edited by Meagan Ayer et al.

3rd Declension: Mixed I-stem

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70. Mixed i-stems are either original i-stems that have lost their i- forms in the singular, or consonant stems that have assumed i- forms in the plural.

Note— It is sometimes impossible to distinguish between these two classes.

71. Mixed i-stems have -em in the accusative and -e in the ablative singular, -ium in the genitive,1 and -īs or -ēs in the accusative plural. They include the following:

  1. Nouns in -ēs, genitive -is.2
  2. Monosyllables in -s or -x preceded by a consonant.

    ars, pōns, arx

  3. Polysyllables in -ns or -rs.

    cliēns, cohors

  4. Nouns in -tās, genitive -tātis (gen. plural usually -um.3

    cīvitās

  5. Penātēs, optimātēs, and nouns denoting birth or abode (patrials) in  -ās, -īs, plural -ātēs, -ītēs.

    Arpīnās, plural Arpīnātēs
    Quirīs, plural Quirītēs

  6. The following monosyllables in -s or -x preceded by a vowel.

    dōs, fraus, glīs, līs, mās, mūs, nix, nox, strix, vīs

72. Nouns of this class are thus declined:

Paradigm for 3rd declension masculine and feminine mixed i-stem nouns

 

Footnotes

1. There is much variety in the practice of the ancients, some of these words having -ium, some -um, and some both.

2.These are acīnacēs, aedēs, alcēs, caedēs, cautēs, clādēs, compāgēs , contāgēs, famēs, fēlēs, fidēs (pl.), indolēs, lābēs, luēs, mēlēs, mōlēs, nūbēs, palumbēs, prōlēs, prōpāgēs, pūbēs, sēdēs, saepēs, sordēs, strāgēs, struēs, subolēs, tābēs, torquēs, tudēs, vātēs, vehēs, veprēs, verrēs, vulpēs; aedēs has also nominative aedis.

3.There is much variety in the practice of the ancients, some of these words having -ium, some -um, and some both.

Suggested Citation

Meagan Ayer, Allen and Greenough’s New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2014. ISBN: 978-1-947822-04-7. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/grammar/latin/3rd-declension-mixed-i-stem