Implied Predication

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245. Where the participle is predicative, we often find the noun or pronoun taking the place in the construction of the whole participial clause.

Il. 17.1 οὐδʼ ἔλαθʼ Ἀτρέος υἱὸν Πάτροκλος Τρώεσσι δαμείς
            that Patroclus had fallen

Od. 5.6 μέλε γάρ οἱ ἐὼν ἐν δώμασι νύμφης
             it troubled her that he was, etc.

Il. 6.191 γίγνωσκε θεοῦ γόνον ἠῢν ἐόντα
              knew him for the offspring of a god

Od. 10.419 σοὶ μὲν νοστήσαντι ἐχάρημεν
                   we were gladdened by your return

Il. 13.417 ἄχος γένετʼ εὐξαμένοιο
                there was vexation at his boasting

Il. 5.682; 14.504; 17.538, 564; 18.337, etc.

We have here the idiom already observed in the use of the infinitive (§ 237) by which the weight of the meaning is shifted from the grammatical subject, object, etc., to a limiting or qualifying word. Note especially that

  1. The aorist participle may be used in this way to express a fact which coincides in time with the verb of the sentence.

    Il. 6.284 εἰ κεῖνόν γε ἴδοιμι κατελθόντʼ Ἄϊδος εἴσω

    So especially when the time of the fact is the important point, as ἐς ἠέλιον καταδύντα till sunset.

    Il. 13.38 μένοιεν νοστήσαντα ἄνακτα
                  should await the master's return

    Il. 13.545 Θόωνα μεταστρεφθέντα δοκεύσας

    Note— The aorist participle in such a sentence as

    εἰ ἴδοιμι κατελθόντα

    seems to be "timeless" meaning if I were to see him go down (Goodwin § 148). Mr. Carter, in the article quoted above, ranks ἐς ἠέλιον καταδύντα as an instance of timeless use in an attributive sense. It should be observed, however, that there is a distinction between a participle which expresses a single action or event (however timeless), and one which has become a mere adjective, as in περιπλομένου ἐνιαυτοῦ, etc. (§ 243.1). Thus ἐς ἠέλιον καταδύντα means to the setting of the sun (not to the setting sun), and so with the other examples given in § 245.1. It is otherwise perhaps with

    Od. 1.24 οἱ μὲν δυσομένου Ὑπερίονος οἱ δ ἀνιόντος

    where the place of sunset—not of a particular sunset—is intended.

  2. With verbs of saying, hearing, knowing, etc., also of rejoicing and grieving, the accusative with a participle is used like the accusative with the infinitive (both being evidently applications of the Accusativus de quo § 140.3.b)

  3. Il. 7.129 τοὺς νῦν εἰ πτώσσοντας ὑφʼ ῞Εκτορι πάντας ἀκούσαι
                   if he were to hear of their shrinking

    Od. 4.732 εἰ γὰρ ἐγὼ πυθόμην ταύτην ὁδὸν ὁρμαίνοντα

    Od. 23.2 δεσποίνῃ ἐρέουσα φίλον πόσιν ἐνδὸν ἐόντα

    Il. 1.124 οὐδέ τί που ἴδμεν ξυνήϊα κείμενα πολλά

    Od. 7.211 οὕς τινας ὑμεῖς ἴστε μάλιστʼ ὀχέοντας ὀϊζύν

    Ιl. 8. 378 ἣ νῶϊ . . . γηθήσει προφανείσα
                   will rejοice at our appearing

    Il. 13.353 ἤχθετο γάρ ῥα Τρωσὶν δαμναμένους
                    he was vexed at their being subdued by the Trojans

    A further extension, analogous to the accusative with the infinitive after impersonal verbs, may perhaps be seen in Od. 6.193.

    ὧν ἐπέοιχʼ ἱκέτην ταλαπείριον ἀντιάσαντα
    which it is fit that a suppliant should meet with

Suggested Citation

D.B. Monro, A Grammar of the Homeric Dialect. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2014. ISBN: 978-1-947822-04-7. https://dcc.dickinson.edu/index.php/grammar/monro/implied-predication