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A quantity of final, 604.d 

ă Accusative of Greek nouns in, 81.2

as Nominative ending, 3rd decl., gender, 84 - 87

ā in 1st decl., 37

stem vowel of 1st conj., 171174179.a259

in subjunctive, 179

prepositions, in , adverbial use of, 433.4

ā- primary suffix, 234.I.1

ā (ab, abs) use, 220.b221.1429.b

compounded with verbs, 267.a

w. Ablative of agent, 405

w. place from which, 426.1

w. names of towns, 428.a

expressing position, 429.b

as adverb expressing distance, w. Ablative of degree of difference, 433.3

in compounds w. Dative, 381

in compounds, w. Ablative, 402

w. Ablative of gerund, 507

ā parte398429.b

ab and au in auferō200.a, Note

Abbreviations of prænomens108.c

Ability verbs of, constr., 456

in apodasis, 517.c

ABLATIVE, defined35.e

in -ābus43.e

in -d43, Note 149.e80, footnote92.f

of i-stems, 3rd decl., 74.e

rules of form 76

nouns having Ablative in 76.a-b

of 4th decl., in -ubus92.c

Ablative used as supine, 94.b

of adjectives, 3rd decl., 121.a.1-4

prepositions followed by, 220.b

adverbial forms of, 214.e, (cf., 215.4)

ABLATIVE, Syntax398 - 420

classification and meaning, 398 - 399

separation, 400

w. verbs of freedom, 401

w. compounds, 402

w. adjectives of freedom etc.,  402.a

source and material, 403

w. participles, 403.a

w. cōnstāre etc., 403.b

w. facere403.c

w. nouns, 403.d 

cause, 404

causā, grātiā404.c

agent, 405

means for agent, 405.b, Note 1

comparison, 406

opīniōne, spē, etc., 406.a

w. alius407.d

w. adverbs, 407.e

means, 409

w. dōnō etc., 364

w. ūtor, fruor etc., 410

w. opus and ūsus411

manner, 412

accompaniment, 413

degree of difference, 414

quō . . . eō414.a

quality, 415

price, 416

charge or penalty, 353.1

specification, 418

w. dīgnus etc., 418.b

Ablative Absolute, 419

adverbial use, 419.c

replacing subordinate clauses, 420

supplying place of Perfect active participle, 493.2

place 422426.3

w. verbs and frētus431 and a

Ablative of time, 423 

of time w. quam434. Note

of place from which, 426.1

names of towns, domus, rūs427.1

ex urbe Rōmā428.b

Locative Ablative, 426.3

way by which, 429.a

w. transitive compounds, 395, Note 1

time within which, 424.c

duration of time, 424.b

Ablative w. prepositions, 220.b221430435

w. ex for partitive Genitive, 346.c

w. prō (in defence of), 379, Note

w. palam etc., 432.c

Ablative of gerund, 507

equivalent to Present participle, 507, footnote 5 


in 2nd decl. 45.c

Abounding, words of, w. Ablative, 409.a

w. Genitive, 356

Absence, verbs of w. Ablative, 401

Absolute case see Ablative Absolute

Absolute use of verb273.2, Note 2387, Note

absque mē etc., in Plautus and Terrence, 517.f

Abstract nouns gender, 32

in plural, 100.c

endings, 238

w. neuter adjective, 287.4.a289

abstract quality denoted by neuter adjective, 289.a

absum constr., 373.b

-ābus in Dative and Ablative plural, 1st decl., 43.e

ac see atque

ac sī w. subjunctive, 524

accēdit ut569.2

Accent rules of, 12

effect in modifying vowels, 61

in 2nd decl., 49.b

in compounds of faciō204.b

acceptum496, Note 4

accidit synopsis, 207

constr., 569.2

accingō constr., 364

accommodātus w. Dative of gerund etc., 505.a

Accompaniment Ablative of, 413

Accomplishment verbs of, w. subjunctive, 568

ACCUSATIVE, defined35.d

in -m and -s38.c

in -im 3rd decl., 75.a-b

in -īs (plur.), 77

in -a81.2

Accusative of 4th decl., used as supine, 94.b

neuter Accussative used as adverb, 214.d (cf. 215.1)

feminine used as adverb, 215.2

ACCUSATIVE, Syntax386 - 397 (see 338)

w. verbs of remembering, 350.a, c-d

and Genitive w. verbs of reminding, 351

w. impersonals, 354.b388.c455.2

w. ad with interest and rēfert355.b

w. Dative, 362

w. compounds of ad, ante, ob370.b

verbs varying between Accusative of end of motion and Dative, 363

w. ad for Dative, 385.a

after propior etc., 432.a

direct object, 274387

w. iuvō etc., 367.a

Accusative or Dative w. verbs, 367.b-c

Accusative w. verbs of feeling and taste, 388.a390.a

w. compounds of circum and trāns388.b

cognate Accusative, 390

adverbial use of, 390.c-d and Note 2397.a

two Accusatives, 391

predicate Accusative, 392 - 393

secondary object, 394 - 395

Accusative w. passive of verbs of asking etc., 396.b, Note

synecdochical Accusative (of specification), 397.b

in exclamations, 397.d

duration and extent, 423425

end of motion, 426.2

names of towns, domus, rūs427.2

Rōmam ad urbem428.b

Accusative w. ante diem424.g

w. prepositions, 220.a, c

w. ad or in to denote penalty, 353.2, Note

w. prīdiē, propius, etc., 342.a

Accusative of gerund, 506

of anticipation, 576

subject of infinitve, 397.e452455.2459

as predicate after infinitive, 455.a

subject in indirect discourse, 579581

Accusing and acquitting verbs of, constr., 352

ācer decl., 115

comparative, 125

-āceus adjective ending, 247

aciēs decl., 98.a

acquiēscō w. Ablative, 431

Actions, names of237

nouns of action w. Genitive, 348

Active voice154.a156

change to passive, 275

Acts, nouns denoting239

-acus (-ācus) adjective ending, 249

acus gender, 90, Exceptions

ad use, 220.a221.2

in compounds, 16, 267.a

w. Accusative to denote penalty, 353.2, Note

in compounds, w. Dative, 370381

in compounds, w. Accusative, 370.b

w. Accusative with adjectives, 385.a

end of motion, 426.2 (cf. 363)

w. names of towns, 428.a

w. names of countries, 428.c

meaning near, 428.d

in expressions of time, 424.e

following its noun, 435

w. gerund, 506

additur constr., 568

adeō (verb) constr., 370.b

adeō ut537.2, Note 2

-adēs patronymic ending, 244

adiuvō w. Accusative, 367.a

Adjective pronouns see Pronouns

ADJECTIVES Definition, 20.b

formed like nouns, 109

ā- and o-stems, 110 - 112

declension, 110 - 122

1st and 2nd decl., 110 - 113

3rd decl., 114 - 121

3rd decl. three terminations, 115

one termination, 117 - 118

variable, indeclinable, defective, 122

comparison, 123 - 131

decl. of comparative, 120

numeral adjectives, 132 - 137

derivative adjectives, 242 - 255

ADJECTIVES, Syntax Masculine adjectives, 122.d

adjectives of common gender, 122.d

as adverbs, 214.d-e (cf. 218); 290

adjective as apposite, 282.b

as nouns, 288 - 289

nouns used as adjectives, 321.c

adverbs used as adjectives, 321.d

participles used as adjectives, 494

agreement of adjectives, 286 - 287

attribute and predicate, 287

use of neut. adjectives, 289

adjectives w. adverbial force, 290

two comparatives w. quam292

adjective pronouns, 296 - 298

Genitive of adjectives of 3rd decl. instead of Nominative, 343.c. Note 1

adjectives w. partitive Genitive, 346.2

w. Dative, 383

w. Accusative, 388.d, Note 2

w. infinitive, 461

w. supine in 510

position of adjectives, 598.a-b

adjective phrase, 277

admodum use, 291.c. Note 1

admoneō constr., 351

Admonishing, verbs of constr., 563

adspergō constr., 364

adūlor constr., 367.b

Adverbial Accusative390.b-d and Note  2397.a

Adverbial conjunctions20.g, Note

Adverbial phrases216, 277

ADVERBS defined, 20.e

formed from adjectives, 214 and c-e218

case forms or phrases, 215

comparison of adverbs, 218

numeral adverbs, 138

classification of adverbs, 217

correlative forms of adverbs of place, 217, Note

ADVERBS, Syntax321

adverbs used as adjectives, 321.d

adjectives w. adverbial force, 290

adverbial Ablative Absolute, 419.c

special uses, 322326

adverbs w. nouns, 321.c. Note

correlative adverbs used as conjunctions, 323.f-g

partitive Genitive w. adverbs, 346.a.4

Dative w. adverbs, 384

comparative of adverb followed by quam, 406

adverb as protasis, 521.a

Adversative conjunctions223.a.2224.I.b


w. Accusative, 220.a

as adverb, 433.2

ae diphthong, 2

sound of, 6, Notes 38

aedēs singular and plural, 107.a

aeger decl., 112.a

aemulor constr., 367.b

Aeneadēs decl., 44

Aenēās decl., 44

aequālis decl., 76.a.2

constr. w. Genitive, 385.c and 1

aequē ac384, Note 2

aequō (Ablative), w. comparative, 406.a

aequor decl., 64

āēr use of plural, 100.b

aes use of plural, 100.b

aetās decl., 72

aethēr decl., 81

Affecting, Accusative of386

affīnis decl., 76.b.2

constr. w. Genitive, 385.c and 1

Affirmative expressed by two negatives, 326

nōnne expecting affirmative answer, 332.b

ways of saying yes, 336 and a

Agency nouns of, 236

relative clause equivalent to, 308.c

Agent Dative of, w. gerundives, 374

w. Perfect participles, 375

Ablative of, 405

agent regarded as means, 405.b

animal as agent, 405, Note 2

ager decl., 47

aggredior constr., 370.b

Āgnōmen108.a. Note

agō forms of, omitted, 319.a

Agreeing verbs of, w. gerundive, 500.4


of nouns, 281

in appositive, 282

in predicate, 283

of adjectives, 286

of demonstrative pronouns, 296

of possessive pronouns, 302

of relatives, 305, 306

of verbs, 316, 317

-āī for -ae 1st decl., 43.a

-âia nouns in, decl., 43.e. Note 2603.a.2, Note

âiō pronounced ai-iō6.c

-âius names in, decl., 49.f

-âius in Prosody, 603.f, Note 2

-al ending, 254.7

nouns in, 68, footnote 1

-al and -ar neuters in (3rd decl.), 65.b76.a.3

alacer decl., 115.a

comparative, 131.b

albus not compared, 131.d

Alcaic verse9-10

-āle noun ending, 254.7

list of nouns in, 68, footnote 2

aliēnus for possessive Genitive of alius113.d343.a

aliquis (-quī) decl., 151.e

meaning, 310311

aliquot indeclinable, 122.b

-ālis, -āris adjective endings, 248

alius, decl., 113

Genitive, 113.c (cf. 343)

