edited by Meagan Ayer et al.

Classification of Adverbs

Book Nav
main

217. The classes of Adverbs, with examples, are as follows.

a. Adverbs of Place1

hīc
here
hūc
hither
hinc
hence
hāc
by this way
ibi
there

thither
inde
thence

by that way
istīc
there
istūc
thither
istinc
thence
istā
by that way
illīc
there
illūc
thither
illinc
thence
illā (illāc)
by that way
ubi
where
quō
whither
unde
whence
quā
by what way
alicubi
somewhere
aliquō
somewhither
alicunde
from somewhere
aliquā
by some way
ibīdem
in the
same place
eōdem
to the
same place
indidem
from the
same place
eādem
by the
same way
alibī
elsewhere,
in another
place
aliō
elsewhere,
to another
place
aliunde
from another
place
aliā
in another
way
abiubi
wherever
quōquō
whithersoever
undecunque
whencesoever
quāquā
in whatever
way
ubivīs
anywhere,
where you will
quōvīs
anywhere,
whither you
will
undique
from every
quarter
quāvī
by whatever
way
sĭcubi
if anywhere
sīquō
if anywhere,
(anywhither)
sīcunde
if from
anywhere
sīquā
if anywhere
nēcubi
lest anywhere
nēquō
lest anywhither
nēcunde
lest from
anywhere
nēquā
lest anywhere

Note— The demonstrative adverbs hīc, ibi, istīc, illīc, and their correlatives, correspond in signification with the pronouns hīc, is, iste, ille (see § 146), and are often equivalent to these pronouns with a preposition

inde = ab eō, etc.

So the relative or interrogative ubi corresponds with quī (quis), ali-cubi with aliquis, ubiubi with quisquis, sī-cubi with sīquis (see § 147 - § 151, with the table of correlatives in § 152).

ūsque  all the way to
usquam  anywhere
nusquam  nowhere
citrō  to this side
intrō  inwardly
ultrō  beyond (or freely, i.e. beyond what is required)
porrō  further on

quōrsum (for quō vorsum  whither turned?)  to what end?
hōrsum  this way
prōrsum  forward (prōrsus utterly)
intrōrsum  inwardly
retrōrsum  backward
sūrsum  upward
deorsum  downward
seorsum  apart
aliōrsum  another way

b. Adverbs of Time

quandō  when? (interrogative)
cum (quom)  when (relative)
ut  when, as
nunc  now
tunc (tum)  then
mox  presently
iam  already
dum  while
iam diū, iam dūdum, iam prīdem  long ago, long since

prīmum (prīmō)  first
deinde (posteā)  next after
postrēmum (postrēmō)  finally
posteāquam, postquam  when (after that, as soon as)

umquam (unquam)  ever
numquam (nunquam)  never
semper  always

aliquandō  at some time, at length
quandōque (quandōcumque)  whenever
dēnique  at last

quotiēns (quotiēs)  how often
totiēns  so often
aliquotiēns  a number of times

cotīdiē  every day
hodiē  today
herī  yesterday
crās  tomorrow
prīdiē  the day before
postrīdiē  the day after
in diēs  from day to day

nōndum  not yet
necdum  nor yet
vixdum  scarce yet
quam prīmum  as soon as possible
saepe  often
crēbrō  frequently
iam nōn  no longer

c. Adverbs of Manner, Degree, or Cause

quam  how, as
tam  so
quamvīs  however much, although
paene  almost
magis  more
valdē  greatly
vix  hardly

cūr, quārē  why
ideō, idcircō, proptereā  on this account, because
  therefore
ergō, itaque, igitur  therefore

ita, sīc  so
ut (utī)  as, how
utut, utcumque  however

d. Interrogative Particles

an, -ne, anne, utrum, utrumne, num  whether

nōnne, annōn  whether not

numquid, ecquid  whether at all

On the use of Interrogative Particles, see § 332, § 335.

e. Negative Particles

nōn  not (in simple denial)
haud, minimē  not (in contradiction)
  not (in prohibition)

nēve, neu  nor
nēdum  much less

nē  lest
neque, nec  nor
nē . . . quidem  not even

nōn modo . . . vērum (sed) etiam  not only . . . but also

nōn modo . . . sed nē . . . quidem  not only not . . . but not even

sī minus  if not
quō minus (quōminus)  so as not

quīn (relative)  but that (interrogative), why not?

, nec (in composition)  not (so in nesciō  I know not)
negō  I say no (âiō  I say yes)
negōtium  business (†nec-ōtium)

nēmō (nē- and hemō, old form of homō)  no one
nē quis  lest any one
neque enim  for . . . not

For the use of Negative particles see § 325 ff.

For the Syntax and Peculiar uses of Adverbs, see § 320 ff.

 

Footnotes

1. All these adverbs were originally case forms of pronouns. The forms in
-bi and -ic are locative, those in and -ūc, and -āc, ablative (see § 215); those in -inc are from -im (of uncertain origin) with the particle -ce added (thus illim, illin-c).
extras
XML Files: