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222. Conjunctions, like prepositions (cf. § 219), are closely related to adverbs, and are either petrified cases of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives, or obscured phrases.

quod [an old accusative] 
dum [probably an old accusative (cf. tum, cum)] 
vērō [an old neuter ablative of vērus]
nihilōminus  none the less
proinde [lit.]  forward from there

Most conjunctions are connected with pronominal adverbs, which cannot always be referred to their original case forms.

223. Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or sentences. They are of two classes, Coordinate and Subordinate.

a. Coordinate conjunctions connect coordinate or similar constructions (see § 278.2.a).

    1.Copulative or disjunctive, implying a connection or separation of thought as well as of words.

et  and
aut  or
neque  nor

   2. Adversative, implying a connection of words, but a contrast in thought

sed  but

   3. Causal, introducing a cause or reason.

nam  for

   4. Illative, denoting an inference.

igitur  therefore

b. Subordinate, connecting a subordinate or independent clause with that on which it depends (see § 278.2.b).

   1. Conditional, denoting a condition or hypothesis

nisi  unless

   2. Comparative, implying comparison as well as condition.

ac sī  as if

   3. Concessive, denoting a concession or admission.

quamquam  although (lit. however much it may be true that, etc.)

   4. Temporal.

postquam  after

   5. Consecutive, expressing result.

ut  so that

   6. Final, expressing purpose.

ut  in order that
  that not

   7. Causal, expressing cause.

quia  because

224. Conjunctions are more numerous and more accurately distinguished in Latin than in English. The following list includes the common conjunctions1 and conjunctive phrases.



a. Copulative and Disjunctive.

et, -que, atque (ac)

et . . . et, et . . . -que (atque), -que . . . et, -que . . . -que
both . . . and (poetical)

etiam, quoque, neque nōn (necnōn), quīn etiam
itidem (item)

cum . . . tum, tum . . . tum
both . . . and, not only . . . but also

quā . . . quā
on the one hand . . . on the other hand

modo . . . modo
now . . . now

aut . . . aut, vel . . . vel (-ve)
either . . . or

sīve (seu) . . . sīve
whether . . . or

nec (neque) . . . nec (neque), neque . . . nec, nec . . . neque (rare)
neither . . . nor

et . . . neque
both . . . and not

nec . . . et, nec (neque) . . . -que
neither (both not) . . . and

b. Adversative

sed, autem, vērum, vērō, at, atquī

tamen, attamen, sed tamen, vērum tamen
but yet, nevertheless

none the less

at vērō
but in truth

for in truth

on the other hand, but

c. Causal

nam, namque, enim, etenim

quāpropter, quārē, quamobrem, quōcircā, unde
wherefore, whence

d. Illative

ergō, igitur, itaque, ideō, idcircō, inde, proinde
therefore, accordingly



a. Conditional


but if

nisi ()
unless, if not

quod sī
but if

modo, dum, dummodo, sī modo
if only, provided

dummodo nē , (dum nē, modo nē)
provided only not

b. Comparative

ut, utī,sīcut
just as

(so) as

prout, ceu
like as, according as

tamquam (tanquam), quasi, ut sī, ac sī, velutī, velut sī
as if

quam atque (ac)
as than

c. Concessive

etsī, etiamsī, tametsī
even if

quamquam (quanquam)

quamvīs, quantumvīs, quamlibet, quantumlibet
however much

licet (properly a verb), ut cum (quom)
though, suppose, whereas

d. Temporal

cum (quom), quandō

ubi, ut
when, as

cum prīmum, ubi prīmum, simul, simul ac, simul atque
as soon as

postquam (posteāquam)

prius . . . quam, ante . . . quam

nōn ante . . . quam
not until

dum, ūsque dum, dōnec, quoad
until, as long as, while

e. Consecutive and Final

ut (utī), quō
so that, in order that

, ut nē
lest (that . . . not, in order that not)

nēve (neu)
that not, nor

quīn (after negatives), quōminus
but that (so as to prevent), that not

f. Causal

quia, quod, quoniam (†quom-iam), quandō

cum (quom)

quandōquidem, sī quidem, quippe, ut pote
since indeed, inasmuch as

proptereā . . . quod
for this reason . . . that

On the use of Conjunctions, see §§ 323 - 324



1. Some of these have been included in the classification of adverbs. See also list of Correlatives. § 152.

How Latin Does And

Further Examples of et, atque, and -que