compounds, 113.e

alius w. Ablative, ac, nisi, quam407.d

alius . . . alius315.a


vowels and diphthongs, 1, 2

consonants, 3-4

early forms of letters, 1.a and Note6.a-b

alter decl., 113.b

Genitive and compounds, 113.c, e

use, 315

reciprocal use, 145.c315.a

alter . . . alter315.a

altera est rēs ut568, footnote 2

alteruter decl., 113.e

use, 315

Although how expressed, 527535.e

alvos (alvus) gender, 48, Exceptions

am- see amb-

-am adverb ending, 215.2

amb- (am-, an-) inseparable prefix, 267.b

ambāgēs decl., 78.1

ambō decl., 134, footnote

āmēns decl., 121.a.3

amplius without quam407.c

amussim Accusative, 75 a.3103.b.4

an- see amb-

an, anne, annōn in double questions, 335


anceps decl., 121.a.3

Anchīsēs decl., 44

Andromachē decl., 44

-āneus adjective ending, 247

animal decl., 69

Animals gender of names of, 3234 and Note

regarded as means or agent, 405.b, Note 2

animī (Locative) w. adjectives, 358

w. verbs, 358

annālis decl., 76.a.2

Annalistic present469.a

Answers forms of, 336 - 337

ant-, ent-, stem endings, 83.e


uses, 221.3

compounded w. verbs, 267.a

in compounds, w. Dative, 370

w. Accusative, 370.b

adverbial use of, 433.1

followed by quam434

ante diem424.g

Antecedent its use w. relative, 305 - 307

undefined, constr., 535 

see Indefinite antecedent

antecēdō constr., 370.b

anteeō constr., 370.b

antegredior constr., 370.b

Antepenult defined, 12, footnote

antequam550; 551

in indirect discourse, 585.b, Note

Anticipation Accusative of, 576

becomes Nominative, 576, Note


anus gender, 90, Exceptions

-ānus adjectives in, 249

Aorist (= Historical Perfect), 161.2; 473


apertus compar. of, 124.a

Apex10, Note

apis decl., 78.2

Apodosis defined, 512

introduced by correlative, 512.b

may be subordinate, 512.c

forms of, 514; 515 ff

potential subjunctive, 447.3, Note

subjunctive of modesty, 447.1

verbs of necessity etc., 522.a

complex apodasis, 523

apodasis omitted, 524

apodasis in indirect discourse, 589.2

see Conditional Sentences

Appointing verbs of, constr., 393

Apposition see Appositive

Appositive defined, 282

agreement of, 281; 282.c

w. Locative, 282.d

Genitive as appositive to possessive, 302.e

Genitive used for appositve, 343.d

so Dative, 373.a

relative clause equivalent to appositive, 308.c

Accusative as appositive to a clause, 397.f

appositive instead of Vocative, 340.a

appositive in connection with infinitive, 452 and Note 2

aptus ad385.a 

aptus w. Dative of gerund etc., 505.a, footnote 4

aptus quī535.f


use, 221.4

in quoting, 428.d, Note 2

aquālis decl., 76.a.2

-ar Nominative ending, 3rd decl., 68.a; 65.b; 76.a.2; 68, footnote 1

gender, 87

arbor (-ōs) decl., 62, Note 2

arceō constr., 364, Note 2

arctus gender, 48, Exceptions

ārdeō w. Ablative, 404.a

-āria suffix, 254.2

-āris adjective ending, 248

-ārium noun ending, 254.3

-ārius adjective ending, 250.a

noun ending, 254.1

Arrangement of words595 - 601

Arts names of, 1st decl., 44

artus decl., 92.c

as value of, 632

Genitive of, 417.a

-ăs in Accusative plural of Greek nouns, 81.5

-ās old Genitive ending, 43 b

Greek Nominative ending, 83.e

patronymic, 244

gender of nouns in, 86.b

-ās,-ātis, see āt-

adjectives in -ās 249

Asking verbs of, w. two Accusatives, 396

w. Ablative,  396.a

w. subjunctive clause, 563

Aspirates4, and footnote 2

Assertions direct, in indicative, 157.a

Assimilation of consonants15.6, 15.10

in prefixes, 16

-āssō, -āssere in Future Perfect, 183.5


-aster as noun ending, 254.11


At meaning near, 428.d

at use, 324.d

at enim324.d

at vērō324.k

āt- partial stem ending, 71.5

decl., 78.3, 121.a.4

āter decl., 112.a

not compared, 131.d and Note

Athematic verbs174.2

Athōs decl., 52

Atlās decl., 82; 83.e

atque (ac) use, 324.b-c

after adjectives of likeness, 384, Note 2

after alius407.d

atquī use, 324 d

atrōx decl., 117.a

Attraction of case of relative306.a

of case of antecedent, 306 Note

of subject in indirect discourse, 581, Note 2

Attraction subjunctive of, 591.2; 593

Attributive adjective defined285.1

number, 286.a

takes gender of nearest noun, 287.1

-ātus adj. ending, 246

audācter comparative, 218

aula decl., 44

aureus not compared, 131.d

ausus as Present participle491

aut use, 324.e; 335.d, Note

autem use, 324.d, j; 599.b

Author w. apud428.d, Note 2

Authority in Prosody, 602 

avis decl., 76.b.1

-āx verbal adjective ending, 251

adjectives in, w. Genitive, 349.c




baccar decl., 76.a.3

Bâiae decl., 43.e, Note 2

-bam tense ending, 168.b

Bargaining verbs of, constr., 563

gerundive 500.4,

clause, 563.d


basis decl., 82

Beginning verbs of, constr., 456

Believing verbs of, w. Dative, 367

bellī Locative use of, 427.a

bellum decl., 46

bellus compar., 131.a

Belonging adjectives of, w. Genitive, 385.c

bene comparison, 218

in phrase compounds, 12.a, Exception 1; 266.b

compounds of, constr., 368.2

Benefiting verbs of, constr., 367

-ber names of months in, decl., 115.a

bicolor decl., 122.a

bicorpor119, Note

-bilis verbal adjective ending, 252

Birds gender of names of, 32

Birth or origin nouns of, derivation, 244

participles of, w. Ablative, 403.a

-bō tense ending, 168.c

Bôī decl., 49.f

bonus decl., 110

comparative, 129

w. Dative of gerund etc., 505.a, footnote 4

bōs decl., 79 and b

bri- stems ending in, 66

adjectives in, 115.a

-brum suffix, 240

-bulum suffix, 240

-bundus verbals in, 253.b

w. Accusative, 388.d, Note 2

būris decl., 75.a.1

Buying, verbs of, constr. with, 417.c




C for g in early use and as abbreviation, 1.a and Note

for qu6.a-b

quantity of final syllables ending in, 604.j

caedēs decl., 78.2

caelēs decl., 121.a.4

caelum w. masculine plural, 106.b

Caere decl., 76.b, Note 2

caesius comparative, 131.a

Calendar Roman, 631


calx decl., 103.g.2

campester decl., 115.a

Can how expressed in Latin, 157.b

canālis decl., 76.b.2

canis decl. and stem, 62, Note 3; 76.b, Note 3; 78.1

CAP root, 56.a

Capacity measures of, 638

capitis Genitive, w. verbs of accusing, 352.a

caput decl., 59

Capys decl., 82

carbasus gender, 48, Exceptions

plural, 106.b

Cardinal numbers132

inflection of, 134.a-c

use of et with, 135.a-b

replaced by distributives, 137.b, d

w. ex or partitive Genitive, 346.c

cārē comparative, 218

carō decl., 79

cārus comparative, 124

Case constructions338

Case endings27.a

final vowels in, 38.g

table, 39

Case forms words defective in, 103

Cases defined, 35

position of modifying case, 598.2

agreement in, 281

origin and meaning of, 338

case of relative pronoun, 305; 306.a

same case after as before certain conjunctions, 323.a

construction of Cases, 338 - 435

Genitive, 342 - 359

Dative, 360 - 380

Accusative, 386 - 397

Vocative, 340

Ablative, 398 - 420

time and place, 423 - 431

cases w. prepositions, 220, 426, footnote

cassem decl., 103.f.3

castrum, castra107

causā w. Genitive, 359.b, 404.c

w. Genitive of gerund 504.b

Causal clauses539 - 540

w. indicative or subjunctive, quod, quia540

w. indicative, quoniam, quandō540.a

w. quī535.e

w. cum540.d

nōn quia, nōn quod, etc., in the denial of a reason, 540, Note 3

causal clause replaced by participle, 496

replaced by Ablative Absolute, 420.2

Causal conjunctions223.a.3, b.7; 224.II.f

particles, 539 - 540

Cause Ablative of, 404

Cause adverbs of, 217.c

Caution and effort verbs of, constr., 563.e

cavē in prohibitions, 450.(2) and Note 2

omitted after, 565, Note 1

caveō constr., 563

-ce enclitic, 146, Note 1 and 146.a, Note 1

Ceasing verbs of, w. complementary infinitive, 456

cēdō constr., 366, Note 2

celeber decl., 115.a

celer forms, 115.a, Note 2

cēlō w. Accusative, 396.c

Celtibēr decl., 50.c

cēnseō constr., 563 and d

certē, certō use, 322.c

in answers, 336.a

cētē Greek plural, 48.a, Note


adverbial use, 390.d, Note 2

-us, use, 293

, use, 315

ceu use, 524

-ceus adjective ending, 247

Characteristic, clauses of534 - 535

proviso, 535.d

cause or concession, 535.e

of result or characteristic, 559

Characteristic expressed by participle, 496

Characteristic vowel37

Charge and penalty Genitive of, 352

Chiasmus598.f and Note

Choosing verbs of, w. two Accusatives, 393

ci and ti interchange of, 6, Note 1

-cinium noun ending, 241.c

-ciō diminutive ending, 243.a

cip- stems in, 3rd decl., 56.a

circā, circum, circiter use, 220.a; 221.5-7

as adverbs, 433.2

circā w. gerund, 506, Note 1

circum compounds w. verbs, 267.a

Dative w. such compounds, 370

Accusative, 388.b

circumdō constr., 364

Circumstances of action419 - 420.5

participle implying, 496

cis, citerior130.a

Cities gender of names of, 32 and a

See Locative

citrā after its noun, 435

clādēs decl., 78.2

clam construction, 432.d

Classes names of, gender of, 30.a, Note 3

used in plural 101.3.

Clauses defined, kinds of, 278 - 279

replaced by Ablative Absolute, 420

used as nouns, 343.c

dependent, syntax of, 519 - 593

conditional relative, 279.c; 519

final, 279.d; 529 - 533

consecutive, 536 - 537

causal, 539 - 540

temporal, 543 - 556

substantive, 562 - 588

infinitive clauses, 452; 562, Note

substantive clauses of purpose, 563

of result, 567 - 568

indicative w. quod572

indirect questions, 573 - 575

indirect discourse, 578 - 593

clāvis decl., 76.b.1

Close syllables7, Note 2


Cognate Accusative214.d, Note; 390


Collective noun w. singular or plural verb, 317.d

colus gender, 90

decl., 105.a

com- (con-) compounded w. verbs, 16; 267.a

may take Dative, 370

Combinations of words13

comētēs decl., 44

comitium, comitia107

Command see Imperative

in hortatory subjunctive, 439

Commanding verbs of, w. Dative, 367

w. infinitve, 563.a

w. subjunctive, 563 (cf. 580.a)

Commands expressed by imperative, 448

for condition, 521.b

in indirect discourse, 588

in informal indirect discourse, 592.1

commiseror w. Accusative, 354.a, Note

committō ut568 and Note 1

Common gender34

adjectives of, 122.d

Common syllables11.c603.f

commonefaciō, -fīō constr., 351

commoneō, constr., 351

commūnis w. Genitive, 385.c

commūtō constr., 417.b

Comparative conjunctions223.b.2; 224.II.b

in conditions, 524

Comparative suffix124, footnote

of adverbs, 214.b, Note

Comparatives decl., 120

stem, 120.b

neuter singular of comparative adjective used as adverb, 218

meaning of, 291

two comparatives, 292

comparative and positive w. quam, 292.a, Note

Ablative w. comparative, 406

quam w. comparative, 407.a

comparative w. quam (ut), quam quī, 535.c; 571.a

Comparison, conjunctions of323.a

Comparison, particles of, tamquam, quasi etc., constr., 524

Comparison of adjectives123 ff.

irregular, 129

defective, 130 - 131

w. magis and maximē, 128

of adverbs, 218

prepositions implying, w. quam, 407.e, Note; 434

Complementary infinitive456

has no subject, 456, Note

predicate noun or adjective after, 458

infinitive partly subject, partly complementary, 454

by analogy, 457.a

compleō, constr., 356; 409, Note

Completed action tenses of, 160.b

how formed, 179.f-g

use of, 473 ff

Complex conditional sentences523

Complex sentence278.b

complūrēs, complūria120.c

compos decl., 121.a.4; 121.b.1

Composition all word formation a process of, 227

compounds to express relations of words, 338, 386

see also Compound words

Compound sentence defined, 278.2

Compound stems imaginary, 255.a

Compound suffixes233.2 235

Compound verbs267

compounds of faciō, 204.a-b

Compound words assimilation in, 15.6; 16

defined, 264

how formed, 265 - 267

Compounds of prepositions w. Dative, 370

of ab, , ex, 381

w. Accusative, 388.b; 395

quantity of, 606.c 

con- see com-

Conative present467

Imperfect, 471.c

concēdō constr., 563 and c

Concession hortatory subjunctive of, 440 (cf. 526)

particles of, 527

quamvīs ut527.a


etsī etc., 527.c



quamvīs, w. indicative, 527.e

verbs of, w. ut527.f

Ablative Absolute for concessive clause, 420.3

concession implied in part., 496

quī concessive, 535.e

Concessive clauses see Concession

Concessive conjunctions 223.b.3224.II.c

particles, use of, 527

Conclusion see Apodosis

Concords the four, 280

concors decl., 119121.a.3

Condemning verbs of, constr., 352

Conditional clauses, defined, 279.c

Conditional conjunctions 223.b.1224.II.a525

Conditional Particles 524525

Conditional sentences defined, 279.c

development, 511

protasis and apodosis, 512

classification, 514

Present and Past, nothing implied, 515

Future conditions, 516

Future More Vivid, 516.2.a

Future Less Vivid, 516.2.b

Perfect indicative in Future condition, 516.e

Contrary to Fact, 517

indicative in contrary to fact condition, 517.b-c and notes

in old Latin, 517.d, Note 2

General condition, 518

condition disguised, 521

as participle etc., 521.a

as exhortation or command, 521.b

protasis omitted, 522

Potential Subjuntive, 446

Subjunctive of Modesty, 447.1

verbs of necessity etc., 522.a

complex conditions, 523

clauses of Comparison (conclusion omitted), 524

Concessive clauses, 527

Proviso, 528

use of and its compounds, 525

conditional relative clauses, 519

temporal, 542551.c, Note 2

conditional sentences in indirect discourse, 589

cōnfīdō constr., 431 and Note

Conjugation defined, 22

Conjugation of verbs171 - 193

how distinguished, 171

regular forms of, 173

mixed forms, 173

parallel forms, 189

stem vowels of conjugations, 171 - 178

stems of the four conjugations, how modified, 179

paradigms of the four regular conjugations, 184 - 212

Conjunctions defined, 20.g

classes of, 223

list of, 224

syntax, 323.a324.a-k; 539; 540, Notes

correlative use, 323.g

conjunctions repeated, 323.e

omitted, 323.b

used together, 324.k

Conjunctive adverbs 20.g, Note

Conjunctive phrases 224

Connectives relatives used as, 308.f

cōnor w. infinitve, 563.e

cōnor sī 563, Note 1

Consecutive clauses defined, 279.e

uses, 536 - 538

clauses of result or characteristic, 559

Consecutive conjunctions 223.b.5224.II.e

cōnsequor ut 568

cōnsistere, w. Ablative, 403.b footnote 2; 431

Consonant stems of nouns 3rd decl., 56 - 64

consonant stems of adjectives, 117

case forms, 121

of verbs, 259.a.3

Consonant suffixes (primary) 234.II

Consonants classification, 3

changes, 14 - 19

insertion, 15.11

transposition, 177.a, Note

dissimilation, 15.6

assimilation, 15.16

pronunciation, 8 and Note; 11.b, Note

cōnsors decl., 121.a.3

cōnstāre w. Ablative, 403.b

cōnstituō constr., 563.d

Cōnstrūctiō ad sēnsum see Synesis

Constructions of cases 338 - 435 (see under Ablative etc.)

cōnsuēvī, use, 476

cōnsul decl., 62

cōnsulāris decl., 76.a.2

cōnsulō w. Dative or Accusative, 367.c

Contention words of, constr., 368.a; 413.b

contentus w. Ablative, 431.a

w. Perfect infinitive, 486.f

continērī w. Ablative, 403.b, footnote 2

contingit ut 568

Continued action tenses of, 160 - 161

Continuing verbs of, w. complementary infinitive, 456

contrā, use, 220.a; 221.8; 321.d

as adverb, 433.4

position, 435

Contracted forms, vīn’, scīn’13. Note

Genitive in , Dative and Ablative in -īs, 49.a-b

Contracting verbs of, w. gerundive, 500.4

Contraction of vowels 15.3

quantity, 10.c

Contrary to Fact conditions517

in indirect discourse, 589.b

conveniō w. Accsative, 370.b

Coordinate conjunctions223.a; 224.I.a-d

coordinate clauses, 278.a

coordinate words without conjunction, 323.b

w. conjunction, 323.c

Copula272, 283

position of, 598.j

Copulative conjunctions223.a.1; 224.I.a

constr. after, 323

omission of, 323.b

Copulative verbs, 272; 283

cor decl., 59; 60.b; 103.g.2

corpus decl., 64

Correlatives152; 323.g

rendered by the . . . the, 414.a

adverbs of place, 217.a

conjunctions, 323.f-g

cōs decl., 103.g.2

Countries names of, gender, 32

as end of motion, and place from which, 428.c

Crāsis, 603.c 

crēber decl., 112.a

crēdibilī w. comparative, 406.a

crēdō position of, 599.c

Crime or charge Genitive of, 352

-crum noun ending, 240

crux decl., 103.g.2

cucumis decl., 75.a

cûiās, cûius145.b; 151.h

cuicui modī151.b, Note

cûius modī, 345.a

-culum, noun suffix, 240.

-culus diminuitive ending, 243

cum, quom (conjunction) form, 544

meaning, 544 ff.

cum . . . tum, 323.g; 549.b

sequence, 485.e, Note

w. clause for participle, 492; 493.2

temporal, 545 - 548

causal or concess., 549

in indirect discourse, 585.b. Note

cum (whenever), 545, Note 2; 548

cum (preposition) 220.b

in compound, see com-

joined as enclitic with pronouns, 143.f; 150.d

use of, 221.9

w. plural adjective, 286.a, Note

w. plural verb, 317, Note

w. Ablative of Manner, 412

w. Ablative of Accompaniment, 413

w. words of contention, 413.b

w. words of exchange, 417.b, Note

-cumque added to relatives, 151.a and Note

temporal particles w., 542

-cundus verbal adjective ending, 253 and b

cupiō constr., 563.b.

cūrō, constr., 563

cūrā (imperative), use, 449.c

-cus suffix, 232, Note, 249

Customary action 470, 518.c



D changed to s 15.5

-d old Ablative ending, 1st decl., 43, Note 1

2nd decl., 49.e

3rd decl., 80, footnote

4th decl., 92.f

mēd, tēd143.a, Note

sēd, 144.b. Note 2

in adverbs originally -ēd214.a, Note

-d as neuter pronoun ending, 113.b

loss of -d398

-dam adverbial ending, 215.6

damnās indeclinable adjective, 122.b

daps defective, 103.h.2

Daring verbs of, w. complementary inf., 456

Dates how expressed, 424.f631

DATIVE defined35.c

in -āī, 1st decl., 43.a

in -ābus, 1st decl., 43.e

in -īs for -iīs, 2nd decl., 49.f

in -ubus, 4th decl., 92.c

in (of ūnus etc.), 113.

