edited by Meagan Ayer et al.

Quantity of Derivatives

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606. Rules for the Quantity of Derivatives are:

a. Forms from the same stem have the same quantity.

ămō, ămāvistī
gĕnus, gĕneris

Exceptions—

1. bōs, lār, mās, pār, pēs, sāl—also arbōs—have a long vowel in the Nominative, though the stem vowel is short (cf. Genitive bŏvis, etc.).

2. Nouns in -or, Genitive -ōris, have the vowel shortened before the final -r.(But this shortening is comparatively late, so that in early Latin these Nominatives are often found long.)

honŏr

3. Verb forms with vowel originally long regularly shorten it before final -m, -r, or -t.

amĕm, amĕr, amĕt (compare amēmus)
dīcerĕr, dīcerĕt
audĭt
fĭt

Note— The final syllable in t of the Perfect was long in old Latin, but is short in the classic period.

4. A few long stem-syllables are shortened.

ācer, ăcerbus

So dē-iĕrō and pē-iĕrō, weakened from iūrō.

b. Forms from the same root often show inherited variations of vowel quantity (see § 17).

dīcō (cf. maledĭcus)
dūcō (dŭx, dŭcis)
fīdō (perfĭdus)
vōx, vōcis (vŏcō)
lēx, lēgis (lĕgō)

c. Compounds retain the quantity of the words which compose them.

oc-cĭdō (cădō)
oc-cīdō (caedō)
in-īquus (aequus)

Note— Greek words compounded with πρό have o short.

prŏphēta, prŏlŏgus

Some Latin compounds of prō have o short.

prŏficīscor, prŏfiteor

Compounds with ne vary.

nĕfās
nĕgō
nĕqueō
nēquam

extras
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Suggested Citation

Meagan Ayer, Allen and Greenough’s New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2014. ISBN: 978-1-947822-04-7. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/grammar/latin/quantity-derivatives