386. The accusative originally served to connect the noun more or less loosely with the verb idea, whether expressed by a verb proper or by a verbal noun or adjective. Its earliest use was perhaps to repeat the verb idea as in the Cognate Accusative (run a race, fight a battle, see § 390). From this it would be a short step to the Factitive Accusative (denoting the result of an act, as in make a table, drill a hole, cf. § 273, Note 1). From this last could easily come the common accusative (of affecting, break a table, plug a hole, see § 387.a). Traces of all these uses appear in the language, and the loose connection of noun with verbidea is seen in the use of stems in composition (cf. § 265.3).1 It is impossible, however, to derive the various constructions of the accusative with certainty from any single function of that case.
The uses of the accusative may be classified as follows.
|I. Primary Object:||1. Directly affected by the Action (§ 387.a)|
|2. Effect of the Action||Thing produced (§ 387.a)
Cognate Accusative (§ 390)
|II. Two Accusatives:||1. Predicate Accusative (Of Naming etc.) (§ 393)|
|2. Of Asking or Teaching (§ 396)|
|3. Of Concealing (§ 396.c)|
|III. Idiomatic Uses:||1. Adverbial (§ 397.a).|
|2. Of Specification (Greek Accusative) (§ 397.b)|
|3. Of Extent and Duration (§ 423, § 425)|
|4. Of Exclamation (§ 397.d)|
|5. Subject of Infinitive (§ 397.e)|