DATIVE Syntax360 - 385

Indirect object, 361

w. transitives, 362

w. verbs implying motion, 363

use of dōnō etc., 364

in passive, 365

w. intransitives, 366

w. phrases, 366.a

like Genitive, 366.b

w. intransitives, verbs meaning favor etc., 367

similar verbs w. Accusative 367.a

verbs having Dative or Accusative, 367.b-c

w. verbal nouns 367.d

w. libet and licet368.1

w. compounds of satis, bene, male368.2

poetic use, 368.a

intransitive verbs w. Accusative and Dative, 369

w. compounds of prepositions ad, ante, etc., 370

w. passive used impersonally, 372

of Possession, 373

w. nōmen est, 373.a

w. dēsum and absum, 373.b

of the Agent, 374 - 375

of Reference, 376 - 377

of the person judging, 378

used idiomatically, 379

ethical Dative, 380

of Separation, 381

of Purpose, 382

w. adjectives and adverbs, 383

w. adjectives of fitness etc., 384 - 385

Genitive or Dative w. similis, 385.c.2

with words of contention (poetic), 413.b, Note

of End of Motion, 428.h

w. infinitive, 455.1

Dative of gerund, 505.a

Datīvus commodī aut incommodī, 376

 use, 220.b; 221.10

in compound w. verbs, 267.a

in compound w. verbs, w. Dative, 381

in compound w. verbs, w. Ablative, 402

w. Ablative instead of partitive Geninitve, 346.c

w. verbs of reminding, 351, Note

w. Ablative to denote the crime, 353.2

w. place from which, 426.1

position of , 435

w. Ablative of gerund, 507

dea decl., 43.e

dēbeō in apodosis, 517.c

dēbuī w. Present infinitve, 486.a

w. Perfect infinitive, 486.b

dēcernō constr., 563.d and Note 2

decet w. Accusative, 388.c

w. Dative, 388, Note 3

in apodosis, 517.c

Declarative sentence, 269.a

how expressed in indirect discourse, 580

Declension defined, 22

characteristics of, 37

general rules for, 38

terminations, 39

of Nouns, 1st, 40 - 44

2nd, 45- 52

3rd, 53 - 87

4th, 88 -94

5th, 95 - 98

5th decl. compared with 1st, 98.c

of Adjectives, 1st & 2nd decl., 109 - 113

3rd decl., 114 - 122

of comparatives, 120

of participles, 109; 117.b

dĕdī quantity of penult, 605, Exceptions

Decreeing verbs of, 563.d

Defective adjectives, 111.b; 122.c

Defective comparison, 130

Defective nouns, 99 - 103

of 4th decl., 94.c

of 5th decl., 98.a

Defective verbs, 205 - 206

dēficiō constr., 367.a

Definite perfect, 161.1; 473

sequence of, 485.a

dēfit, 204.c

dēgener, 119, Note; 121.a.3

Degree, adverbs of, 217.c

Degree of difference, Ablative of, 414

distance expressed by, 425.b

Degrees of Comparison, 123

deinde, dēnique in enumerations, 322.d, Note

dēlectat, constr., 388.c

dēlectō, w. Accusative, 367.a

dēlector, w. Ablative, 431

Deliberative subjunctive, 443 - 444

in indirect questions, 575.b

in indirect discourse, 587

dēlicium, -ia, -iae, 106.b

Delivering, verbs of, w. gerundive, 500.4

Dēlos decl., 52

delphīn decl., 83.a

-dem adverbial ending, 215.6

Demanding, verbs of, w. gerundive, 500.4

Demonstrative adverbs, as correlatives, 323.g

equivalent to demonstrative pronouns w. preposition, 321.a

position, 598.b

Demonstrative pronouns, 146

decl., 146

formation, 146, Note 1

syntax, 296 - 298

of 1st person, 297.a

of 2nd person, 297.c

of 3rd person, 297.b

supply place of personal pronouns of 3rd person, 295.c

in relative clause, 308.d, Note

position, 598.b

dēnārius value of, 632

Denominative verbs, 258 - 262

Dependent clauses, subjunctive used in, 438.b

Deponent verbs defined, 156.b

how conjugated, 190

paradigms, 190

participles, 190.a

Future infintive, 190.c

used reflexively, 190.e

in passive sense, 190.f

list of irregular deponent verbs, 191

defective deponents, 191.a

semi-deponents, 192

Depriving constr. w. verbs of, 401

Derivation of words, 227 - 267

Derivative forms of nouns, 236 - 241

of adjectives, 242 - 255

of verbs, 258 - 263

Derivative verbs defined, 257

Derivatives quantity of, 606

-dēs nouns in, 244

Description Imperfect used in, 471.a

Description implied in part., 496

Descriptive Ablative see Ablative of Quality

†dēses decl., 121.a.4

Desiderative verbs (in -uriō), 263.4

Desire adjectives of, w. Genitive, 349.a

dēspērō constr., 367.b

dēterior compar. of, 130.a

Determinative compounds, 265.2

Determining, verbs of constr., 563.d

deus decl., 49.g

dexter decl., 111.a

comparative, 129

dī- see dis-

dīc imperative, 182

diciōnis defective, 103.e

dīcō forms of, omitted, 319.a

dictō w. comparative, 406.a

-dicus adjectives in, comparison of, 127

Dīdō decl., 82

diem dīcere w. Dative of gerund etc., 505

diēs decl., 96

gender, 97.a

Genitive form diī, 98, Note

Difference Ablative of degree of, 414

difficilis comparison, 126

constructiuon, 510, Note 2

dīgnor w. Ablative, 418.b, Note 1

dīgnus w. Ablative, 418.b

w. relative clause, 535.f

Diminutive endings w. nouns and adjectives, 243

verbs, 263.3

din- stem ending, 61.2

Diphthongs, 2

sound of, 8

quantity, 10.b603.b

Diptotes, 103.c

Direct object, 274; 387

Direct question, defined, 330.1

Direct quotation, 578, Note

Direct reflexive, 300.b

dis- (dī-) inseparable prefix, 267.b

Disjunctive conjunctions, 224.I.a

case of noun after, 323

Dissimilation, 15.6

dissimilis comparison, 126

Distance Accusative or Ablative, 425.b

of time, 424.f

Distributive numerals, 136

use, 137

Distributive pronouns, 313

diū comparison, 218.a

dīves decl., 119, 121.b

dīvum (dīvom) for deōrum, 49.g, Note

-dō, adverbial ending, 215.6

-dō, nouns in from stem din-, 61.2

gender, 86

 conjunction, 202

w. infinitive, 460.a

doceō construction, 396 and c, Note 2

domī Locative, 427.3

domum, 427.2

domō, 427.1

domus gender, 90, Exceptions

decl., 93

double stem of, 93

Locative form, 93, Note 1

dōnec w. indicative or subjunctive, 553, Notes 1-2; 554 - 555

dōnō double construction of, 364

dōs decl., 71.6

Double consonants, 4; 11.b

Double questions, 334

answers to, 337

Doubting verbs of, construction, 558

Dual forms, 134, footnote 1

Dubitative subjunctive see Deliberative

dubitō an, 331, Note

nōn dubitō quīn, 558.a

nōn dubitō w. inf., 558, Note 2

without negative, 558, Note 1

dūc imperative, 182

dum derivation, 215. 6

w. past, 215.a

w. clause for Present and Perfect participle, 492; 493.2

introducing a proviso, 528

as adverb, 552

until, w. Present or Imperfect subjunctive denoting intention or expectancy, 553

w. Present or Future Perfect indicative to state future fact, 553, Note 2

w. Perfect indicative, 554, Note

as long as, w. indicative, 555 (cf. 556.a)

while, w. Present indicative, 556

w. past indicative, 556.a

dummodo, 528

duo decl., 134.b

duplī w. verbs of condemning, 352.a

Duration Accusative of, 423

Ablative of, 424.b

-dus participle in, see Gerundive

Duty, verbs of in apodosis, 517.c

dux decl., 57



Ĕ variant of ŏ as stem-vowel of 2nd decl., 45.c and Note

in Vocative, 45.c and Note

Ablative of neuters in, 3rd decl., 76.a.3

gender of neuters in, 3rd decl., 87

Ablative in, of adjectives of two and three terminations, 116, Note; 117 121.a

stem vowel, 3rd conjugation, 171; 174.1; 179.c

final, quantity of, 604.e

ē, for ae (oe) 6, Note 3

in Greek Vocative, 81.3

in stem of 5th decl., 98

in Genitive of 5th decl., 98.d, Note

in Dative, 98

in stem of 2nd conj., 171; 179.b

as adverb ending, 214.a and c

ē (preposition) see ex

eae, old Dative feminine of is, 146, Note 3

Early forms of alphabet 1.a and Note6.a-b

ecce (eccum etc.), 146.a, Note 2

ecquis decl., 151.f

use, 310.a

ēdīcō construction, 563.d

edō (eat) conjugation, 201

Effecting, verbs of w. Perfect participle, 497.c

w. ut clause, 580.d

efficiō ut 568

effierī, 204.c

effigiēs decl., 98.a

Effort, verbs of w. ut clause, 563.e

egēns decl., 118

egeō construction, 356 and Note

ego decl., 143

ei diphthong, 2

sound of, 8

-eis for -īs in plural of 1st decl., 43.e, Note 2

-ēis patronymic, 244

-êius, adjective ending, 249

in prosody, 11.d603.f, Note 2 

-êius, names in decl., 49.f

êiusmodī, 146.b; 345.a

Ēlectra decl., 44

-ēlis adjective ending, 248

Ellipsis see Grammatical Terms, Glossary 

ellum etc., 146.a. Note 2

-ellus diminutive ending, 243

ēluviēs decl., 98.a

em combined w. pronouns (ellum etc.), 146.a, Note 2

Emphasis, 597

en- (on-, ēn-, ōn-) primary suffix, 234.II. 13

Enclitics accent, 12.a

quantity, 604.a.1

cum, 143.f; 150.b, d

-met, -te, -pte, 143.d and Note

-pse, 146, Note 7-8

-ce, 146.a, Note 1

-que, see under that word

End of motion Accusative of, 426.2

w. verbs that also take Dative, 363

Dative of, 428.h

two or more places as end of motion, 428.j

Endings, signification of, 235 - 263

endings of verb, 165.2; 166

see Personal endings and Terminations

English method of pronunciation, 8, Note

English words cognate with Latin, 18, 19

enim, use, 324.h

position, 324.j; 599.b

-ēnsimus (or -ēsimus) numeral adjective ending, 133, Note 1

-ēnsis gentile ending, 249

Enumeration, prīmum . . . deinde, 322.d, Note

-ēnus, adjective ending, 249

Envy verbs of, w. Dative, 367

, used w. supine in -um, 428.i; 509, Note 1

used w. quō, 414.a

w. comparative, 414.a

approaching Ablative of cause, 414.a Note

eō cōnsiliō ut, 531.1, Note 1

Epicene nouns, 34, Note

Epistolary tenses, 479

epitomē decl., 44

epulum plural -ae, 106.b

equester decl., 115.a

equidem, 322.f, Note

er- for es- primary suffix, 234.II.17

er stem ending, 63, Exception 2

-er Nominative ending, 2nd decl., 45 - 47

3rd decl., 61.4; 65.a

gender, 85

-er, adjectives in, 111 - 112; 115

comparison of these, 125

ergā w. Accusative after adjectives, 385.b

ergō use, 324.i

w. Genitive, 359.b

-erim, -erō as tense-ending, 169.c-d

-ernus adjective ending, 250

ero- noun stems in, 2nd decl., 50

ēro-, adjective stems in, 111.a. Note

ES, root of esse 15.4; 170.b. Note

es- (os-) primary suffix, 234.II.17

-ĕs in Nominative plural of Greek nouns, 81.4

gender of nouns in, 85

-ēs, Genitive of Greek nouns in 2nd decl., 52.a

Genitive ending, 5th decl., 98, Note

-ēs, list of nouns in, 71, footnote 2

gender, 86

formation, 238.a

esse conj., 170

forms of, in other languages, 170. b, Note

compounds of, 198

case after, 284

Dative of possession w., 373

Future participle w. (1st periphrastic conjugation), 498. a-b

position of forms of, 598.c, j

est united with other words, 13, Note

est quī etc., 535.a

est cum, 535.a, Note 3

est ut, 569.3

Esteeming, verbs of construction, 393

-ester (-estris) as adjective ending, 250

as noun ending, 254.11

ēstur, ēssētur passive forms of edō, 201.a

et use, 324.a

et . . . et, 323.e

et repeated or omitted, 323.c

et, -que, or atque translated but, 324.d, Note

etenim use, 324.h, k

Ethical Dative, 380

etiam use, 322.a

in answers, 336.a.1

etiam sī concessive, 527.c

etsī use, 527.c

-ētum noun ending, 254.8

-eus, Greek names in, 52.e

-eus patronymic ending, 244

adjective ending, 247; 249; 254.10

ēvenit ut, 568, footnote 2

ex (ē), 220.b

use, 221.11

in compounds, 267.a; 402

Ablative w., instead of partitive Genitive, 346.c

in verbs w. Dative, 381

w. pronouns etc., 403.a, Note 1

to express place from which, 426.1

expressing position, 429.b

after its noun, 435

w. Ablative of gerund, 507

excellō w. Dative, 368.3

Exchanging verbs of, 417.b

Exclamation form of, 333, Note

Nominitive in, 339.a

Accusative in, 397.d

w. infinitive, 462

Exclamatory questions, 462.a

Exclamatory sentences, 269.c

Nominitive in, 339.a

Genitive in, 359.a

Accusative in, 397.d

Existence, general expressions of, 535.a

exlēx defective, 122.c

Expecting, hoping, etc. verbs of, w. indirect discourse, 580.c

w. complementary infinitive, 580.c, Note

expēnsum, 496, Note 4

exsiliō w. Ablative, 404.a

exspēs defective, 122.c

exsultō w. Ablative, 404.a

exterī use, 130.b

exterior, 130.b

extrēmus form, 130.a. footnote 2

exuō construction, 364



F, original sound of, 1.b, Note

faber decl., 112.a

fac imperative, 182; 204

fac (ut) w. subjunctive, 449.c

fac nē in prohibition, 450, Note 2

faciēs decl., 98.a

facilis comparative, 126

w. supine, 510, Note 2

faciō accent of compounds of, 12.a, Exceptions

forms of, omitted, 319.a

w. Ablative, 403.c

w. names of authors, 497.d, Note

facere ut, 568, Note 1

Factitive Accusative, 386

verbs, 273, Note 1

-factō in compounds, 266.a

faenebris decl., 115, Note 1

faex decl., 103.g.2

fallit w. Accusative, 388.c

falsus comparartive, 131.a

famēs Ablative of, 76.b, Note 1; 98.d

familiāris decl., 76.b.2

familiās in pater familiās etc., 43.b

fās indeclinable, 103.a

w. supine in , 510

faux decl., 101, Note 1; 103.f.4

Favor, verbs of w. Dative, 367

fax decl., 103.g.2

Fearing, verbs of w. infinitive, 456

w. , nē nōn, ut, 564

febris decl., 75.b; 76.b.1

Feeling, nouns of w. Genitive, 348

impersonal verbs of, 208.b; 354.b

animī w. verbs and adjectives of, 358

Genitive w. verbs of, 354

Accusative w. verbs. of, 388.a

quod clause w. verbs of, 572.b

fēlīx comparative, 124

Feminine rule for gender, 32

femur decl., 105.g

-fer compounds of, 50

decl., 111.a

fer imperative, 182

ferō conj., 200

acceptum (expēnsum) ferre, 496, Note 4

compounds of, 200.a

ferre, ferrem for †ferse etc., 200, chart 1, footnote 2

Festivals plural names of, 101.2

in -alia, 254.7

-ficus adjectives in, comparison of, 127.a

fidēs decl., 96

fīdō (cōnfïdfō) semi-deponent, 192

w. Dative, 367

w. Ablative, 431

fīdus comparative, 131.a

fierī construction w. Ablative, 403.c

Fifth Declension, 95 - 97

Figūra etymologica, 598.m

fīlia decl., 43.e

fīlius Vocative, 49.c

Filling, words of w. Ablative, 409.a

w. Genitive, 409, Note

Final Clauses defined, 279.d

construction of, 530 - 532

as substantive clauses, 563

Final conjunctions, 223.b.6; 224.II.e

Final syllables rules of quantity, 604

vowels, 604.a-h 

fīnis decl., 76.b

Finite verb defined, 154, Note

subject of, 339

fīō conjugation, 204

in compounds, 204.b

defective compounds of, 204.c

quantity of i in, 603.a.3 

First Conjugation principal parts, 173

Present stem, how formed, 176.a

formation, 179.a; 259

paradigms, 184

verbs of, 209

verbs of, how formed, 259

First Declension, 40 -42

fīsus as Present participle, 491

fit ut, 568, footnote 2; 569.2

Fitness adjectives of, w. Dative, 384385.a

flāgitō constr., 563

floccī Genitive of value, 417.a

For when expressed by prō, 379, Note

forās, 103.c.4; 215.3

fore, 170.a

Perfect participle w., 164.c, Note

fore ut, 569.a

forem, 170.a

forēs plural only, 101.4103.c.4

Forgetting, verbs of, 350

w. infinitive, 456

forīs (Locative), 103.c.4; 215.4; 427.a

Formation of words, 227 - 267

Forms of the verb, 180 ff.

fors, forte, 103.c.1

forsan, 447.b, Note

forsitan (fors sit an), 216, Note

w. subjunctive, 447.a

fortasse, 447.b

Fourth Conjugation principal parts, 173

Present stem, how formed, 176.a; 179.d

paradigm, 187

list of verbs, 212

verbs, how formed, 262

Fourth Declension, 88 - 94

Fractional expressions, 135.e; 637

fraus, decl., 71.6

Freedom, adjectives of w. Ablative, 402.a

verbs of, 401

French, derivations through, 19, Note 2

Frequentative verbs, 263.2

frētus w. Ablative, 431.a

Fricatives, 4.5

frūgī defective noun, 103.f.1

as adjective, 122.b

comparative, 129

constr., 382.1, Note 2

fruor, fungor w. Ablative, 410

w. Accusative, 410.a, Note 1

gerundive, 503, Note 2

fugit w. Accusative, 388.c

fuī derivation of, 170.b Note

Fullness adjectives of, 349.a

fūnebris decl., 115, Note 1

fungor see fruor

Future conditions, 516

in indirect discourse, 589.a

Future tense use, 472

of infinitive passive, how formed, 203.a

of imperative, 449

indicative for imperative, 449.b

in indirect questions, 575

Future Infinitive how formed, 164.3.b-c; 193, Note

expressed with fore or futūrum esse, 569.a

(rarely) in contrary to fact conditions in indirect discourse, 589.b, Note 3

Future Participle use, 158.b489; 498; 517.d

Future passive participle, 500

Future Perfect tense, suffix of, 169.c

use of, 478

represented in subjunctive, 484.c

in conditions, 516.c

futūrum esse ut see fore ut

futūrum fuisse ut, 589.b.3 and Note 2

Futūrum in praeteritō, 511, footnote 1



G (the character), 1.a and Note

Games plural names of, 101.2

gaudeō conjugation, 192

w. Ablative, 431

w. quod or indirect discourse, 572.b

Gems gender of, 32 and b; 48, Exceptions

Gender kinds of, 30

general rules for, 31- 34

common, epicene, 34

change of gender, 42, footnote

nouns, 1st decl., gender, 42

2nd decl., 48

nouns, 3rd decl., gender according to endings, 84- 87

of nouns, 4th decl., 90 - 91

5th decl., 97

Syntax: agreement in gender, 280

of appositives, 282.c

of adjectives, 286

adjectives w. nouns of different genders, 287 (cf. 289.c)

of relative, 306.b

General conditions defined, 513.2

constr. of, 518

relatives in, 520

General truths after past tense (in sequence of tenses), 485.d

in present, 465

in general condition, 518.a

GENITIVE defined, 35.b

terminations of, 37

plural in -um, 38.f

Genitive in -āī and -ās, 1st decl., 43.a-b

in for -iī, 2nd decl., 49.b

in of proper nouns of 3rd decl., 52.a

Genitive plural in -um (-om), for -ōrum, 49.d

-um for -ium, 3rd decl., 78

-ŏs for -is, 81.1

Genitive plural in -um, 92.b

in or for -ēī, 5th decl., 98, Note

Genitive plural wanting, 103.g.2

of adjectives in -ius, 113

Genitive plural in -ium or -um, 121.b

GENITIVE Syntax, 342 - 356

general use, 342

Subjective Genitive, 343, Note 1

Possessive Genitive, 343

in apposition w. possessive pronoun, 302.e

compared w. Dative, 373, Note

Genitive in predicate, 343.b-c

Genitive of adjective for neuter Nominative, 343.c, Note 1

Genitive of substance or material, 344

for apposition, 343.d

Genitive of quality, 345

Partitive, 346

Objective, 347 ff.

