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Demonstrative Pronouns: Paradigms

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146. The Demonstrative Pronouns are used to point out or designate a person or thing for special attention, either with nouns as Adjectives or alone as Pronouns. They are: hīc (this); is, ille, iste (that), with the intensive ipse (self), and īdem (same)1 and are declined below.

Demonstrative pronouns hic, haec, hoc

Note 1— Hīc is a compound of the stem ho- with the demonstrative enclitic -ce. In most of the cases final e is dropped, in some the whole termination. But in these latter it is sometimes retained for emphasis.

hûius-ce, hīs-ce

In early Latin -c alone is retained in some of these (hōrunc). The vowel in hīc, hōc, was originally short, and perhaps this quantity was always retained. Ille and iste are sometimes found with the same enclitic.

illic, illaec, illuc

Also illoc. See a below.

Note 2— For the dative and ablative plural of hīc the old form hībus is sometimes found; haec occurs (rarely) for hae.

Demonstrative pronouns is, ea, id

Note 3— Obsolete forms are eae (Dat. fem.), and eābus or ībus (Dat. plur.). Êī and ei (monosyllabic) are also found for dative ; ei, eos, etc., also occur in the plural.

Demonstrative pronouns ille, illa, illud

Iste, ista, istud [that (yonder)] is declined like ille.

Note 4— Ille replaces an earlier ollus (olle), of which several forms occur.

Note 5— Iste is sometimes found in early writers in the form ste etc. The first syllable of ille and ipse is very often used as short in early poetry.

Note 6— The forms illī, istī (gen.), and illae, istae (dat.), are sometimes found; also the nominative plural istaece, illaece (for istae, illae). See a below.

Demonstrative pronouns ipse, ipsa, ipsum

Note 7— Ipse is compounded of is and -pse (a pronominal particle of uncertain origin: cf. § 145.a), meaning self. The former part was originally declined, as in reāpse (for rē eāpse in fact). An old form ipsus occurs, with superlative ipsissimus (own self), used for comic effect.

Note 8— The intensive -pse is found in the forms eapse (nominative), eumpse, eampse, eōpse, eāpse (ablative).

Demonstrative pronouns idem, eadem, idem

Note 9— Īdem is the demonstrative is with the indeclinable suffix -dem. The masculine īdem is for †isdem; the neuter idem, however, is not for †iddem, but is a relic of an older formation. A final m of is is changed to n before d (eundem for eumdem, etc.) The plural forms īdem, īsdem, are often written iīdem, iīsdem.

a. Ille and iste appear in combination with the demonstrative particle -c, shortened from -ce, in the following forms.

Demonstrative pronouns illic, illaec, illuc and istic, istaec, istuc

Note 1— The appended -ce is also found with pronouns in numerous combinations

hûiusce, hunce
hōrunce, hārunce
hōsce, hīsce (cf. Note 1 above)
illīusce, īsce

Also with the interrogative -ne, in hōcine, hōscine, istucine, illicine, etc.

Note 2— The following are formed by composition with ecce or em (behold!).

eccum (for ecce eum), eccam, eccōs, eccās
eccillum (for ecce illum)
ellum (for em illum), ellam, ellōs, ellāseccistam.

These forms are dramatic and colloquial.

b. The combinations hûiusmodī (hûiuscemodī), êiusmodī, etc., are used as indeclinable adjectives, equivalent to tālis such.

rēs êiusmodī such a thing (a thing of that sort; cf. § 345.a).

For uses of the Demonstrative Pronouns, see §§ 296 ff.



1. These demonstratives are combinations of o- and i-stems, which are not clearly distinguishable.

hic, haec, hoc

is, ea, id

ille, illa, illud

iste, ista, istud

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