Vergil, Aeneid I 81-101

Haec ubi dicta, cavum conversā cuspide montem

impulit in latus; ac ventī velut agmine factō,

quā data porta, ruunt et terrās turbine perflant.

Incubuēre marī tōtumque ā sēdibus īmīs

ūnā Eurusque Notusque ruunt crēberque procellīs85

Āfricus, et vāstōs volvunt ad lītora flūctūs.

īnsequitur clāmorque virum strīdorque rudentum;

Ēripiunt subitō nūbēs caelumque diemque

Teucrōrum ex oculīs; pontō nox incubat ātra;

Intonuēre polī et crēbrīs micat ignibus aethēr90

praesentemque virīs intentant omnia mortem.

Extemplō Aenēae solvuntur frīgore membra;

ingemit et duplicēs tendēns ad sīdera palmās

tālia vōce refert: 'Ō terque quaterque beātī,

quīs ante ōra patrum Trōiae sub moenibus altīs95

contigit oppetere! ō Danaüm fortissime gentis

Tӯdīdē! Mēne Īliacīs occumbere campīs

nōn potuisse tuāque animam hanc effundere dextrā,

saevus ubi Aeacidae tēlō iacet Hector, ubi ingēns

Sarpēdōn, ubi tot Simois correpta sub undīs100

scūta virum galeāsque et fortia corpora volvit!'

Manuscripts: M 81-87, 88-101 | R 81-90, 91-101

Aeolus looses the winds. The Trojans, caught in a hurricane, face death; and Aeneas laments that he did not die at Troy (Austin). 

81: dicta: sc. sunt (F-B).

82: in latus: a more vigorous construction for in latere (Frieze). Acc. because “motion towards” is involved (C-R). ac: “and lo!” more emphatic than et (F-B). velut agmine facto: a military expression; agmine facto is an ablative absolute (F-B).

83: qua: = ubi (Knapp). Adverb (C-R). data: sc. est (F-B). ruunt: = eruunt, “rush out” (Walpole). turbine: abl. of manner (Wetherell) (AG 412).

84: incubuere: the perfect (from incumbo) expresses rapid action (F-B). The verb in this sense is followed by the dative (Frieze). In this and the following lines strong dramatic effect is gained by placing the important verbs at the beginning of the line; cp. l. 87: insequitur; l. 88: eripiunt; l. 90: intonuere (Carter). mari: dative (F-B). totum: sc. mare, object of ruunt in next verse (Walpole).

85: una: adverb (F-B). Eurus...Notus...Africus: all the winds are abroad at once, a poetical hyperbole (F-B). ruunt: = eruunt “churn up, transitive as in 35, unlike 83 (F-B).

87: insequitur: agrees only with the nearer substantive clamor (Walpole). virum: = virorum (F-B) (AG 49d). Note the fine rhythmical effect gained by the alternation of dactyls and spondees throughout the whole line (Carter).

88: diem: “daylight” (F-B).

90: poli: poetic plural: “the heavens” (Sidgewick 1904). aether: strictly the high pure atmosphere conceived by the ancients as existing above the ordinary air, but often used for “air” in general (Bennett).

91: praesentem: “instant” (Bennett). viris: dat. after intentant (Robertson). Practically = eis, which is rare in verse. Vergil often uses vir like a pronoun (F-B).

92: solvuntur frigore: “are paralyzed with chilling fear.” Fear is analogous to cold in its effects on the blood (Frieze). The hero, who in this line is named for the first time, is presented to us in a state of terror (F-B).

93: duplices: = ambas. A suppliant prayed with extended hands, palms upwards (F-B).[add image]

94: talia: sc. verba (Carter). refert: = “utters,” from its sense of “relates,” “recounts” (P-H). beati: sc. erant illi (Walpole).

95: quis: = quibus; dative with contigit (F-B).

96: oppetere: sc. mortem (F-B).

97–98: mene...occumbere...non potuisse: The accusative with the infinitive is here employed absolutely, to denote strong emotion (Anthon).

97: Tydide: “Diomedes,” a case of apostrophe (F-B). mene...non potuisse: exclamatory infinitive construction (F-B) (AG 462). occumbere: sc. morti (Walpole).

98: hanc: = meam (Walpole).

99: saevus: “terrible,” i.e., in the eyes of his enemies (F-B). Aeacidae: Achilles, son of Peleus, and grandson of Aeacus (F-B) (Smith’s Dictionary, s.v. Achilles). telo iacet: a compressed expression for telo ictus iacet (F-B). iacet: “lies” in death, historic present (Walpole). Hector: son of Priam, the great Trojan hero of the Iliad (Sidgewick 1904) (Smith’s Dictionary, s.v. Hector).

100: Sarpedon: a king of the Lycians, and ally of the Trojans. He was slain by Patroclus, the companion of Achilles, and his body was taken to Lycia for burial (F-B) (Smith’s Dictionary s.v. Sarpedon). Simois: one of the famed rivers of the Troad (Sidgewick 1904) (map).