w. adjectives, 349, 385.c

w. verbs of memory, 350

charge and penalty, 352

of feeling, 354

w. impers., miseret etc., 354.b

w. rēfert and interest, 355

of plenty and want, 356

of exclamation, 359.a

w. potior 357.a

w. other verbs, 357.b

w. egeō and indigeō, 356, Note

Genitive for Ablative, 356, Note

Genitive replaced by Dative, 366.b

of value, 417

Genitive of gerundive, 504

genius Vocative of, 49.c

Gēns or family, names, 108

Gentile adjectives, 244

gentīlis 76.a.2

genū decl., 89

gender, 91

genus decl., 64

-ger compounds of, 50

decl., 111.a

Gerund form, 155.b

meaning, 159.a

gerundive used instead, 503

syntax, 502 - 507

Genitive of, 504

w. direct object, 504.a

predicate use, purpose, 504.a, Note 1

w. Objective Genitive, 504.c

Dative of, 505

in law phrases etc., 505.b

Accusative of, 506 and Note 1

Ablative of, 507

gerund coordinated w. nominal constr. and in apposition, 503.a, Note 2

w. direct object, 503.a, Note 1

Gerundive, meaning and form, 155.a and footnote 3, 158.d

in -endus or -undus, 179, footnote 1

of deponent verb, 190.d

use as partticiple or adjective, 500

of ūtor, 500.3

to denote purpose after certain verbs, 500.4

used for gerund, 503

Gerundive constructions in cases Genitive, 504

Dative, 505

Accusative, 506

Ablative, 507

Impersonal w. esse, w. Accusative, 500.3

gibber decl., 111.a

gin-stem ending, 61.2

Giving, verbs of w. gerundive, 500.4

glaber decl., 112.a

glaciēs decl., 98.a

glīs decl., 71.6

glōrior w. Ablative, 431

Gnomic perfect 475

-gō nouns in, from stem gin-, 61.2

gender, 86

gracilis decl., 122.a

comparative 126

Grammar how developed, 268

Grammatical gender, 30.b

grātiā w. Genitive, 359.b 404.c

w. Genitive of gerund, 533

grātificor w. Dative, 368.3

grātulor w. Dative, 368.3

Greek accusative (synecdochical), 397.b

Greek forms compared w. Latin, 24 -28; 44; 60; 124, footnote 1; 132, footnote 1; 163, footnote 1; 168; 170; 214; 234; 247; 252

Greek nouns 1st decl., 44

2nd decl., 52

3rd decl., 81 - 83

Greek proper names quantity of, 603.4 

Groups of words conjunctions w., 323.c

grūs decl., 79.a

Guilt, adjectives of w. Genitive, 349.a



H (breathing)4

omitted in spelling, 6.d, Note 2

in prosody, 603.a

habeō w. infinitive, 460.a

w. Perfect participle, 497.b

Future imperative habētō in sense of consider, 449.a

habilis w. Dative of gerund etc., 505.a, footnote 4

hāctenus, 221.26, Note 1

Hadria Genitive, 42, Exceptions

haec for hae, 146, Note 2

haereō w. Ablative, 368, Note

Happening, verbs of constr., 569.2

Have Perfect w., origin, 497.b, footnote 1

havē (avē) defective verb, 206.g

Having, verbs of, w. gerund., 500.4

hebes decl., 86.a

comparative, 124

Help, verbs of, w. Dative, 367

hērōs decl., 82

Hesitation, clauses of w. quīn, 558 - 559

verbs of, constr., 456

Heteroclite nouns, 105

adjectives, 122.a

Heterogeneous nouns, 106

Hibēr decl., 50.c

hībus, 146, Note 2

hīc, 146, Note 1

decl., 146

use, 297.a, e-f

quantity, 604.j, Exceptions 

Hidden quantity, 11.f and Note

hiemps (for hiems), 15.11

hilaris (-us), 122.a

Himself (ipse, sē), 298.c, Note 2

Hindering, verbs of with or quōminus, or infinitive, 558.b and Note

Hindrance, verbs. of w. quōminus, 558.b

w. negatives, followed by quīn, 558 - 559

Historical infinitive, 463

takes secondary sequence, 485.f

Historical perfect, 161.2; 473

Historical present, 469

followed by primary or secondary tenses, 485.e

hodiē Locative form, 98.b, 215.5

honor (-ōs) decl., 62, Note 2

Hoping, verbs of with indirect discourse, 580.c

w. complementary infinitive, 580.c Note

horizōn decl., 83.d

Hortatory subjunctive, 439

in concession, 440

in proviso, 528

in obligation, 439.b

w. force of protasis, 521.b

hortor constr., 563

hospes decl., 121.a.4

hospita (feminine of hospes), 121.e

hûiusmodī, 146.b

humī, 49.a

Locative use of, 427.a

humilis comparative, 126

Hundreds, how declined, 134.c

Hypotaxis, 268



I as vowel and as consonant, 1; 10

i as transient sound between consonantal i and a preceding vowel, 6.c (cf. 11.e)

i- primary suffix, 234.I.2

ĭ for ē in 2nd conjugation, 179.b.2

for in 3rd conjugation, 179.c.1

lost in verbs in -iō of 3rd conjugation, 179.c, e

inserted in verb stem, 176.b.2

in Greek Vocative, 82

 (single) in Genitive of nouns in -ius (-ium), 49.b

in Genitive of nouns in -ēs, 52.a

in Ablative of 3rd decl., 76

in Locative of 3rd decl., 451

in Genitive, 4th decl., 92.a

in Genitive, Dative, 5th decl., 98.d, Note

in Dative of ūnus etc., 113

in Present passive infinitive, 451, footnote 1

in Perfect, 163, footnote 3

i-stems 3rd decl., 66 - 78

confused, 73

signs of, 74

in adjective, 117

cases retaining -i, cf. 74; 76; 114; 116, Note

i-stems in verbs, 179.d

-ia ending of abstract nouns, 241

-ia Nominative and Accusative plural 3rd decl., 74.b

of adjectives, 116; 117

-ia for -iēs 5th decl. 98.c

iaciō compounds of, 6.d603.f, Note 3

iam derivation, 215.6

use, 322.b

w. imperfect, 471.c, Note

iamdiū w. Present, 466

w. Imperfect, 471.b

iamdūdum w. Present, 466

w. Imperfect 471.b

w. imperative, 466, Note 2

-ībam for -iēbam 4th conjugation, 183.1

-ībō for -iam 183.1

ībus, 146, Note 3

-īcius 247

-icus, 249

id- stem-ending, 83.b

id genus, 397.a

id quod, 307.d

id temporis, 346.3; 397.a

idcircō as correlative, 324.i

w. final clause, 531.1, N.ote 1

īdem decl., 146

derivation, 146, Note 9

w. Dative, 384, Note 1

w. atque or relative, 384, Note 2

used emphatically, 298.a

equivalent to adverb, 298.b

Ides (13th or 15th of month), how reckoned, 631.b

-idēs (-īdēs) in patronymics, 244

idōneus comparative, 128

w. Dative of gerund etc., 505.a, footnote 2

idōneus quī, 535.f

-idus verbal adjective ending, 251

Īdūs 4th decl., gender, 90, Exceptions (See Ides)

-ie in Vocative of adjectives in -ius, 110.a

iecur decl., forms from different stems, 79.c; 105.g

iēns (participle of ) decl., 119

-ier in infinitive passive, 183.4

-iēs noun ending, 241

in 5th decl. = -ia, 1st decl., 98.c

igitur meaning, 324.i

position, 324.j

īgnis decl., 76.b.1

-iī (or ) in Genitive, 2nd decl., 49.b and footnote

of adjectives, 110.a

iī, iīs for ī, īs, from is, 146

-īle noun ending, 254.6

-ĭlis, -bilis verbal adjective ending, 252

-īlis nominal adjective ending, 248

Illative conjunctions, 223.a.4; 224.I.d

ille forms, 146, Notes 4, 6

decl., 146

use, 297.b, e

combined w. -ce, 146.a, Note 1

illīc decl., 146.a

-illō verbs ending in, 263.3

Infinitive used as noun, gender, 33

w. Genitive, 343.c

see also Syntax, Infinitive Mood

īnfitiās defective, 103.b.6

use, 428.i

Inflection defined, 21

terminations of, 21.b

how modified, 28

of decl. and conjugation, 22

Influence, verbs of, w. ut clause, 563

Informal Indirect Discourse, 591 - 592

īnfrā use, 220.a; 221.13

ingēns decl., 121.a.3

comparative, 131.b

iniūriā as Ablative of manner, 412.b

iniussū defective, 94.c

inops decl., 121.a.3; b.1

inquam, inquit 206.b

position of, 599.c

Inseparable particles, 267.b

Insertion of consonants (p in sūmpsī), 15.11

īnsidiae Dative w., 367.d

īnspergō, constr., 364

īnstar, indecl., 103.a

w. Genitive, 359.b

īnstō, constr., 563

Instrument Ablative of, 409

Instrumental case, 35, Note (cf. 338; 398)

as adverb, 215.4

source of several Ablative constructions, 408

īnsulam, ad, 428.a

integer decl., 112.a

Integral part subjunctive of, 591; 593

integrum est ut, 568

Intensive pronoun, 146, Notes 7, 8; 298. c-f

Intensive verbs, 263.2 and b

inter, use, 220.a; 221.14

in compounds, 267.a

verbs compounded w., 370

position, 435

inter sē (reciprocal), 145.c; 301.f

inter sīcāriōs, 353.2

inter, w. gerund, 506 and Note 1

interclūdō constr., 364 and Note 2

interdīcō constr., 364, Note 1

interestconstr., 355

w. ad, 355.b

how to express degree of interest, 355, Note 2

interior comparative, 130.a

Interjections, defined, 20

list, 226

w. Dative, 379.a

Interlocked order of words, 598.h

Intermediate clauses Syntax of, 591 - 593

Interrogative adverbs use, 333

position, 598.b

Interrogative particles list of, 217.d

use, 331 - 333

Interrogative pronoun, 148 - 151

use, 333

position, 598.b

Interrogative sentences, 269.b

forms of, 330 - 336

iutrā (interior), 130.a

derivation, 215.4

Intransitive verbs, 273.2; 274, Note

used impersonally in passive, 208.d

Dative w., 366 ff.

used transitively, w. Accusative and Dative, 369 (cf. 388.a, Note)

w. cognate Accusative, 390

having passive sense, w. ab, 405.a

-īnus adjective ending, 249

inūtilis w. Dative of gerund etc., 505.a

invictus comparative, 131.a

invītus, comparative, 131.a

-iō noun ending, 238.b

gender, 86

-iō verbs in, 3rd conjugation, 176.b.2

forms of, 179.c, e

paradigm, 188

4th conjugation, 179.d

derivation, 262

iocus plural in or -a, 106.b

ip- stem ending, 56.a

ipse formation, 146, Notes 7, 8

decl., 146

use, 297.c

used instead of reflexive, 300.b

īrī in future infinitive passive, 203.a

Ironical statement not different in form from question, 332.a, Note

-is-, -iss-, -sis-, dropped in Perfect, 181.b, Note 2

is decl., 146

use, 152; 297.d-e

used emphatically, 298.a

used instead of reflexive, 300.b

-ĭs Nominative ending, gender, 86

-is, patronymic, 244

-īs for -iīs in 1st decl., 43.e, Note 2

Nominative and Accusative plural, 3rd decl., 77 (cf. 73)

of adjectives, 117; 121.c

Greek Nominative ending, 83.b

-īs, nouns in, see īt-

Islands, names of Locative use, 427.3; 428.e

from which, 427.1

to which, 427.2

-isse, -issem verb ending, see 181.b

-issō verbs ending in, 263.b

iste shortened to ste, 146, Note 5

decl., 146

use, 297.c

istic decl., 146.a

It as sign of Impersonals, 207, footnote

-īt as stem ending, 58.b

decl., 78; 121.a.4

ita correlative with ut, 323.g

in answers, 336.a

ita ut, 537.2, Note 2

itaque accent, 12.a

compared with ergō, 324.i

used with ergō, 324.k

position of, 599.b

iter stem of, 79.c

Iterative subjunctive, 518.c

Iterative verbs (-tō, -itō, -sō), 263.2

-itō verbs in, 263.2

-ītus adjective ending, 246

iubar decl., 76.a.3

iubeō w. Accusative, 367.a

w. infinitive, 563.a

in passive, 566.c

iucundus constr., 510, Note 2

iūgerum defective 103.d.3

decl., 105.b

measure, 636

-ium Genitive plural, 3rd decl., 74.a

of adjectives, 114.a 117121.b

-ium noun ending, 241.b

iungō w. Ablative or Dative, 368.3, Note; 413, Note

Iuppiter stem and decl., 79 and b

plural, 100.a

derivation, 266.c

-ius adjectives in, Genitive, Vocative of, 110.a

formation of adjectives in, 247; 252, Note

iūs (broth), decl., 103.g.1

-īus Genitive singular ending, 113

quantity, 113.c603.a, Exception 1 

iussū defect., 94.c; 103.b.5

iūstō w. comparative, 406.a

iuvat w. Accusative, 388.c

iuvenis decl., 62, Note 3; 78.1

masculine adjective, 122.d

comparative, 131.c

iuvō w. Accusative, 367.a

iūxtā position, 435

-īv- in Perfect, 211.d

-īvus verbal adjective ending, 251, Note



J (the character), 5, Note 1

English sound, 5, Note 1

Julian Calendar, 630; 631.e



K, supplanted by C, 1.a, Note

kalendae, 631.a

Kindred forms Latin and English, 18; 19

Kindred signification Accusative of, 390

Knowing, verbs of w. Accusative and infinitive, 459

Knowledge adjectives of, w. Genitive, 349.a

ko-(kā-)> primary suffix, 234.II.12



L nouns in -l, gender, 87

adj. stems in l-, 117.a

Labials, 4.2

stems, 3rd decl., 56 and a

labōrō w. Abl., 404.a

lacus decl., 89

Dative and Ablative plural in -ubus, 92.c

laedō w. Accusative, 367.a

laetor, laetus w. Ablative, 431

lampas decl., 82

lateō w. Accusative, 396.c

latet w. Accusative, 388.c, Note 1

lātifundium, 265.2

lātus participle, derivation, 200, footnote 2

Learning, verbs of w. infinitive, 456

Length expressed by Genitive, 345.b

-lēns, -lentus adjective endings, 245

leō decl., 62

Letters classification of, 1 - 5

levis decl., 116

comparative, 124

leviter comparartive, 218

līber adjective, decl., 50; 111.a

Līber decl., 50

līberī noun, 50; 101.3

libet impersonal, 208.c, Note

w. Dative, 368.1

licet impersonal, synopsis, 207

use, 208.c, Note

w. Dative, 368.1

w. predicate Dative, 455.1

w. subjunctive, meaning although, 527.b

licet eam, licet mē īre, licet mihi īre, 565 and Note 2

Likeness adjectives of, w. Dative, 384

w. Genitive, 385.c

Limiting word meaning of, 276.b

Linguals, 4.3

stems in, 3rd decl., 58.a

linter decl., 66

Liquids, 3; 4

stems in, 3rd decl., 61 - 64

-lis adjectives in, comparative, 126

Litotes, 326.c

-lium noun ending, 241.c

ll- as stem ending, 62, Note 1

lo- (lā-) primary suffix, 234.II.10

Locative Ablative, 426.3

idiomatic use, 429.3

adverbial forms, 215.5

LOCATIVE defined, 35.h80, footnote (cf. 360)

in Ablative, 398, 421

of 1st decl., 43.c

2nd decl., 49.a

3rd decl., 80

4th decl. (domī), 93, Note 1

5th decl., 98.b

as adverb, 214.5

w. Ablative in apposition, 282.d

relative adverb used to refer to, 308.g

animī, 358

Locative used to express where, 426.3

forms (domī etc.), 427.a

locō Ablative without preposition, 429.1

locō verb, constr., 430

locum capere w. Dative of gerund etc., 505

locus plural or -a, 106.b

Long and Short see Quantity

longius without quam, 407.c

lūdicer decl., 112.a

luēs defective, 103.d.1

lūx decl., 103.g.2



M inserted in verb root, 176.c.2

-m sign of Accusative, 338

omitted in inscriptions, 46, Note 1

macer decl., 112.a

macte virtūte use and constr., 340.c and Note

magis as sign of comparative, 128

compounds of, w. quam, 434

māgnī Genitive of value, 417

māgnus comparison, 129

mâiestātis w. words of accusing etc., 352.a

Main clause defined, 278.b

mâior nātū, 131.c

mâiōrēs signification of, 101.3 (cf. 102.2); 291.c. Note 3

Making, verbs of constr., 393

male comparative, 218

compounds of, w. Dative, 368.2

mālō, conjugation, 199

malus comparative, 129

mandō constr., 563

māne defective noun, 76, Note 1103.b.5

maneō w. Ablative, 431

Manner, adverbs of, 217.c

Ablative of, 412 and b

hard to distinguish from Ablative of specification, 418.a, Note

manner implied in participle, 496

mānsuētus, 266.c

manus decl., 89

gender, 90, Exceptions

mare decl., 76.a.378

marī Locative, 427.a

mās decl., 71.6

Masculine rule for gender, 31

Masculine adjectives, 122.d

Material, adjectives denoting, 247

Genitive of, 344

Ablative of, 403 and b-d

maximē as sign of superlative, 128

May how expressed in Latin, 157.b

mē dīus fidius, 397.d, Note 2

Means, nouns denoting, 239

Ablative of, 408 - 409

participle implying means, 496

Measure Genitive of, 345.b (cf. 425.a)

