, cp. ἄ-τρεσ-τος)
νέομαι (cp. νόσ-τος)
The thematic forms of εἰμί, viz. ἔον, optative ἔοι, participle ἐών, belong to this head, since ἐσ- is the strong stem. So too κέονται (for κει-ονται), 3rd plural of κεῖ-μαι.
ω (instead of η) appears in
Both forms appear to be derivative (with suffixed γ, κ, § 45): τρώ-γω may be connected with τορ-εῖν (§ 31.4). διώ-κω is related to δίε-μαι (§ 11): it has been supposed to be a thematic perfect, with loss of reduplication (i.e. from *δε-δίω-κα).
ῡ appears in
These also are derivative (§ 45).
ο appears in λόε washed (Od. 10.361, H. Apoll. 120), infinitive λοῦσθαι (Od. 6. 216). λο- is for λοϝ-, cp. Latin lav-ere. A present *λούω is inferred from the form λούεσθαι (Il. 6.508 = 15.265), for which we may read λοέεσθαι (from the derivative present λοέω).
30. Thematic present with weak stem. Of this formation there are a few instances.
I drive, bring
fails, breaks down
- ἀπο-δρύφοι (optative)
- ἄγχε choked
also the thematic forms of εἶμι viz. imperfect ἤ-ϊον, opative ἴοι, participle ἰών. Note that γράφω is not found in Homer except in the aorist ἔγραψα.
The forms βόλεται (Il. 11.319), ἐβόλοντο (Od. 1.234), βόλεσθε (Od. 16.387) were restored by Wolf; see Buttmannʼs Lexil. s. ν.
The form βλάβεται (Il. 19.82, 166, Od. 13.34) occurs in gnomic passages only, where an aorist would be equally in place (§ 78.2).
ὄρονται (Od. 14.104), ὄροντο (Od. 3.471) occur in the phrase ἐπὶ δʼ ἀνέρες ἐσθλοὶ ὄρονται, where ἐπὶ ὄρονται seems to be = "act as ἐπίουροι" "are in charge."
ἀΐω only occurs as a present in the phrase οὐκ ἀΐεις; = have you not heard? Elsewhere ἄϊον is used as an aorist (Schulze, K. Z. xxix. 249).
A present δρύφω cannot be inferred with certainty from the optative ἀποδρύφοι (Il. 23.187, 24.21), which may be an aorist.
The forms ἄρχω, ἄγχω are difficult because original ᾱρχ-, ᾱγχ- would shorten the vowel (before a semi-vowel and mute), and consequently the stem would be indistinguishable from original ᾰρχ-, ᾰγχ-. That in ἄρχ-ω the stem is weak may be inferred from the nouns ἀρχ-ός, ἀρχ-ή (§ 109); the ο-form may be found in ὄρχαμος, the strong form possibly in ἔρχ-ομαι. Again ἄγχ-ω may be identifed with Sanskrit áh-ati (for ń̥gh-atί): the strong form being ἐγχ- in ἔγχ-ελυς (De Saussure, Mém. p. 276 ff.).