100–101: correpta...volvit: = corripuit et volvit (Walpole).

101: scuta: “shields.” Scutum is an oblong shield of wood (Robertson). [add image]


cavus, a, um: (adj.), hollow, 1.81; concave, 8.599; arching, vaulted, 2.487; cavae manūs, the palms of the hands, 12.86.

cuspis, idis, f.: a spear point, 7.817; point, 5.208; spear, lance, javelin; a spear, 12.386; a spear or, perhaps, the shaft of a spear as a scepter, 1.81.

impellō, pulī, pulsus, 3, a.: to push, thrust, drive to or upon; push onward, impel, 5.242; push, open, 7.621; smite, 1.82; ply, 4.594; put in motion, urge on, 8.3; shoot, 12.856; move, disturb, 3.449; (w. inf.), lead on, impel, induce, persuade, 2.55; force, compel, 1.11.

atque, or ac: (conj.), and in addition, or and besides; and, as well, and indeed, and, 1.575; freq.; even, 2.626; in comparisons, as, 4.90; than, 3.561.

ruō, ruī, rutus, 3, n. and a.: to fall with violence; tumble down, fall, freq.; fall in battle, 10.756; of the sun, go down, set, 3.508; rush forward, 2.64; of the chariot of Nox, hasten up; ascend, rise, 2.250; advance, 10.256; plunge, rush, 2.353; flee, 12.505; tremble, quake, 8.525; hasten, pass away, 6.539; cause to fall; cast down, 9.516; plow, 1.35; cast, throw up, 1.85; throw up or together, 11.211.

turbō, inis, m.: a tornado, whirlwind; storm, tempest, 1.442; whirling cloud, 3.573; wind accompanying the lightning; lightning-blast, 1.45; 6.594; whirling or stormy force, 11.284, et al.; a whirling top, a child's top, 7.378. (cf. turba)

perflō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to blew through or over; sweep over, 1.83.

incumbō, cubuī, cubitus, 3, n.: to lay one's self upon; lean or recline upon; (w. dat.), lie on or stretch over, 2.205; fall upon, 1.84; bend to, ply, 5.15; hasten, urge, press on, 2.653; overhang, 2.514; press or bend toward, 5.325; (w. ad and acc.), lean, hang, incline, 8.236; absolute, bend to, urge on the work, 4.397.

ūnā: (adv.), in one place or at one time, together with, at once, at the same time, 3.634, et al.; with -que following, 11.864.

Eurus, ī, m.: the southeast wind, 1.85, et al.; wind, 1.383, et al.

Notus, ī, m.: identical in meaning with auster; the south-wind, 1.85; wind, 6.355; storm, 1.575.

crēber, bra, brum: (adj.), repeated, frequent, 2.731; coming thick and fast, 11.611; blowing fresh; fresh, 5.764; abounding in, full of, 1.85.

procella, ae, f.: a gale, storm, squall, tempest, 1.102.

Āfricus, ī, m.: the southwest wind.

vāstus, a, um: (adj.), empty, void, wild, waste, 9.323; vast, unbounded, 1.118; huge, enormous, immense, 3.647; deep-, vast-, sounding, 1.245.

volvō, volvī, volūtus, 3, a.: to roll, 1.86; roll along or down, 1.101; roll or cast up, 3.206; toss, hurl, 12.906; roll over, roll in the dust, 12.329; cast, hurl down, 1.116; 9.512; roll, wheel, 1.163; of books, open, unroll, 1.262; of the Fates, fix the circle of events, decree, ordain, dispose, 1.22; 3.376; of the mind, revolve, meditate, reflect upon, 1.305; pass, continue, live through, experience, endure, suffer, 1.9; rotam volvere, to complete a cycle, period; (pass.), volvī, roll over, roll, 10.590; turn or wind about, 7.350; to be shed, to flow, 4.449; roll on, revolve, 1.269.

īnsequor, secūtus sum, 3, dep. a.: to follow up, pursue, follow, 5.321; press on, follow up; succeed, 1.87; persecute, pursue, 1.241; w. inf., proceed, 3.32.

strīdor, ōris, m.: a harsh, grating, or whizzing sound; a creaking, whistling, 1.87; din, clank, rattling, 6.558; humming, 7.65. (strīdō)

rudēns, entis, m.: a rope; cord; pl., rudentēs, um or ium, cordage, 1.87.

nūbēs, is, f.: a cloud, 1.516, et al.; storm, 10.809; the air, 12.856; (fig.), flock, multitude, 7.705.

Teucrī, ōrum, m.: the Trojans, descendants of Teucer, 1.38, et al.; adj., Teucrian, Trojan, 9.779, et al. (Teucer)

incubō, uī, itus, 1, n.: to lie, recline upon, w. abl. or dat., 4.83; rest upon, 1.89.