Measures of value, 632 - 635

of length, 636

of weight, 637

of capacity, 638

medeor w. Dative or Accusative, 367.b

mediocris decl., 115.a, Note 1

Meditative verbs, 263.2.b

medius 293

melior decl., 120

melius est w. infinitive 486.f

meminī, conjugation, 205

in Present sense, 205.b476

imperative of, 449.a

meminī w. Accusative or Genitive, 350.a-b

w. Present infinitive, 584.a and Note

memor decl., 121.a.3

Memory adjectives of, constr., 349.a

verbs of, constr., 350

men- primary suffix, 234.II.14

-men, -mentum noun endings, 239

mēnsis decl., 78.2

merīdiēs gender, 97

-met (enclitic), 143.d

Metathesis see Grammatical Terms, Glossary (cf. 177.a, Note)

metuō w. Dative or Accusative, 367.c

w. subunctive, 564

meus Vocative , 110.a, Note

syntax of, 302.a343.a

Middle voice, 397.c410, Note

Mile, 636

mīles decl., 57

Military expressions Dative in, 382.2

Ablative of means instead of agent, 405.b, Note 1

Ablative of accompaniment without cum, 413.a

mīlitiae (locative), 427.a

mīlle (mīlia) decl. and constr., 134.d

-minī as personal ending, 163

minimē comparison, 218.a

use, 291.c, Note 2

w. negative force, 392.a

in answer (no), 336.a.2

ministrō w. infinitive, 460.a

minor nātū, 131.c

minōris Genitive of value, 417 and c

minōrēs signification, 291.c, Note 3

-minus, -mnus verbal adjective endings, 253.c

minus comparison, 218.a

use, 291.c, Note 2

w. and quō, = not, 329.a

constr. without quam, 407.c

mīror sī, 572.b, Note

mīrum quam (quantum) w. indicative, 575.d

mīs, tīs, 143.a, Note

misceō w. Ablative or Dative, 368.3, Note413.a, Note

miser 3rd decl., comparison, 125

miserē, comparison 218

misereor w. Genitive, 354.a

miserēscō w. Genituve, 354.a

miseret, 208.b

w. Genitive and Accusative, 354.b

other constr., 354.c, Note

miseror w. Accusative, 354.a, Note

Mixed i-stems, 70 - 72

-mnus see -minus

mo- (mā-) primary suffix, 234.II.7

Modesty subjunctive of, 447.1

Modification of subjunctive or predicate, 276

Modifiers position of, 596 - 599

of negative, 599.a

modo (modo nē) with subjunctive of proviso, 528

modo . . . modo, 323.f

modō as Ablative of manner, 412.b

molāris decl., 76.a.2

moneō conjugation, 185

constr., 351390.d, Note 1

-mōnium, -mōnia noun endings, 239

Monoptotes, 103.b

Monosyllables quantity, 604.a-c

Months gender of names of, 31 and Note

decl. of names of in -ber, 115.a

names of, 630

divisions of in Roman Calendar, 631

Moods names and uses of, 154157

note on origin and nature of, 436

syntax of, 264 - 275437 - 463

Moods in temporal clauses how distinguished, 545, 546 and Notes

mōrigerus decl., 111.a, Note

mōs est ut, 568

Mother name of, w. preposition, 403.a, Note 1

Motion, how expressed, 363381.a402

indicated by compounds, 388.b

implied, 428.j, Note

Motion, end of see End of Motion

Motive how expressed, 404.b

Mountains names of, gender, 31 and b

Mulciber decl., 50.c

muliebris decl., 115.a, Note 1

multā nocte, 293, Note

Multiplication by distributives, 137.c

Multiplicatives, 139

multum () comparative, 218.a

multus, compar.ative 129

mūnus decl., 105.g

mūnus est ut, 568

mūs decl., 71.6

mūsica () decl., 44

mūtāre constr., 417.b

Mutes, 4

mute stems, 3rd decl., 56 - 64

mӯthos decl., 52



N, 4

as final letter of stem (leōn-), 61.1

preceding stem vowel of verb, 176.b.1

inserted in verb root (tangō), 176.c.2177.b, Note

nāis decl., 82

-nam (enclitic) in questions, 333.a

nam, namque use, 324.h, k

Names of men and women, 108

Naming verbs of, w. two Accusatives, 393

Nasals, 46

inserted in verb root, 176.c.2

nātālis decl., 76.b.2

nātū (mâior, minor), 131.c

nātus etc. w. Ablative of source, 403.a

nāvis decl., 76.b.1

-nd, -nt vowel short before, 10.e

-ndus verbal adjective ending, 253.a

gerundive in, 158.d

-ne (enclitic) use in questions, 332.a-c

w. force of nōnne, 332.c

original meaning, 332.c, Note 1

in double questions, 335

in exclamatory questions, 462.a

quantity, 604.a.1 

 negative of Hortatory subjunctive, 439

in prohibitions, 450.3

in concessions, 527.a

w. subjunctive of proviso, 528.b

in final clauses, 531

= nēdum, 532, Note 1

in substantive clauses, w. verbs of hindering, 558.b

of fearing, 564

omitted after cavē, 565, Note 1

nē nōn, w. verbs of fearing, 564

nē . . . quidem, use, 322.f

after nōn, 327.1

after nōn modo, 217.e

position of, 599.b

Nearness adjectives of, w. Dative, 384

w. Genitive, 385.c

nec enim, 324.h

necesse indecl., 103, Note 1

necesse est ut, 568569.2, Note 2

Necessity, verbs of w. Perfect passive infinitive, 486.d

in apodasis, 517.c522.a

w. ut  clause, 569.2

necne in double questions, 335 and Note

nēdum, 532, Notes 1 - 2

nefās,indecl., 103.a

w. supine in , 510

Negation Perfect preferred in, 475.a

Negative answers, 332.b336 and a.2

Negative particles list of, 217.e

use of, 325

two negatives, 326

negative form different from English, 328

negative condition, 525.a

negative proviso, 528

negative purpose, 531

negative result, 538568

position of, 599.a

negō better than dīcō . . . nōn, 328580.b

negōtium dō ut, 563, footnote 1

nēmō use of, 314

Genitive and Ablative singular replaced by nūllīus and nūllō, 314.a

nēmō nōn, 326.b

nēmō est quī, 535.a, Note 1

neque (nec) and not, 328.a

neque enim, use, 324.h

neque after a negative, 327.2-3

nēquam,indeclinabe, 122.b

comparative of, 129

nequeō conjugation, 206.d

nēquis, decl., 310.a

nesciō an, 575.d

nesciō quis as indefinite without subjunctive, 575.d

-neus adjective ending, 247

Neuter Accusative as adverb, 214.d, (cf. b, Note)

Neuter adjectives special uses of, 289

Neuter gender general rule for, 33

cases alike in, 38.b

endings of 3rd decl., 87

Neuter pronoun as cognate Accusative, 390.c

Neuter verbs see Intransitive Verbs

nēve connective in prohibitions, 450, Note 5

nex decl., 103.g.2

ni- primary suffix, 234.II.5

nī, nisi, 512, Note

use of, 525.a

-nia, -nium noun endings, 241.c

niger decl., 112

distinct from āter, 131.d, Note

nihil, indeclinable, 103.a

contraction to nīl, 603.c 

nihilī Genitive of value, 417.a

nihilī and nihilō, 103.a, Note 2

nīmīrum quam as indefinite without subjunctive, 575.d

ningit, 208.a

nisi and sī nōn, 525.a

nisi sī, 525.a.3

nisi vērō (forte), 525.b

nītor w. Ablative, 431

nix (stem and decl.), 79.d

plural, 100.b

No, in answers, how expressed, 336.a.2

no- (nā-) primary suffix, 234.II.4

no- verb suffix, 176.b.1

nōlī in prohibitions, 450.(1) and Note 1

nōlō conjugation, 199

participle w. Dative of the person judging, 378, Note

w. Perfect active infinitive in prohibitions, 486.c

w. Perfect passive infnitive (or participle), 486.d and Note

Nōmen denoting gens, 108

nōmen decl., 64

nōmen est w. predicate Nominative or Dative, 373.a

w. Genitive, 373, Note

Nominal adjectives, 243 - 254

NOMINATIVE defined, 35.a

Nominative suffix, 338

neuter plural Nominative and Accusative alike, 38.b

in 2nd decl., 45.a

in 3rd decl., 5658616679

of neuters, i-stems, 68.a

in u-stems, 4th decl., 88

in e-stems, 5th decl., 95

NOMINATIVE, Syntax (see 338): in predicate, 283 - 284

verb agreement with, 316

as subject, 339

in exclamations, 339.a (cf. 397.d)

used for Vocative, 340.a

w. opus in predicate, 411.b

Nominitive of gerund supplied by infinitive, 502, Note

nōn, derivation, 215.1

compounds of, 326.a-b

in answers, 336.a.2

nōn dubitō quīn, 558.a

nōn dubitō w. infinitive, 558, Note 2

w. indirect question, 558, Note 1

nōn modo after a negative, 327.1

nōn modo . . . nē . . . quidem, 217.e

nōn nēmō, nōn nūllus, etc., 326.a

nōn quia (quod, quō, quīn) etc., 540, Note 3

nōn satis, 291.c, Note 2

Nones (nōnae), 631.c

nōnne in questions, 332.b

nōs decl., 143

for ego, 143.a

noster for possessive Genitive, 302.a

nostrī as objective Genitive, 143.c295.b

nostrum as partitive Genitive, 143.b295.b

as objective Genitive, 295.b, Note 1

Noun and adjective forms of verb, 166

Noun stem treated as root, 176.d

Nouns defined, 20.a

indeclinable, gender, 33

decl. of, 37 - 95

derivative forms of, 235 - 241

used as adjectives, 321.c

rule of agreement, 281

w. partitive Genitive, 346.a.1

w. objective Genitive, 348

governing Accusative, 388.d, Note 2

noun as protasis, 521.a

Nouns of agency, 235

formation, 236

novendecim, 133, Note 2

nox, decl., 72

ns, nf, gn, quantity of preceding vowel, 10.d

-ns, as adjective ending, 118

participles in, decl., 119121.b.2

w. Genitive, 349.b

w. Accusative, 349, Notes 1-2

nt- (ont-, ent-) primary suffix, 234.II.18

nt-, stems in decl., 121.a.4

nu- primary suffix, 234.II.6

nūbēs, decl., 72

nūbō w. Dative, 368.3

nūllus decl., 113

use, 314.a

cf. nēmō

num, force of, 332.b

in indirect questions, 332.b, Note

Number, 35

nouns, defective in, 99100101103.f-g

variable in, 107

peculiar uses, 101, Note 1317.d, Note 2

number in verbs, 154.e

agreement in, 280

w. appositives, 282.a

w. adjectives., 286 and b

w. verbs., 316317.d

Numeral adverbs, 138

Numerals, 132 - 139

cardinals and ordinals, 132133

distributives, 136

adverbs, 138

others, 139

Position of numeral adjectives, 598.b

numquis, 149.b310.a

nunc compared w. iam, 322.b

nunc . . . nunc, 323.f

nurus, gender, 90

-nus, adjective ending, 250



O for u after u or v, 6.a-b

in 2nd decl., 46, Note 1

o- (ā-) primary suffix, 234.I.1

in Nominative, 61.1

gender, 86

in feminine Ablative of Greek adjectives, 111.b, Note

-ō, -ōnis noun ending, 236.c255

ō sī w. subjunctive of wish, 442.a and Note 1

o-stems 2nd decl., 45

in adjectives, 111 - 113

verbs from o-stems, 259.2

ob use, 220.a221.15

in compounds, 267.a

in compounds w. verbs, w. Dative, 370

to express cause, 404.b

w. gerund, 506 and Note 1

obeō constr., 370.b

Obeying verbs of, 367

w. Accusative, 367.a

Object cases, 274.a

Object clauses infinitive, 452

subjunctive, 561 - 568

Object defined, 274

becomes subjunctive of passive, 275387.b

Accusative of direct w. Dative of indirect object, 362

secondary object, 394

object of anticipation, 576

Objective case expressed in Latin by Genitive, Dative, Accusative, or Ablative, 274.a

Objective compounds, 265.3

Objective Genitive, meī etc., 143.c

defined, 348, Note

w. nouns, 348

w. adjectives, 349

Obligation unfulfilled, hortatory subjunctive, 439.b

Oblique cases, 35.g

origin of names of, 338

oblīvīscor w. Accusative or Genitive, 350.a-b

obvius (obviam) derivation, 216 and Note

obviam as apparent adjective, 321.d

w. Dative, 370.c

Occasion expressed by participle, 496

ōcior comparative, 130

octōdecim, 133, Note 2

ōdī conjugation, 205

w. meaning of present, 476

-oe for in Nominative plural, 2nd decl., 52.d

offendō constr., 370.b

-ôius names in, 49.f

Old forms of pronouns: mīs, tīs, 143.a, Note

mēd, tēd143.a, Note

ollus (ille), 146, Note 4

-olus diminutive ending, 243

Omission, of possessive, 302.c

of antecedent, 307.c

omnēs, nōs omnēsspan (instead of omnēs nostrum), 346.e

ŏn-, stem ending, 83.c

-ŏn, Greek ending 2nd decl., 52

ōn- stem ending, 61.1234.II.13

-ōn, Genitive plural 2nd decl., 52.c

-ōn, Nominative ending, 83.c-d

ont-, Nominative -ōn, 83.d

Open syllables, 7, Note 2

operā w. Genitive, 405.b

operam dō w. Dative of gerund etc., 505

w. subjunctive, 563

Operations of nature, 208.a

opīniōne w. comparative, 406.a

opīnor position of, 599.c

oportet, 208.c

w. Accusative, 388.c

in apodosis, 517.c

Imperfect refers to Present, Pluperfect to past, 522.a, Note 1

w. subjunctive or infinitive, 565 and Note 3

oportuit w. Present infinitive, 486.a

w. Perfect infinitive, 486.b

oppidum, ad, 428.b

oppūgnō w. Accusative, 370.b

ops defective, 103.f.1

Optative derivation, and comparison w. subjunctive, 436

Optative forms in the verb, 168.e, Note 2169.d

Optative subjunctive (wish), 441

w. utinam etc., 442

velim, etc. w. subjunctive, equivalent to, 442.b

optimātēs, 71.5101.3

opus, indeclinable, 103.a

opus and ūsus, w. Ablative, 411

as predicate Nominative, 411.b

w. participle, 497.a

w. supine in , 510

or-, stem ending 3rd decl., 63, Exception 2

-or, noun ending, 238.a

-or or -ōs Nominative ending, 62, Note 2

gender, 85

Ōrātiō oblīqua see Indirect Discourse

Order of words, 595 - 601

Ordinal Numbers, 132 - 135

decl., 134.e

use of et with, 135.a-b

ōrō constr., 563

Orpheus decl., 52.e

os-, stem of comparatives, 120.b

-os for -us in Nominative singular, 2nd decl., 46, Note 1

as Greek ending, 52

as Genitive ending in Greek nouns, 3rd decl., 81.1

os, ossis, stem, 79

-ōs, Nominative ending, 62, Note 2

gender, 85

ōs, ōris decl., 103.g.2

-ōsus, -lēns, -lentus adjective endings, 245

ovat (defective), 206.f

ovis decl., 76.b.1



parasitic after m (sūmpsī), 15.11

pactō as Ablative of manner, 412.b

paene in apodosis, 517.b, Note 2

paenitet, 208.b

constr., 354.b-c

palam as apparent adjective, 321.d

w. Ablative, 432.c

Palatals, 4

palūster decl., 115.a

Panthūs Vocative of, 52.b

pār decl., 119, 121.a.3

w. Genitive, 385.c

w. Dative of gerund etc., 505, footnote 4

Parallel verb forms, 189

Parataxis, 268

parātus w. infinitive, 460.b

Pardoning verbs of, w. Dative, 367

Parisyllabic nouns of 3rd decl., 65.a

pariter use, 384, Note 2

parte Locative use, without preposition, 429.1

partem adverbial use, 397.a

particeps decl., 121.a.4; 121.b

PARTICIPLES, defined, 20.b, Note 1

comparison of, 124.a

number of, 155.a

how used, 158

PARTICIPLES, Syntax, 488 - 500

agreement, 286 and Note

clause equivalent to participle, 308.c

participles in -ns, used as adjectives, w. Genitive, 349.b

participles in Ablative Absolute, 419

meaning and form, 488

tenses, 489 - 493

Present in special use, 490

Present passive participle, how supplied, 492

Perfect active, how supplied, 493

participles of deponent verbs, 190.a-b491493

adjective use, 494

as nouns, 494.a

predicate use, 495 - 496

w. opus, 497.a

Perfect w. habeō, 497.b

Present w. faciō, 497.c

Future participle, 498

w. past tenses of esse, 498.b

poetic and late use, 499

gerundive, use as participle or adjective, 500

participle as protasis, 521.a

Particles defined, 23

forms and classification, 213

note on formation, 215 - 216

interrogative, 217.d

negative, 217.e325

in compounds, 267

Syntax, 321 - 336

use of interrogative particles, 332. a-c

conditional particles, 512.a and Note525

particles of comparison, 524

Particular conditions defined, 513

partior conjugated 190

Partitive apposition, 282.a

Partitive Genitive, 346

nostrum etc., 143.b

neuter adjectives with, 346.3 and Note 1

Partitive numerals, 139.c

Parts of Speech, 20

partus decl., 92.c

parum comparative 218.a

meaning, 291.c, Note 2

parvī Genitive of value, 417

parvus, compar.ative 129

Passive voice, 154.a

origin, 163, footnote 2208.d, Note

signification, 156

reflexive meaning, 156.a

deponents, 156.b

completed tenses, how formed, 179.g

passive used impersonally, 203.a208.d372 (cf. 566582.a)

