edited by Meagan Ayer et al.
Ablative of Separation
400. Words signifying separation or privation are followed by the ablative.
401. Verbs meaning to remove, set free, be absent, deprive, and want, take the ablative (sometimes with ab or ex).
Oculīs sē prīvāvit. (Fin. 5.87)
He deprived himself of eyes.
Omnī Galliā Rōmānīs interdīcit. (B. G. 1.46)
He (Ariovistus) bars the Romans from the whole of Gaul.
Eī aquā et īgnī interdīcitur. (Vell. 2.45)
He is debarred the use of fire and water.
[The regular formula of banishment.]
voluptātibus carēre (Cat. M. 7)
to lack enjoyments
Nōn egeō medicīnā. (Lael. 10)
I want no physic.
Levāmur superstitiōne, līberāmur mortis metū. (Fin. 1.63)
We are relieved from superstition, we are freed from fear of death.
solūtī ā cupiditātibus (Leg. Agr. 1.27)
freed from desires.
multōs ex hīs incommodīs pecūniā sē līberāsse (Verr. 5.23)
that many have freed themselves by money from these inconveniences
For the genitive with verbs of separation and want, see § 356, Note
402. Verbs compounded with ā, ab, dē, ex, (1) take the simple ablative when used figuratively; but (2) when used literally to denote actual separation or motion, they usually require a preposition (§ 426.1).
- cōnātū dēsistere (B. G. 1.8)
to desist from the attempt
dēsine commūnibus locīs (Acad. 2.80)
to leave one's office
to refrain from wrong
- ā prōpositō aberrāre (Fin. 5.83)
to wander from the point
dē prōvinciā dēcēdere (Verr. 2.48)
to withdraw from one's province
ab iūre abīre (id. 2.114)
to go outside of the law
Ex cīvitāte excessēre (B. G. 6.8)
They departed from the state.
[But cf. Fīnibus suīs excesserant (id. 4.18)
They had left their own territory.]
ā māgnō dēmissum nōmen Iūlō (Aen. 1.288)
a name descended (sent down) from great Iulus
a. Adjectives denoting freedom and want are followed by the ablative.
urbs nūda praesidiō (Att. 7.13)
the city naked of defence
immūnis mīlitiā (Liv. 1.43)
free of military service
plēbs orba tribūnīs (Leg. 3.9)
the people deprived of tribunes
Note— A preposition sometimes occurs.
ā culpā vacuus (Sall. Cat. 14)
free from blame
līberī ā dēliciīs (Leg. Agr. 1.27)
free from luxuries
Messāna ab hīs rēbus vacua atque nūda est. (Verr. 4.3)
Messana is empty and bare of these things.