edited by Meagan Ayer et al.
222. Conjunctions, like prepositions (cf. § 219), are closely related to adverbs, and are either petrified cases of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives, or obscured phrases.
quod [an old accusative]
dum [probably an old accusative (cf. tum, cum)]
vērō [an old neuter ablative of vērus]
nihilōminus none the less
proinde [lit.] forward from there
Most conjunctions are connected with pronominal adverbs, which cannot always be referred to their original case forms.
223. Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or sentences. They are of two classes, Coordinate and Subordinate.
a. Coordinate conjunctions connect coordinate or similar constructions (see § 278.2.a).
1.Copulative or disjunctive, implying a connection or separation of thought as well as of words.
2. Adversative, implying a connection of words, but a contrast in thought
3. Causal, introducing a cause or reason.
4. Illative, denoting an inference.
b. Subordinate, connecting a subordinate or independent clause with that on which it depends (see § 278.2.b).
1. Conditional, denoting a condition or hypothesis
2. Comparative, implying comparison as well as condition.
ac sī as if
3. Concessive, denoting a concession or admission.
quamquam although (lit. however much it may be true that, etc.)
5. Consecutive, expressing result.
ut so that
6. Final, expressing purpose.
ut in order that
nē that not
7. Causal, expressing cause.
224. Conjunctions are more numerous and more accurately distinguished in Latin than in English. The following list includes the common conjunctions1 and conjunctive phrases.
a. Copulative and Disjunctive.
et, -que, atque (ac)
et . . . et, et . . . -que (atque), -que . . . et, -que . . . -que
both . . . and (poetical)
etiam, quoque, neque nōn (necnōn), quīn etiam
cum . . . tum, tum . . . tum
both . . . and, not only . . . but also
quā . . . quā
on the one hand . . . on the other hand
modo . . . modo
now . . . now
aut . . . aut, vel . . . vel (-ve)
either . . . or
sīve (seu) . . . sīve
whether . . . or
nec (neque) . . . nec (neque), neque . . . nec, nec . . . neque (rare)
neither . . . nor
et . . . neque
both . . . and not
nec . . . et, nec (neque) . . . -que
neither (both not) . . . and
sed, autem, vērum, vērō, at, atquī
tamen, attamen, sed tamen, vērum tamen
but yet, nevertheless
none the less
but in truth
for in truth
on the other hand, but
nam, namque, enim, etenim
quāpropter, quārē, quamobrem, quōcircā, unde
ergō, igitur, itaque, ideō, idcircō, inde, proinde
unless, if not
modo, dum, dummodo, sī modo
if only, provided
dummodo nē , (dum nē, modo nē)
provided only not
like as, according as
tamquam (tanquam), quasi, ut sī, ac sī, velutī, velut sī
quam atque (ac)
etsī, etiamsī, tametsī
quamvīs, quantumvīs, quamlibet, quantumlibet
licet (properly a verb), ut cum (quom)
though, suppose, whereas
cum (quom), quandō
cum prīmum, ubi prīmum, simul, simul ac, simul atque
as soon as
prius . . . quam, ante . . . quam
nōn ante . . . quam
dum, ūsque dum, dōnec, quoad
until, as long as, while
e. Consecutive and Final
ut (utī), quō
so that, in order that
nē, ut nē
lest (that . . . not, in order that not)
that not, nor
quīn (after negatives), quōminus
but that (so as to prevent), that not
quia, quod, quoniam (†quom-iam), quandō
quandōquidem, sī quidem, quippe, ut pote
since indeed, inasmuch as
proptereā . . . quod
for this reason . . . that
On the use of Conjunctions, see §§ 323 - 324