pater familiās decl., 43.b

patiēns comparative, 124.a

patior constr., 563.c

Patrials in -ās decl., 71.5121.a.4

Patronymics (-ades, -īdes, -eus, etc.), 244

pauper decl., 121.a.4

pāx decl., 103.g.2

pecū gender, 91

decl., 105.f

pecūniae Genitive, w. verbs of accusing, 352.a and Note

pedester decl., 115.a

pelagus (plural pelagē), gender of, 48.a

pelvis decl., 76.b.1

Penalty Genitive of, 352 and Note

Ablative of, 353.2

Penātēs decl., 71.5 (cf. 101.3)

penes following noun, 435

Penult defined, 12

penus gender, 90, Exceptions

decl., 105.c

per preposition, 220.a

use, 221.16

w. Accusative of agent, 405.b

Adverbial prefix, w. adjectives, 267.d.1 (cf. 291.c, Note 1)

w. verbs, 267.d, Note

Perceiving verbs. of, constr., 459

perendiē (Locative), 98.b215.5

Perfect participle two uses, 158.c.1-2

of deponents, 190.b

used as noun, retains adverb, 321.b

Dative of agent w., 375

Ablative w. opus and ūsus, 411.a497.a

PERFECT TENSE distinguished from imperfect, 161, 471

Perfect definite and Perfect historical, 161, 473

personal endings, 163.a, 169.a

origin of i and s in, 163, footnote 3

stem, how formed, 177, 179

Perfect subjunctive, suffixes of, 169.d

of 1st conjugation, 179.a.2

contracted Perfect, 181.a-b

Perfect subjunctive in -sim, 183.3

irregular forms of 1st conjugation, 209.a

of 2nd conjugation, 210.c

various, of 3rd conjugation,  211

of 4th conjugation, 212

PERFECT TENSE, Syntax. Perfect Indicative, use, 473

in general conditions, 473.a518.b

gnomic Perfect, 475

in Future conditions, 516.e

Perfect Subjunctive, hortatory, 439 and Note 1

optative, 441.a

potential, 446

in prohibitions, 450.(3)

in Future conditions, 516.c

Perfect Infinitive, in exclamations, 462 and Note 2

w. dēbeō etc., 486.b

w. nōlō or volō in prohibition, 486.c

passive w. volō etc., 486.d

instead of the Present infinitive, 486.e

w. verbs of feeling etc., 486.f

in indirect discourse, 584.a and Note

Sequence of Tenses, Perfect indicative, 485.a

Perfect subjunctive, 485.b-c, 585.a

Periclēs decl., 82

Period, 600 - 601

Periphrastic conjugations, 158.b, Note158.d, Note

paradigms, 195 - 196

periphrastic forms in conjugation, 193

use in contrary to fact apodosis, 517.d

in indirect questions, 575.a

Permission verbs of, constr., 563.c

permūtō w. Ablative, 417.b

pernox decl., 122.c

perpes decl., 121.a.3

Person, 154.d

agreement, 280

of verbs, 316 and a

w. different persons, 317.a

order of the three persons, 317.a

Personal construction of passive w. infinitive, 582

Personal endings, 163 and footnote 1

Personal pronouns, 142 - 143294295

reduplicated forms, 143.e

Syntax, 295

omitted, 295.a318.a

Genitive plural, 295.b

3rd person, 295.c

position of personal and demonstrative, 599.f

persuādeō constr., 563

Persuading, verbs of w. Dative, 367

pertaesum est, 354.b

pēs compounds of, decl., 121.b.1

Pet names gender, 30.a, Note 2

petō w. ab, 396.a

w. subjunctive, 563

ph only in Greek words, 4.1, footnote 2

sound of, 8

Phonetic variations, 14 - 19

phonetic decay, 14 - 19

vowels, 1517

consonants, 15.4-17

Phrase defined, 277

Phrases neuter, 33

phrases and clauses grown into adverbs, 216

adverbial phrases, 277

phrases limited by Genitive, 343.c

phrase or clause in Ablative Absolute, 419.b

Physical qualities Ablative, 415.a

piger decl., 112.a

piget constr., 354.b

Pity, verbs of constr., 354.a

pius compararative, 128, Note131.a

pix decl., 103.g.2

Place, adverbs of, 217.a

relations of, require preposition, 381.a426

place of birth, Ablative, 403.a, Note 2

place where, 426.3427.3

place to or from which, 426.1-2

preposition, when omitted, 426, footnote 1427.1-2.a429.a

Locative case, 427.3.a428.k

Placing, verbs of constr., 430

Plants, gender of names of, 32 and b

decl. of plant names in -us, 105.a

plaudō w. Dative, 368.3

Plautus, absque mē etc., 517.f

use of quom w. indicative, 546, Note 4549, Note 3

Pleasing, verbs of constr., 367

plēbēs decl., 98.d

Plenty, verbs of, constr., 356409.a

plēnus constr., 409, Note

-plex,numeral adjectives in, 139

pluit (impersonal), 208.a

used personally, 208.a, Note

Pluperfect Indicative suffixes of, 169.b

use of, 477

epistolary, 479

Pluperfect indicative in conditions contrary to fact, 517.b

in general conditions, 518.b

Pluperfect subjunctive, suffixes of, 169.e

hortatory, 439.b

optative, 441

potential, 446

in conditions, 517 (sequence, 485.g)

Plural wanting in 5th decl., 98.a

used in sense different from singular, 100.a-c107

plural alone used, 101, Note 1

plural Accusative used as adverbs, 215.3

neuter plural of adjectives, 289.b

Plūrālia tantum, 101

plūris Genitive of value, 417 and c

plus decl., 120 and c

comparative, 129

without quam, 407.c

poēma decl., 60.a

poenitet see paenitet

pondō defect., 103.b.5

pōnō w. Ablative, 430

por- prefix, 267.b

porticus gender, 90, Exceptions

portus decl., 92.c

Position expressed by ab and ex, 429.b

Position in Prosody, 11.b603.f

does not affect final vowel, 603.f, Note 1 

posse as Future infinitive, 584.b

Possession how expressed, 302.a

Dative of, 373

compared w. Genitive, 373, Note

Possessive compounds, 265.a

Possessive genitive, 343 and 343.a-c

Dative of reference used instead, 377

Possessive pronouns, 145

agreement, 302

instead of Genitive, 302.a

special meanings, 302.b

omission, 302.c

used substantively, 302.d

w. Genitive in apposition, 302.e

used for Genitive, 343.a

for objective Genitive, 348.a

Possibility verbs of in apodosis, 517.c

possum in apodosis, 517.c

post adverbial use of, 433.1

with quam, 434

post, verb compounds w. with Dative, 370

postera defective, 111.b

comparative, 130.b

posterī, 130.b

posterior, 130.b

Postpositive conjunctions, 324.j

postquam (posteāquam) in temporal clauses, 543

postrēmō in enumerations, 322.d, Note

postrīdiē w. Genitive, 359.b

w. Accusative, 432.a

w. quam, 434

postulō ab, 396.a

postulō ut, 563

Potential mood how expressed in Latin, 157.b

Potential subjunctive, 445 - 447

potior (adjective) comparative, 130

potior (verb) w. Genitive, 357.a410.a

w. Ablative, 410

w. Accusative, 410, Note 1

gerundive, 503, Note 2

potis, pote, 122.b

potius comparative, 218.a

potuī w. Present infinitive, 486.a

Practice, verbs of, 263.b

prae, 220.b

use, 221.17

in compounds, 291.c, Note 1

in compounds, w. Dative, 370

in comparative, w. quam, 434

quantity of, in compouds, 603.b, Exception 

praecēdō constr., 370

praeceps decl., 119121.a.3

praecipiō constr., 563

Praenōmen, 108

abbreviations, 108.c

praepes decl., 121.b.1

praestōlor constr., 367.b

praesum w. Dative of gerund etc., 505

praeter use, 220.a221.18

praeterit w. Accusative, 388.c

precī defective, 103.f.2

precor constr., 563

Predicate defined, 270

modified, 276

predicate noun or adjective, 272283

case, 284

predicate noun referring to two or more singular nouns, 284.a

adjective, 285.2286.a

agreement in, 287.1-3

in relative clause, 306

predicate adjective in neuter plural, 287.4.a

predicate adjective in relative clause, 307.f

predicate Genitive, 343.b-c

predicate Accusative, 392 - 393

adjective as predicate Accusative, 393, Note

predicate Accusative becomes predicate Nominative in the passive, 393.a

predicate use of participles, 496

Predicate noun or adjective after infinitve, 452, Note 2455.a and Note458581, Note 3

Prepositions, assimilation of, 16

defined, 20.f

derivation of, 219

list of prepositions. w. Accusative, 220.a

w. Ablative, 220.b

w. either, 220.c

idiomatic uses, 221

compounds w. verbs and adjectives, 267.a, c

noun w. preposition, instead of Objective Genitive, 348.c

in compounds w. verbs, w. Dative, 370381

Accusative in compounds, 395

w. Ablative of separation, 401

prepopsition omitted in relations of place, 427.1-2429 and a

use of, 220221429.b430432 - 435

prepositions following the noun, 435

usual position of, 599.d (See 338)

Present participle decl., 119

use, 158.a

Present stem how formed, 168174

from root, 176

Present subjunctive in -im, 183.2

Present tense w. iam diū etc., 466

conative, 467

for future, 468

historical, 469

annalistic, 469.a

w. dum, 556

in quotations, 465.a

sequence, 483485.e, i

Present infinitive w. potuī etc., 486.a

participle, 489 - 490492494496

Present infinitive in indirect discourse referring to past time, 584.a and Note

Preteritive verbs, 205, Note 2476

Preventing, verbs of, constr., 364, Note 2

Price Ablative or Genitive, 416

prīdiē, form, 98.b

w. Genitive, 359.b

w. Accusative, 432.a

w. quam, 434

Primary suffixes defined, 233

Primary tenses, 482.1483

prīmipīlāris decl., 76.a.2

Primitive verbs, 256

prīmō, prīmum meanings, 322.d and Note

prīmōris defective, 122.c

prīmus form, 130, footnote 2

prīnceps decl., 121.a.4

Principal parts of verb, 172 - 173

prior comparative, 130.a

prius w. quam, 434

priusquam in temporal clause, 550 - 551

in indirect discourse, 585.b, Note

Privation expressed by Ablative, 400

prō, 220.b

use, 221.19

in compounds, w. Dative, 370

to express for, 379, Note

probō w. Dative, 368375.b, Note

procērus decl., 111.a, Note

procul w. Ablative, 432.c

prohibeō constr. of, 364, Note 2

Prohibitions, 450

in indirect discourse, 588, Note 2

Promising etc. verbs of, 580.c

Pronominal roots, 228, 232

as primary suffixes, 232

PRONOUNS defined, 20.c

decl. of, 140 - 151

personal, 142 - 143

reflexive, 144

Genitive, how used, 143.c302.a

demonstrative, 146

relative, 147

interrogative and indefinite, 148 - 151

pronoun contained in verb ending, 163, footnote 1271.a

PRONOUNS, Syntax, 294 - 315

personal, 295

demonstrative, 296 - 298

īdem, 298.a-b

ipse, 298.c-f

reflexive, 299

possessive, 302

relative, 303 - 308

indefinite, 309 - 314

pronouns. w. partitive Genitive, 346.a.1

relative in protasis, 519

position of pronouns, 598.e, l

Pronunciation, Roman method, 8

English method, 8, Note

prōnūntiō constr., 563

prope comparative, 130

use, 220.a

in apodosis,  517.b, Note 2

prope est ut, 568

Proper names, 108

plural, 99.1101.1

Proper nouns, 20.a

properus decl., 111.a, Note

propinquus w. Genitive, 385.c

propior (propius) comparative, 130.a

constr., 432.a and Note

Proportional numerals, 139.a

Propriety, verbs of in apodosis, 517.c522.a

proprius w. Genitive, 385.c

propter use, 220.a221.20

position, 435

denoting motive, 404.b


rules and definitions, 603 - 606

prosper (-us) decl., 111.a

prōspiciō w. Dative or Accusative, 367.c

Protasis (see Conditional Sentences), 512 ff.

loose use of tenses in English, 514.c, Note

relative in protasis, 519

temporal particles in, 542

antequam, priusquam, in, 551.c, Note 2

protasis in indirect discourse, 589.1

Protecting, verbs of constr., 364, Note 2

prōvideō w. Dative or Accusative, 367.c

Proviso, subjunctive used in, 528.a-b

introduced by modo etc., 528

hortatory subjunctive expressing, 528.a

subjunctive w. ut (or ), 528.b

characteristic clause expressing, 535.d

proximē constr., 432.a

proximus constr., 432.a

-pse, -pte (enclitic), 143.d, Note145.a146, Notes 7-8

pūbēs decl., 105.e121.d

pudet, 208.b

constr., 354.b-c, and Note

puer decl., 47 (cf. 50.a)

pulcher decl., 112.a

Punishment Ablative of, 353.1

puppis decl., 75.b76.b.1

Purpose Dative of, 382

infinitive of, 460

expressed by gerundive after certain verbs, 500.4

by gerund or gerundive as predicate Genitive, 504.a, Note 1

ways of expressing, 533

clauses of, 279.d

defined and classified, 529 ff.

use of quō in, 531.a

main clause omitted, 532

nēdum, 532.a, Notes 1-2

substantive clauses of, used after certain verbs, 563

of wishing, 563.b

of permitting, 563.c

of determining, 563.d

of caution etc., 563.e

of fearing, 564

Purpose or end Dative of, 382

puter decl., 115.a



quā . . . quā, 323.f

quadrupēs decl., 121.b.1

quae res (or id quod), 307.d

quaerō constr. (ex or ), 396.a

w. subjunctive, 563

quaesō conjugation, 206.e

quālis, 151.i

Qualities (abstract), gender, 32

Qualities of an object compared, 292

Quality adjectives of, 251

Genitive of, 345415.a

to denote indefinite value, 417 and a

Ablative of, 415 (cf. 345, Note)

quam, derivation of, 215.2

with superlative, 291.c

w. comparative and positive or w. two positives, 292.a, Note

correlative w. tam, 323.g

w. comparative, 407.a, e

after alius, 407.a

w. comparative of adverbs, 434

w. ante, post, 434

w. subjunctive after comparative, 535.c

followed by result clause, 571.a

in indirect questions, 575.d

in indirect discourse, 581, Note 2583.c

quam diū, 555, Note 2

quam ob causam, 398

quam quī, quam ut w. subjunctive, 535.c

quam sī, 524

quamquam, use, 527.d

introducing a proposition = span class="gloss" style="font-style: italic;">and yet, 527.d, Note

w. subjunctive, 527.e

quamvīs, use, 527.a

subjunctive or indicative w., 440, Note527.a, e

quandō (interrogative), derivation and meaning, 215.6; 539

causal (since), 540.a and Note

indefinite, 540.a and Note

temporal, 542

quantī Genitive of price, 417

Quantity Genitive of adjectives of, denoting price, 417

Quantity in Prosody marks of, 10.e

nature of, 602

general rules of, 9 - 11; 603

final syllables, 604

Perfect and Perfect participles, 605

derivatives, 606 

quantō w. tantō, 414.a

quantum (with mīrum) in indirect questions, 575.d

quantus, 151.i

quasi with primary tenses, 524, Note 2

quassō (intensive), 263.2

-que (enclitic), added to indefinites, 151.g

as conjuction, use, 323.c.3324.a

quantity, 604.a.1

queō (defective), 206.d

quēs old Nominative plural, 150.c

Questions, direct, in indicative, 157.a330 - 335

indirect, 330.2331, Note

double questions, 334

question and answer, 336

result clause in exclamatory questions, 462.a

mood in indirect question, 574

in indirect discourse, 586

in informal indirect discourse, 592.1

quī (adverbial), 150.b

quī (relative), decl., 147; (interrog. and indef.), 148 and b

in compounds, 151

quī = ut is w. subjunctive, 531.2, Note;  537.2

quī causal and concessive, 535.e

quia derivation etc., 539

use, 540, Note 1

causal, 540, Note 1

w. verbs of feeling, 572.b

in intermediate clauses, 592.3

quīcum, 150.b

quīcumque decl., 151.a

quid in exclamations, 397.d, Note 1

quīdam decl., 151.c

meaning of, 310

w. ex, 346.c

quidem, use, 322.e

w. is or īdem, 298.a

position of, 599.b

quīlibet decl., 151.c

use, 312

quīn w. indicative equivalent to command, 449.b

in result clause (= quī nōn), 558 - 559

w. verbs of hindering, 558

nōn dubitō quīn, 558.a

quīnquātrūs gender, 90

plural only, 101.2

quippe w. relative clause, 535.e, Note 1

w. cum, 549, Note 1

Quirītēs, 101.3

quis decl., 148 - 149

distinguished from quī in use, 149.b and Note

compounds of (aliquis etc.), 151.d-f310 and b

quis w. , num, , 310.a

indefinite use of, 310

quis est quī, 535.a

quīs Dative or Ablative plural, 150.c

quisnam, 148.e

quispiam, 151.d

use of, 310 and b

quisquam decl., 151.d

use, 311 - 312

quisque form and decl., 151.g

use in general assertions, 313

in dependent clause, 313.a

w. superlative, 313.b

w. plural verb, 317.e

quisquis decl., 151.b

quīvīs decl., 151.c

use, 312

quo- stems in, 46, Note 2

quō approaching Ablative of cause, 414.a, Note

quō in final clauses (= ut eō) w. subjunctive, 531.a

nōn quō, 540, Note 3

quō . . . eō, 414.a

to denote degree of difference, 414.a

quoad (intention etc.), 553

(fact), 554

(as long as), 555

quod for id quod, 307.d, Note

quod (conj.), 540, Note 1

mood with, 540

in indirect discourse, 540.b

substantive clause with, 572

as Accusative of specification, 572.a

w. verbs of feeling, 572.b

quod in intermediate clauses, 592.3 and Note

quod sciam (proviso), 535.d

quod sī use, 324.d397.a

quom (see cum), 6.b539, Note

quōminus (= ut eō minus), w. verbs of hindering, 558.b

quoniam, origin, 539

meaning and use, 540.1, Note 1 and a

quoque use, 322.a

position, 599.b

quot,indeclinable, 122.b

correlative, 152

Quotation, forms of w. apud and in, 428.d, Note 2

direct and indirect, 578

quotus quisque, 313.b, Note 2

quu- (cu-), 6.b

quum (conjunction), 6.b (see cum)