āter, tra, trum: (adj.), black; dark, gloomy, 1.60, et al.; smoky, lurid, 7.456; 4.384; clotted, dark, 3.622; soiled, blackened, 2.272; (fig.), sad, fatal, 6.429; venomous, deadly; of the odor of smoke, 12.591.

intonō, uī, ātus 1, n. and a.: to thunder, 1.90; (impers.), intonat, it thunders, 2.693.

polus, ī, m.: the terminating point of an axis; the celestial pole; (meton.), the heavens, sky, 1.90; air, 1.398.

micō, micuī, 1, n.: to vibrate, dart, 2.475; flash, glitter, gleam, 1.90; tremble, quiver, 10.396.

intentō, āvī, ātus, 1, intens. a.: to stretch, hold out, 6.572; threaten, 1.91. (intendō)

extemplō: (adv.), immediately, forthwith, at once, directly, 6.210. (ex and tempus)

Aenēās, ae, m.: 1. A Trojan chief, son of Venus and Anchises, and hero of the Aeneid, 1.92. 2. Aenēās Silvius, one of the Alban kings, 6.769.

frīgus, oris, n.: cold, frost, 6.309; cold weather, a cold storm; coolness, cool breeze; frost; chilling, paralyzing fear, 1.92; the chill of death, 12.951. (rel. to frīgeō)

ingemō, uī, itus, 3, n. and a.: to sigh or groan, 1.93; (w. acc.), groan for; lament, bewail.

duplex, icis: adj. (duo and plicō), twofold, double, 1.655; lying over each other, lapping, 9.707; both, 1.93; twin, 12.198.

palma, ae, f.: the palm of the hand, 8.69; the hand, 1.93; palm branch, 5.111; a palm branch or wreath as the symbol of victory; reward, prize, 5.349; victory; a victor, 5.339.

ō: (interj. expressing joy, grief, astonishment, desire, or indignation), O! oh! ah! w. voc., 2.281, et al.; w. sī and the subj., oh that, 11.415; sometimes placed after the word to which it relates, 2.281.

ter: (num. adv.), thrice, three times, 1.94, et al. (trēs)

quater: (num. adv.), four times. (quattuor)

Trōia, ae, f.: 1. Troy, the capital of the Troad, 2.625, et al. 2. A city built by Helenus in Epirus, 3.349. 3. A part of the city of Acesta in Sicily, 5.756. 4. The name of an equestrian game of Roman boys, 5.602.

oppetō, petīvī or petiī, petītus, 3, a.: to encounter; with or without mortem, to die, fall, perish, 1.96. (ob and petō)

Danaī, ōrum, m.: the Greeks, 2.327.

Tӯdīdēs, ae, m.: the son of Tydeus, Diomedes or Diomed, 1.97, et al.

Īliacus, a, um: (adj.), belonging to Ilium; Ilian, Trojan, 1.97, et al.

occumbō, cubuī, cubitus, 3, n.: to sink, fall upon; die, 1.97; meet, 2.62. (ob and cubō)

possum, potuī, posse, irreg. n.: to be able; can, 1.242, et al.; to avail, have influence, power, 4.382. (potis and sum)

effundō, fūdī, fūsus, 3, a.: to pour out or forth; shed, 2.271; throw, cast out, 7.780; cast, 6.339; overthrow, 11.485; bring out, 9.68; unbind, dishevel, 4.509; dissolve, 2.651; let loose, throw out, 5.818; spend, lose, waste, 5.446; of words, utter, 5.780; (pass.), effundī, dart, 5.145; flow, 6.686. (ex and fundō)

Aeacidēs, ae, m.: a son or descendant of Aeacus. 1. Achilles, as the grandson of Aeacus, 1.99. 2. Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles, 3.296. 3. Perseus, their descendant, king of Macedon, 6.839.

Hector, oris, m.: son of Priam, and chief defender of Troy, 1.99, et al.

Sarpēdōn, onis, m.: Sarpedon, son of Jupiter and Europa, killed at the siege of Troy by Patroclus, 1.100, et al.

Simoīs, Simoentis, m.: a river which falls into the Scamander near Troy, 1.100, et al.

corripiō, ripuī, reptus, 3, a.: to take completely or eagerly; to grasp, snatch, seize, catch, 1.45; hurry away, 1.100; tear away; hasten on, take, 1.418; raise quickly, rouse, 4.572; sē corripere, to hasten away, 6.472. (com- and rapiō)

scūtum, ī, n.: an oblong shield carried by the Roman legionary; a shield in general, 1.101, et al. (σκύτος, hide)

galea, ae, f.: a helmet, either of leather or of metal, 3.468, et al.

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Suggested Citation

Christopher Francese and Meghan Reedy, Vergil: Aeneid Selections. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2016. ISBN: 978-1-947822-08-5.