115. Accentuation. The accent is often connected with the form of the suffix, and sometimes varies with the meaning. But the rules that can be given on this subject are only partial.
- Stems in -ο are generally oxytone when they denote an agent, barytone when they denote the thing done.
that which is brought
But νομό-ς pasture, λοιγό-ς pestilence (perhaps thought of as an agent, "destroyer").
- Stems in -η are generally oxytone, but there are many exceptions (as δίκ-η, μάχ-η).
- Most stems in -ιδ, and all in -ᾰδ, are oxytone. But those which admit an accusative in -ιν are all barytone.
- Adjectives in -υ-ς are oxytone; except θῆλ-υ-ς and the isolated feminine θάλεια. Substantives in -υ-ς are mostly oxytone; but see § 116.4.
- Neuters with stems in -εσ (nominative accusative -ος) are barytone, but adjectives in -ης, and feminine nouns in -ως, genitive -οος, are oxytone.
- Nouns in -ηρ and -ην are oxytone, except μήτηρ, θυγάτηρ (but see § 111.2), ἄρσην, τέρην.
Nouns in -ωρ and -ων are mostly barytone, but there are many exceptions, especially the abstract nouns in -δων, the substantives in -μων, as δαιτυμών, ἡγεμών, κηδεμών, and most nouns in -ων, genitive -ωνος, as ἀγών, ἀγκών, χειμών, τελαμών.
- Stems in -το with the O-form are barytone, with the weak form oxytone
but στα-τό-ς, etc.
- Stems in -τη are mostly oxytone. Accordingly the primitive masculines in -τη-ς, which are Nouns of the Agent, can generally be distinguished from the denominatives in -της (§ 117): e. g. ἀγορητής a speaker, but ναύτης a ship-man (sailor).
- Abstract nouns in -τι, -σι are barytone; in -τῡ oxytone.
It will be seen that, roughly speaking, when the verbal stem is in the weak form, the suffix is accented, and vice versa: also that words with an active meaning (applicable to a personal agent) are oxytone, those with a passive meaning (expressing the thing done) are barytone.