R substituted for s between two vowels, 15.4 and Note

r- in adjective stems, 117.a

rr- in noun stems, 62, Note 1

rādīx decl., 57

rāstrum plural in -a and , 106.b

ratiōne as Ablative of manner, 412.b

ratus as Present participle, 491

rāvis decl., 75.a.2

re- or red- (prefix), 267.b

reāpse, 146, Note 7

Receiving, verbs of w. gerundive, 500.4

Reciprocal (each other), how expressed, 145.c301.f

recordor w. Accusative, 350.d

w. Genitive, 350.d, Note

w. , 350.d, Note

rēctum est ut, 568

red- see re-

Reduplication, 177.c231.c

list of verbs, 211.b

lost in fidī etc., 211.f, footnote 3

rule for quantity, 605.a

Reference, object of, 349

Reference, pronouns of, 297.f

commonly omitted, 297.f, Note

Dative of, 376

Genitive of specification, 349.d

rēfert w. Genitive or possessive adjective, 355 and a

other construction, 355.b

Reflexive pronouns, 144

Syntax of, 298.a, Note 2299 - 301

of 1st and 2nd persons, 298.a

Reflexive verbs (deponent or passive), 190.e208.d, Note

use of passive, 156.a

w. object Accusative, 397.c

Refusing verbs. of, w. quōminus, 558.b

Regular verbs, 171 - 189

Relationship, nouns of, 244

Relative adverbs used correlatively, 152

demonstrative for relative, 308.b

used to connect independent sentences, 308.f

referring to Locative, 308.g

= pronoun w. preposition, 321.a

used in relative clauses of purpose, 531.2

result, 537.2

Relative clauses defined, 279.a

w. relative adverbs, 308.i

conditional, 519

final, 531 - 533

characteristic, 535

consecutive, 537

causal, 540.c

temporal, 541 - 542

relative clauses in indirect discourse 591

position of relative clause, 599.e

Relative pronouns decl., 147

forms, how distinguished from interrogative and indefinite, 148. b and Note

compounds of, 151310 and a-b

syntax, 303 - 308

rules of agreement, 305 - 306

w. two antecedents, 305.a

relative in agreement w. apposition etc., 306

use of the antecedent, 307

special uses of relative, 308

never omitted in Latin, 308.a

relatives as connectives, 308.f

person of verb agreeing w., 316.a

Ablative of relative after comparative, 407.a, Note 3

position, 599.e

relinquitur ut, 568

reliquum est ut, 568

reliquus, use, 293

reliquī, use, 315

-rem verb ending, 168.f

Remembering, verbs of w. Accusative or Genitive, 350

w. infinitive, 456

Reminding, verbs of constr., 351

reminīscor w. Accusative or Genitive, 350.c

Removing, verbs of w. Ablative, 401

Repeated action as general condition, 518.c

repetundārum, 352.a

Repraesentātiō, 469, Note

in indirect discourse, 585.b and Note

requiēs decl., 98.d105.e

rēs decl., 96

Resisting, verbs of, constr., 367558

Resolving, verbs of constr. (subjunctive or infinitive), 563.d

restat w. ut, 569.2

restis decl., 75.b

Restriction in subjunctive clause, 535.d

Result, clauses of, 279.e534

sequence of tenses in, 279.e

infinitive of, 461.a

subjunctive w. relatives or ut, 537

negative result w. ut nōn etc., 537.a538

result clause equivalent to proviso, 537.b

w. quīn, 558

w. quōminus, 558.b

substantive clauses of result after faciō etc., 568

as subject, 569

in apposition w. noun, 570

as predicate Nominative, 571

after quam, 571.a

tantum abest ut, 571.b

thought as result, 571.c

Result, nouns denoting, 239

rēte decl., 76.a.3

rex decl., 57

Rhetorical questions in indirect discourse, 586

Rhotacism, 15.4

ri- adjective stems in, 115.a

rītū Ablative of manner, 412.b

rīvālis decl., 76.b.2

Rivers gender of names of, 31.1 and a

ro- (rā-) primary suffix, 234.II.9

rostems 2nd decl., 45.b

adjective stems, 111 - 112

rogō constr. of, 396 and b, Note and 396.c, Note 2

w. subjunctive, 563

Roman method of pronunciation, 8

Root defined, 25228

consciousness of roots lost in Latin, 25, Note

of verbs, 117.1

noun stem treated as root, 176.d

roots ending in vowel, 176.e

root used as stem, 176.d, Note 1 and e231

rōs decl., 103.g.2

rr- as stem ending, 62, Note 1

rt- stems in, decl., 121.a.4

ruber decl., 112.a

rūrī locative, 80427.a

rūs decl., 103.g.1

constr., 427.1-2.a



S changed to r, 15.4 and Note62, Note 2

substituted for d or t15.5

s as stem ending, 79.e

of adjectives, 119, Note

of comparatives, 120.b

of Perfect stem, 177.b

list of verbs of 3rd conjugation, w. Perfect in s, 211.a

s suppressed in verb forms, 181.b, Note 2

-s as sign of Nominative, 45 - 465695117.a, 338

-s omitted in inscriptions, 46, Note 1

-s, noun ending, 3rd decl., gender, 86

sacer decl., 112.a

compounds, 131.a

saepe comparative, 218.a

sāl decl., 103.g.2

Salamis decl., 83.a

salūber decl., 115.a

salūtem, 397.d, Note 2

salvē defect., 206.g

sānē quam, 575.d

Sanskrit forms see 25, footnote 2170.b, Note

sapiēns decl., 76.b.2

satiās decl., 98.d

satis comparative, 218.a

compounds of, w. Dative, 368.2

nōn satis, 291.c, Note 2

satis est (strong>satis habeō), w. Perfect infinitive, 486.f

satur Genitive of, 50.b

decl., 111.a

comparative, 131.b

Saying, verbs of, constr., 459

in passive, 582

sc preceding stem vowel of verb, 176.b.1

scaber decl., 112.a

scīlicet derivation, 216, Note

scīn contracted form for strong>scīsne, 13, Note

sciō imperative of, 449.a

Scīpiadēs, 44.b, Note

scīscō constr., 563

scitō, scītïte imperative forms, 182.a449.a

-scō (inceptive), verbs ending in, 263.1

sē- or sēd- inseparable prefix, 267.b

 reflexive, decl., 144.b

use, 299 - 301

inter sē, 145.c

Second Conjugation principal parts, 173

Present stem, how formed, 176.a

formation of, 179.b

paradigm, 185

verbs of, 210

from noun stems, 260

Second Declension nouns, 45 - 47

accent of Genitive and Vocative of nouns in -ius, 12, Exception 2

Secondary object, 394

Secondary suffixes defined, 232

Secondary tenses, 482.2

rule for use of, 483

Perfect definite more commonly secondary, 485.a

Perfect subjunctive in clauses of result used after, 485.c

historical Present, 485.e

Imperfect and Pluperfect subjunctive, 485.g-h

Present used as if secondary, by synesis, 485.i

secundum preposition, 220.a

use, 221.21

secundus derivation, 132, footnote

secūris decl., 75.b76.a.1

secus (adverb) comparative, 218.a

secus, indeclinable noun, 103.a

use, 397.a

secūtus (as Present participle), 491

sed- see sē-

sed compared with vērum etc., 324.d

sēdēs decl., 78.1

sedīle decl., 69

Selling, verbs of, 417.c

sēmentis decl., 75.b76.b.1

Semi-deponents, 192

sēminecī defective, 122.c

Semi-vowels i and v (u), 5

senātī, senātuos forms of Genituve in 4th decl.,  92.a, e

senex decl., 79 and c

adjective masculine, 122.d

comparison, 131.c

Sentence development, 268

defined, 269

simple or compound, 278

incomplete, 318 - 319

Separation, Dative of, after compounds of ab, , ex, and a few of ad, 381

Ablative of, 400

Genitive for Ablative, 356, Note357.b.3

Sequence of tenses, 482 - 485

in indirect discourse, 585

in conditional sentences in indirect discourse, 589.b

sequester decl., 105.b

sequitur w. ut, 569.2

sequor conjugation, 190

sērā nocte, 293, Note

seriēs decl., 98.a

Service, adjectives of w. Dative, 384

Service, Dative of, 382, Note 1

Serving, verbs of w. Dative, 367

servus (servos) decl., 46

sēstertium, sēstertius, 632 - 634

how written in cipher, 635

seu (sīve), 324.f525.c

Sharing, adjectives of w. Genitive, 349.a

Should (auxiliary) how expressed in Latin, 157.b, footnote 6

Showing, verbs of w. two Accusatives, 393

, 511

w. subjunctive of wish, 442.a and Note 1

and its compounds, use, 512.a, Note525

sī nōn distinguished from nisi, 525.a.1

mīror sī, 572.b, Note

= whether, 576.a

Sibilants, 4

sīc, correlative, w. strong>ut, 323.g537.2, Note 2

w. , 512.b

siem (sim), 170.b, Note

Significant endings, 235 - 253

Signs of mood and tense, 169, footnote

silentiō without preposition, 412.b

-silis, adjective ending, 252

silvester decl., 115.a

-sim old form of Perfect subjunctive, 183.3

similis comparison, 126

w. Genitive and Dative, 385.c.2

similiter use, 384, Note 2

Simple sentences, 278.1

simul, simul atque (>ac), 543

simul . . . simul, 323.f

simul w. Ablative, 432.c

sīn, 512.a, Note

Singular, nouns defective in, 103.f

Singulāria tantum, 99

sinister decl., 112.a

sinō constr., 563.c

-siō noun ending, 238.b

-sis- dropped in Perfect, 181.b, Note 2

sitis decl., 67 (cf. 75.a.2)

sīve (seu) . . . sīve use, 324.f525.c

Smell, verbs of w. Accusative, 390.a

-sō old form of Future Perfect, 183.3

-sō, verbs in, 263.2

socrus gender, 90, Exceptions

sōdēs (sī audēs), 13, Note192.a

sōl decl., 103.g.2

soleō semi-deponent, 192

solitō w. comparatives, 406.a

solitus as Present participle, 491

sōlus decl., 113

w. relative clause of characteristic, 535.b

Sonants, 3

sōns as participle of esse, 170.b

-sor see -tor

Sōracte decl., 76.b, Note 2

sordem defective, 103.f.3

-sōria noun ending, 254.4

-sōrium, noun ending, 254.5

-sōrius, adjective ending, 250.a

Sōspita feminine adjective form, 121.e

Sounds see Pronunciation

Source expressed by Ablative, 403

Space extent of, expressed by Accusative, 425

Sparing, verbs of, with Dative, 367

spē w. comparatives, 406.a

Special verb forms, 181 - 182

speciēs decl., 98.a

Specification Genitive of, w. adjectives, 349.d

Accusative of, 397.b and Note

Ablative of, 418

specus gender, 90, Exceptions

Spelling variations of, 6

spēs, 98.a and footnote

Spirants, 4

spontis, -e, defective, 103.c.2

statuō w. verbs of placing, 430

w. infinitive or subjunctive, 563.d

Statutes Future imperative in, 449.2

ste for iste etc., 146, Note 5

stella decl., 41

Stem building, 25, Note

Stems, defined, 24

classified, 229

how formed from root, 26230 - 232

how found in nouns, 37.a

ā-stems, 1st decl., 40; adjectives, 110

o-stems, 2nd decl., 45; adjectives, 110

in 3rd decl., mute stems, 56 - 60

liquid and nasal stems, 61 - 64

i-stems, 65 - 69

mixed i-stems, 70 - 72

u-stems, 4th decl., 88 - 89

in tu-, 94

of verb, 165.1

Present, Perfect, and supine, 164

Present stem, how formed, 175 - 176

Perfect stem, 177

supine stem, 178

Tenses arranged by stems, synopsis, 180

stō w. Ablative, 431

strigilis decl., 76.b.1

strix decl., 71.6

Structure of Latin sentences, 600 - 601

struēs decl., 78.2

studeō w. Dative, 368.3

suādeō w. Dative, 367

sub- in compounds, w. adjectives, 267.d.1291.c, Note 2

w. verbs, 267.a and 267.d, Note

sub use, 220.c221.22

in compounds., w. Dative, 370

of time, 424.e

subeō w. Accusative, 370.b

Subject, 268

defined, 270

how expressed, 271 and a

modified, 276

verb agrees w., 316

two or more subjects, 317

subject omitted, 318

Accusative, 459

in indirect discourse, 580

position of subject, 596

Subject clauses (infinitive), 452.1

(subjunctive), 566567569571.b

Subjective Genitive, defined, 343, Note 1

use, 343

Subjunctive mood, 154.b

how used and translated, 157.b, footnote 6

tenses how used, 162

vowel of Present subjunctive, 179.a.1, 179.b.1, 179.c.1, 179.d

Classification of uses, 438

hortatory subjunctive, 439 - 440

optative subjunctive, 441 - 442

deliberative, 443 - 444

potential subjunctive, 445 - 446

subjunctive of modesty, 447

tenses of subjunctive, 480 - 485

dependent clauses, 481

subjunctive in indirect discourse, 580

in informal indirect discourse, 592

of integral part, 593

subolēs decl., 78.2

Subordinate clauses defined, 278.b

use, 519 - 593

in indirect discourse, 579 - 593

Subordinate conjunctions, 223.b; 224.II.a-f

Substance Genitive of, 344

Ablative of, 403

Substantive clauses, 560 - 572

nature and classes of, 560 (cf. 561 - 562)

clauses of purpose, 563 - 566

of result, 567 - 571

indicative w. quod, 572

indirect questions, 573 - 576

adjective w. substantive clauses, 289.d

infinitive clauses, 452

Substantive use of adjectives, 288

of possessive pronouns, 302.d

Substantive verb (esse), 272284.b

subter use, 220.c, 221.23

suētus w. infinitive, 460.b

Suffixes, 232

primary, list of, 233 - 234

significant, 235 - 255

suī decl., 144.b

use, 299 - 300

w. Genitive of gerund, 504.c

sum conjunction, 170

as copula, 284

as substantive verb, 284.b

omitted, 319.b

w. Dative of possession, 373

position, 598.c598.j

summus form, 130.a, footnote 2

top of, 293

sunt quī, 535.a

suovetaurīlia, 265.1

supellēx decl., 79.c

super use, 220.c221.24

in compounds, 267.a

in compounds, w. Dative, 370

supera defective, 111.b (cf. 130.a, Note 2)

compound, 130.b

superī, 130

superior comparative, 130.b

Superlative suffix, 124, footnote

in -rimus, 125

of adjectives in -lis, 126

w. maximē, 128

takes gender of partitive, 286.b, Note

of eminence, 291.b

w. quam, vel, or ūnus, 291.c

denoting order, succession, 293

w. quisque, 313.b

superstes decl., 121.a.4

Supine noun of 4th decl., 94.b159.b

stem, 164.3

formation, 178179.a-d (cf. 164, footnote)

