266. ὅς τε, ὅς τις. The simple ὅς may be used in any kind of relative clause, although in certain cases (§ 262) the article is preferred.
Il. 4.196 ὅν τις ὀϊστεύσας ἔβαλεν
(a particular fact)
Il. 1.403 ὃν Βριάρεων καλέουσι
(a constant, characteristic fact)
In these two places the article might be put in place of ὅς: but not in
Il. 2.205 εἷς βασιλεύς, ᾧ ἔδωκε
(a characteristic fact, defining)
Il. 1.218 ὅς κε θεοῖς ἐπιπείθηται
(definition of a class.)
So ὅς is used to convey a reason (which implies a general cause or tendency).
Od. 1.348 Ζεὺς αἴτιος ὅς τε δίδωσιν κτλ.
Cp. Il. 2.275, 5.650, 8.34.
If the relative is meant to refer to an indefinite number of individuals falling under a common description, ὅς τις is generally used, = who being any one, whoever, If, again, the relative clause generalizes by making us think, not so much of all possible individuals in a class, as of different times and circumstances—in other words, if it lays stress on the general and permanent element in facts—ὅς τε is used.
Il. 1.279 σκηπτοῦχος βασιλεύς, ᾧ τε Ζεὺς κῦδος ἔδωκε
to whom as king, to whom in every such case
Il. 4.361 τὰ γὰρ φρονέεις ἅ τʼ ἐγώ περ
(such things as, etc.)
Il. 5.545 Ἀλφειοῦ ὅς τ εὐρὺ ῥέει
Il. 9.117 ἀνὴρ ὅν τε Ζεὺς κῆρι φιλήσῃ
Od. 7.74 οἷσίν τʼ εὖ φρονέῃσι
they to whom she is well inclined
Thus ὅς τε is constantly used in comparisons.
Il. 3.60 πέλεκυς . . .
ὅς τʼ εἰσιν διὰ δουρὸς ὑπʼ ἀνέρος ὅς ῥά τε τέχνῃ
So ὥς τε, ὅθι τε, ὅθεν τε, ὅτε τε; ἔνθα τε, ἵνα τε; ὅσος τε, οἷός τε.
Od. 12.22 δισθανέες, ὅτε τʼ ἄλλοι ἅπαξ θνῄσκουσʼ ἄνθρωποι
Od. 19.178 Κνωσός, μεγάλη πόλις, ἔνθα τε Μίνως κτλ.
Thus Homer has five relatives, viz. ὅς, ὅς τε, ὅς τις, ὁ, ὅ τε, each with a distinct use. Attic retains only ὅς and ὅς τις.1
- 1It is worth notice that ὅς τις in Attic has some of the uses of ὅς τε: see Jowett, Thucyd. ii. p. 372, Stein, Hdt. 4.8.