irregular forms of, 1st conjugation, 209

2nd conjugation, 210

allied with forms in -tor, 236.a, Note 1

Supine in -um, use of, 509

in , 510

as Ablative of specification, 510, Note 1

supplex decl., 121.b.1

supplicō w. Dative, 368.3

suprā use, 220.a221.25

-sūra noun ending, 238.b

Surds, 3

-suriō verbs in, 263.4

-sus phonetic form of -tus, 94

noun ending, 238.b

sūs decl., 79 and a

suus, use, 299

Swearing, verbs of, constr., 388.d580.c

Syllables rules for division of, 7

open etc., 7, Note 2

long and short, 603.e-f and notes

Synæresis, 603.c, Note; 603.f, Note 4

Synchysis, 598.h

see Rhetorical Figures, Glossary

Syncope see Grammatical Terms, Glossary

Synecdoche, defined, see Rhetorical Figures, Glossary

Synecdochical acc., 397.b

Synesis defined, 280.a

in gender and number, 280.b

in sequence of tenses, 485.i

Synopsis of tenses (amō), 180

of impersonal verbs, 207

Syntactic compounds, 267

SYNTAX, 268 - 601

historical development of, 268

Important rules of Syntax, 594



T changed to s, 15.5178

t preceding stem vowel of verb, 176.b.1

t- (s-), supine stem ending, 178, 179.a.2, 179.b.2, 179.c.2, 179.d

taedet impersonal, 208.b

constr., 354.b-c and Note

taeter decl., 112.a

Taking away, verbs of, 381

Talent, value of, 637

tālis, 151.i152

tālis ut etc., 537, Note 2

tam correlative w. quam, 323.g

correlative w. ut, 537, Note 2

tamen as correlative, 527.c

position of, 324.j

tametsī concessive use, 527.c and Note 1

tamquam in conditional clauses, 524

w. primary tenses, 524, Note 1

tandem in questions, 333.a and Note

tantī Genitive of value, 417 and c

tantī est ut, 568

tantō following quantō, 414.a

tantum w. subject of proviso, 528

tantum abest ut, 571.b

tantus, 151.i, 152

tantus ut, 537, Note 2

-tās, -tia noun endings, 241

Taste, verbs of, w. Accusative, 390.a

-te (enclitic), 143.d and Note

Teaching, verbs of (two Accusatives), 396

tegō conjugation, 186

Telling, verbs of, constr., 459

Temporal clauses defined, 279.b541 - 556

as protasis, 542

w. postquam etc., 543

w. cum, 544 - 549

w. antequam and priusquam, 550 - 551

w. dum, dōnec, quoad, 552 - 556

replaced by Ablative Absolute, 420

Temporal numerals, 139.b

conjunctions, 224.II.d

tempus est abīre, 504, Note 2

Tendency adjectives denoting, 251

tener decl., 111.a

TENSES, 154.c

of passive voice, 156

of participles, 158

classification, meaning, and use, 160 - 162

of the indicative, 160 - 161

of the subjunctive, 162

endings, 166

of completed action, formation of, 179.f-g

synopsis of, 180

TENSES, Syntax, 464 - 486

classified, 464

of indicative, 465 - 479

Present tense, 465 - 469

Imperfect, 470 - 471

Future, 472

of Completed action, 473 - 478

Epistolary tenses, 479

of subjunctive, 480 - 481

sequence of, 482 - 485

tenses of the infinitive, 486

tense emphatic, 598.d.(3)

tenses of infinitive in indirect discourse, 584

tenses of subjunctive in indirect discourse, 585

affected by repraesentātiō, 585.b and Note

in condition in indirect discourse, 589

Notes on origin of syntax, 436, 464

tenus constr., w. Genitive, 359.b

w. Ablative, 221.26

position, 435599.d

ter- (tor-, tēr-, tōr-, tr-) primary suffix, 234.II.15

-ter adverb ending, 214.b-c

Terence, absque mē etc., 517.f

teres decl., 121.a.3

comparative, 131.b

-terior ending, 130

Terminations of inflection meaning of, 21.b

terminations of nouns, 39

of verbs, 166 (see Endings)

-ternus as adjective ending, 250

terrā marīque, 427.a

terrester decl., 115.a

-terus ending, 130

Than, how expressed, 406

That of not expressed in Latin, 297.f, Note

The as correlative, 414.a and footnote

Thematic verbs, 174.1

Thematic vowel e/o, 174.2.1

Thinking, verbs of, constr. w. Accusative and infinitive, 459

Third conjugation, of verbs, principal parts, 173

Present stem, how formed, 176

formation, 176179.c

paradigm, 186

in -iō, paradigm, 188

list of verbs, w. principal parts, 211

derivation of verbs in -uō, 261

Third declension of nouns, 53 - 87

mute stems, 56 - 60

liquid stems, 61 - 64

i-stems, 65 - 78

pure i-stems, 66 - 69

mixed i-stems, 70 - 78

peculiar forms, 79

Locative, 80

Greek nouns, 81 - 83

rules of gender, 84 - 87

Though see Although

Thought considered as result, 571.c

Threatening verbs of, 367580.c

ti- primary suffix, 234.II.2

-tia (-tiēs) noun ending, 241

-ticus adjective ending, 247

tigris decl., 82

-tilis adjective ending, 252

-tim adverbs in, 75.a.3215.2

Time (see Temporal Clauses), 465 ff.; 481545 - 546

Time Ablative Absolute to denote, 419, 420.1

time when, 423

duration of time, 424.b

time during or within which, w. ordinal, 424.c

distance of time, 424.f

corresponding to English place, 424.d

Time adverbs of, 217.b

Time mode of reckoning, 630

timeō w. Dative or Accusative, 367.c

w. subjunctive, 564

-timus adjective ending, 130.a, footnote 2250

-tiō noun ending, 233.2238.b

-tiō (-siō), -tūra, -tūs (-tūtis) noun endings, 238.b

-tium noun ending, 241.b, Note

-tīvus verbal adjective ending, 251

to- (tā-) primary suffix, 234.II.1

-tō, -itō intensive or iterative verbs in, 263.2

Too . . . to, 535.c, Note

-tor (-sor), -trīx nouns of agency in, 236.a

used as adjectives, 321.c

-tōria noun ending, 254.4

-tōrium noun ending, 233.2254.5

-tōrius adjective ending, 233.2

as noun ending, 250.a

tot indeclinable, 122.b

correlative, 152

totidem indeclinable, 122.b

tōtus decl., 113

nouns w., in Ablative without preposition (place where), 429.2

Towns, names of gender, 32 and a48, Exceptions

names of towns in -e, decl., 76, Note 2

Locative of, 427.3

as place from which, 427.1

as place to which, 427.2

tr- stems in (pater etc.), 61.4

trāiciō constr., 395, Notes 1, 3

trāiectus lōra, 395, Note 3

trāns, 220.a

use, 221.27

compounds of, w. Accusative, 388.b

w. two Accusatives, 395

Transitive verbs, 273.1274

absolute use, 273, Note 2

how translated, 274.b

w. Dative, 362

Transposition of vowels, 177.a, Note

Trees, names of gender, 32

trēs decl., 134.b

tri- stem ending of nouns, 66

of adjectives, 115.a

Tribe Ablative of, 403.a, Note 3

tribūlis decl., 76.a.2

tribus gender, 90, Excecptions

decl., 92.c

tridēns decl., 76.b.2

Triptotes, 103.d

trirēmis decl., 76.b.2

-tris adjective ending, 250

triumphō w. Ablative, 404.a

-trīx see -tor

tro- primary suffix, 234.16

-trō adverbs in, 215.4

-trum, noun ending, 240

Trusting, verbs of constr., 367

tu- primary suffix, 234.II.3

-tū, -sū supine endings, 159.b

 decl., 143 (see tūte, tūtimet)

-tūdō, -tūs noun endings, 241

tulī (tetulī), 200

derivation, 200, footnote 1

quantity, 605, Exceptions

-tum, -sum supine endings, 159.b

tum, tunc meaning, 217.b

correlative w. cum, 323.g

tum . . . tum, 323.f

-tūra, -tūs noun ending, 238.b

-turiō, desiderative verbs in, 263.4

-turnus adjective ending, 250

-turris decl., 67 (cf. 75.b)

-tus adjective ending, 246

noun ending, 94241

-tus adverb ending, 215.6

tussis decl., 75.a.2

tūte, 143.d

tūtimet, 143.d

Two Accusatives, 391

Two Datives, 382.1



U (v) as consonant, 5

after g, q, s, 5, Note 2

not to follow u or v, 6.a-b

u for e in 3rd conjugation, 179.c.1

u- primary suffix, 234.I.3

u-stems of nouns, 3rd decl., 79 and a

4th decl., 88

of verbs, 174176.d259.3

ūber decl., 119

ubi derivation, 215.5

in temporal clauses, 542 - 543

-ubus in Dative and Ablative plural, 4th decl., 92.c

-uis (-uos) in Genitive, 4th decl., 92.e

-ūlis adjective ending, 248

ūllus decl., 113

use, 311 - 312

ulterior comparative, 130.a

ultrā, 220.a

use, 221.28

following noun, 435

-ulus diminutive ending, 243

verbal adjective ending, 251

-um for -ārum, 43.d

for -ōrum, 49.d

-um in Genitive plural of personal pronouns, 295.b

-um for -ium, 3rd decl., 78

in Genitive plural of adjectives, 121.b

for -uum, 4th decl., 92.b

Undertaking, verbs of w. gerundive, 500.4

ūnt-stem ending, 83.e

ūnus decl., 113

meaning, 134.a

w. superlative, 291.c

ūnus quī w. subjunctive, 535.b

ūnus quisque decl., 151.g

use, 313

uo- suffix, see vo-

-uō verbs in, 261

-uos, see -uis

-ur nouns in, 87

urbs decl., 72

use in relations of place, 428.b

Urging, verbs of with ut, 563

-uriō desiderative verbs in, 263.4

-urnus adjectives ending, 250

-ūrus Future participle in, 158.b498

w. fuī, 498.b517.d

in indirect questions, 575.a

-ūrus fuisse, in indirect discourse, 589.b.3

-us Nominative ending, in 2nd decl., 46

-us for -er in Greek nouns, 2nd decl., 52.b

-us Nominative ending in 3rd decl., 63, Exception 2

gender, 87

4th decl., 88

gender, 90

neuter ending, 238.a

-ūs Greek Nominative ending, 83.e

Use, adjectives of constr., 385.a

ūsque w. Accusative, 432.b

ūsus (need) w. Ablative, 411

ut (utī) correlative w. ita, sīc, 323.g

to denote concession, 440527.a

ut (as) w. indicative equivalent to concession, 527.f

w. optative subjunctive, 442.a

used elliptically in exclamations, 462.a

in clauses of purpose, 531

ut nē, 531563.e, Note 2

ut nōn, 531.1, Note 2

of result, 537

ut nōn etc., 538

ut temporal, 542 - 543

verbs followed by clauses w. ut, 563568

omission after certain verbs, 565 and notes569.2, Note 2

w. verbs of fearing, 564 and Note

ut, utpote, quippe w. relative clause, 535.e, Note 1

w. cum, 549, Note 1

ut prīmum 543

ut semel 543

ut sī constr., 524

ūter decl., 66

uterque form and decl., 151.g

use, 313

constr. in agreement and as partitive, 346.d

ūtilis w. Dative of gerund etc., 505.a

utinam, w. subjunctive of wish, 442

ūtor etc. w. Ablative, 410

w. Accusative, 410.a, Note 1

gerundive use of, 500.3503, Note 2

utpote quī, 535.e, Note 1

utrum ... an, 335 and d

-ūtus, adjective ending, 246

-uus, verbal adjective ending, 251



V (u), 1.b; 5 and Note 1

suffix of Perfect, 177.a179.a.2; 179.b 2; 179.d

suppressed in Perfect, 181

list of verbs in 3rd conjugation w. v in Perfect, 211.c

v often ommitted in Perfect of and its compounds, 203.b

vafer decl., 112.a

comparative, 131.a

valdē use, 291.c, Note 1

valdē quam, 575.d

Value Genitive of indefinite, 417

Value, measures of, 632 - 638

vannus gender, 48, Exceptions

vāpulō neutral passive, 192.b

Variable nouns, 104 - 106 (cf. 98.c-d)

adjectives, 122.a

Variations see Phonetic Variations

Variations of spelling, 6

văs decl., 103.g.2

vās decl., 79.e105.b

vātēs decl., 78.1

-ve, vel use, 324.e335.d, Note

vel (see -ve), w. superlative, 291.c

Velars, 4

velim, vellem subjunctive of modesty, 447.1, Note

velim, vellem w. subjunctive (= optative), 442.b; (= imperative), 449.c

velut, velut sī, 524

vēneō (vēnum eō), 192.b428.i

vēnerat = aderat, 476

Verba sentiendī et dēclārandī, 397.e; 459579

passive use of, 582

in poets and later writers, 582, Note

Verbal adjectives, 251 - 253

in -āx, w. Genitive, 349.c

Verbal nouns w. Dative, 367.d

Verbal nouns and adjectives w. reflexive, 301.d

Verbal roots, 228.1

VERBS defined, 20.d

inflection, 153 - 154

noun and adjective forms of, 155

signification of forms, 156 - 162

personal endings, 163

the three stems, 164

forms of the verb, 164 - 166 (notes on origin and history of verb forms, 164, footnote168169)

table of endings, 166

influence of imitation, 169, footnote

regular verbs, 171 - 189

the four conjugations, 171 - 173

principle parts of, 172

mixed verbs, 173.a

deponents, 190 - 191

semi-deponents, 192

periphrastic forms, 193 - 196

irregular verbs, 197 - 204

defective, 205 - 206

impersonal, 207 - 208

Classified lists of verbs, 209 - 212

Derivation of verbs, 256 - 263

compound verbs, 267

vowels in compound verbs, 267.a, Note 2

VERBS, Syntax Subject implied in ending, 271.a

rules of agreement, 316 - 319

verb omitted, 319

rules of syntax, 437 - 593

Cases w. verbs, see under Accusative etc.

Position of verb, 596598.d; 598.j (See under the names of the Moods etc.)

vereor w. Genitive, 357.b.1

w. subjunctive, 564

veritus as Present participle, 491

vērō, 324.d; 325.j

in answers, 336.a.1

position of, 599.b

versus position of, 599.d

vertō constr., 417.b

verū gender, 91

vērum or vērō use, 324.d, j

vescor w. Ablative, 410

w. Accusative, 410.a, Note 1

gerundive, 500.3503, Note 2

vesper decl., 50.b

vesperī (Locative), 50.b427.a

vester decl., 112.a145

vestrī as objective Genitive, 143.c295.b

vestrum as partitive Genitive, 143.b295.b (cf. Note 2)

vetō w. Accusative and infinitive, 563.a

vetus decl., 119121.d

comparative, 125

viā Ablative of manner, 412.b

vicem adverbial use of, 397.a

vīcīnus w. Genitive, 385.c

vicis decl., 103.h.1

vidēlicet derivation, 216

videō ut, 563

videor w. Dative, 375.b

vīn’ (vīsne), 13, Note

vir decl., 4750.b

virgō decl., 62

vīrus gender of, 48.a

vīs stem, 71.6

decl., 79

viscera, 101, Note 1

vīsō, 263.4, Note

vo- (vā-) primary suffix, 234.II.8

vōcālis decl., 76.b.2

VOCATIVE defined, 35.f

form, 38.a

in of nouns in -ius, 2nd decl., 49.c

of Greek nouns, 49.c, Note

of adjectives in -ius, 110.a

Syntax, 340

Voices, 154.a156

middle voice, 156.a, Note163, footnote 2190.e

volō and compounds, conjugation 199

participle of, w. Dative of the person judging, 378, Note

w. infinitive, 456 and Note

w. Perfect active infinitive in prohibitions, 486.c

w. Perfect participle, 486.d and Note497.c, Note

w. subjunctive or infinitive, 563.b

volucer decl., 115.a

volucris decl., 78

-volus adjective in, comparative, 127

vōs, 143 and a

voster etc. see vester

vōtī damnātus, 352.a

Vowel changes, 15.1-3

vowel variations, 17

Vowel roots of verbs, 179.a-c

Vowel stems of verbs, 259 - 262

Vowel suffixes (primary), 234.I

Vowels, 1

pronunciation, 8

long and short, 10

contraction, 15.3

quantity of final vowels in case-endings, 38.g

vowel modified in noun stems, 3rd decl., 56.a

lengthened in root, 177.d231.b

list of verbs w. vowel lengthening in Perfect, 3rd conjugation, 211.e

vulgus (volgus) gender, 48.a

-vus, verbal adj. ending, 251



W not in Latin alphabet, 1

sound of, 1.b, Note

Want, words of w. Ablative, 401

w. Genitive, 356

Way by which (Ablative), 429.a

Weight, measures of, 637

Whole Genitive of, 346

numbers expressing the whole, 346.e

Wills Future imperative in, 449.2

Winds gender of names of, 31

Wish expressed by subjv., 441

as a condition, 521.b

wish in informal indirect discourse, 592.1

Wishing, verbs of w. infinitive, 486.d (cf. 457)

w. substantive clause of purpose, 563.b

w. Accusative and infinitive, 563.b

Without w. verbal noun, 496, Note 3

Women, names of, 108.b and footnote

Words and Forms, 1 - 267

Words formation of, 227 - 267

arrangement of, 595 - 601

Would (English auxiliary), how expressed in Latin, 157.b



X Nominative ending, 56

gender, 86

x from s, in verbs, 211.a

Y of Greek origin, 1, Note 1

Year, 630

months of, 630 - 631

date, 424.g

-y e/o- suffix, 174

Yes in Latin, 336

yo- (yā-) primary suffix, 234.II.11

-ys Nominative ending, 82

quantity, 604.i

Z of Greek origin, 1.a, Note