1.16

Τῶν δὲ πολεμίων τὸ μὲν εὐώνυμον εἶχον οἱ Ἱππομύρμηκες καὶ ἐν αὐτοῖς ὁ Φαέθων· θηρία δέ ἐστι μέγιστα, ὑπόπτερα, τοῖς παρ᾽ ἡμῖν μύρμηξι προσεοικότα πλὴν τοῦ μεγέθους· ὁ γὰρ μέγιστος αὐτῶν καὶ δίπλεθρος ἦν. ἐμάχοντο δὲ οὐ μόνον οἱ ἐπ᾽ αὐτῶν, ἀλλὰ καὶ αὐτοὶ μάλιστα τοῖς κέρασιν· ἐλέγοντο δὲ οὗτοι εἶναι ἀμφὶ τὰς πέντε μυριάδας. ἐπὶ δὲ τοῦ δεξιοῦ αὐτῶν ἐτάχθησαν οἱ Ἀεροκώνωπες, ὄντες καὶ οὗτοι ἀμφὶ τὰς πέντε μυριάδας, πάντες τοξόται κώνωψι μεγάλοις ἐποχούμενοι· μετὰ δὲ τούτους οἱ Ἀεροκόρδακες, ψιλοί τε ὄντες καὶ πεζοί, πλὴν μάχιμοί γε καὶ οὗτοι· πόρρωθεν γὰρ ἐσφενδόνων ῥαφανῖδας ὑπερμεγέθεις, καὶ ὁ βληθεὶς οὐδ’ ἐπ’ ὀλίγον ἀντέχειν ἐδύνατο, ἀπέθνῃσκε δὲ δυσωδίας τινὸς τῷ τραύματι ἐγγινομένης· ἐλέγοντο δὲ χρίειν τὰ βέλη μαλάχης ἰῷ. ἐχόμενοι δὲ αὐτῶν ἐτάχθησαν οἱ Καυλομύκητες, ὁπλῖται ὄντες καὶ ἀγχέμαχοι, τὸ πλῆθος μύριοι· ἐκλήθησαν δὲ Καυλομύκητες, ὅτι ἀσπίσι μὲν μυκητίναις ἐχρῶντο, δόρασι δὲ καυλίνοις τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ἀσπαράγων. πλησίον δὲ αὐτῶν οἱ Κυνοβάλανοι ἔστησαν, οὓς ἔπεμψαν αὐτῷ οἱ τὸν Σείριον κατοικοῦντες, πεντακισχίλιοι, ἄνδρες κυνοπρόσωποι ἐπὶ βαλάνων πτερωτῶν μαχόμενοι. ἐλέγοντο δὲ κἀκείνῳ ὑστερίζειν τῶν συμμάχων οὕς τε ἀπὸ τοῦ Γαλαξίου μετεπέμπετο σφενδονήτας καὶ οἱ Νεφελοκένταυροι. ἀλλ᾽ ἐκεῖνοι μὲν τῆς μάχης ἤδη κεκριμένης ἀφίκοντο, ὡς μήποτε ὤφελον· οἱ σφενδονῆται δὲ οὐδὲ ὅλως παρεγένοντο, διόπερ φασὶν ὕστερον αὐτοῖς ὀργισθέντα τὸν Φαέθοντα πυρπολῆσαι τὴν χώραν.

τὸ εὐώνυμον (sc. κέρας): "the left wing." See note on this word in the previous section.

τοῖς παρ᾽ ἡμῖν μύρμηξι προσεοικότα: "very similar to our ants."

οὐ μόνον...ἀλλὰ καί: "not only...but also."

οἱ ἐπ᾽ αὐτῶν: "the ones riding them," for the substantival power of the article, see S. 1153c.

ἐπὶ δὲ τοῦ δεξιοῦ (sc. κέρως): "on the right (wing)." τὸ δεξιὸν κέρας "the right wing" is a military term that appears with and without κέρας. 

ἀμφί: about, around, approximately (+ acc.) (as above in 1.15).

ἐποχούμενοι: "riding on (+ dat.)."

ψιλοί τε ὄντες καὶ πεζοί: "light-armed and on foot."

πλὴν μάχιμοί γε: "but fierce indeed."

ἐσφενδόνων: impf. of σφενδονάω, "they were slinging."

ῥαφανῖδας ὑπερμεγέθεις: "huge radishes."

βληθεὶς: aor. pass. of βάλλω, "anyone struck."

οὐδ’ ἐπ’ ὀλίγον: "not even for a short (time)" (sc. χρόνον).

ἀπέθνῃσκε: impf. of customary action, "he would die" (S. 1893).

δυσωδίας τινὸς...ἐγγινομένης: "while some foul odor sprang up," (S. 2058 and 2070; G. 589 and 590).

μαλάχης ἰῷ: "with the poison of mallow." Lucian humorously chooses mallow which was thought to have a healing power.

ἐχόμενοι αὐτῶν: "staying beside them," (S. 1345).

ἐτάχθησαν: aor. pass. of τάσσω, "they were stationed."

τὸ πλῆθος: "in number," (S. 1600 and 1601b).

ἐκλήθησαν: aor. pass. 3 pl. of καλέω, "they were called."

ἀσπίσι μὲν μυκητίναις ἐχρῶντο, δόρασι δὲ καυλίνοις: dat. after ἐχρῶντο, "they used mushrooms for shields and stalks for spears."

ἔστησαν: aor. intr. of ἵστημι, "they stood."

κἀκείνῳ (= καὶ ἐκείνῳ): "also to that one."

τῶν συμμάχων: "(some) of his allies" (G. 507e; S. 1341).

τῆς μάχης ἤδη κεκριμένης: "when the battle had already been decided" (S. 2058 and 2070; G. 589 and 590). For the rendering of the perfect tense, see S. 1872.

ἀφίκοντο: aor. of ἀφικνέομαι, "they arrived."

ὡς μήποτε (sc. ἀφίκεσθαι) ὤφελον: "Would that they had not (arrived)!" (S. 1781; G. 470b).

οὐδὲ ὅλως: "not at all."

ὀργισθέντα: aor. part. pass. acc. sg. of ὀργίζομαι, modifying Φαέθοντα, "being made angry."

Φαέθοντα πυρπολῆσαι: indir. statement after φασὶν, "that Phaethon burned..."

VERB LIST

εὐώνυμος: on the left

Ἱππομύρμηκες, οἱ: the Horse-ants

Φαέθων, -οντος, ὁ: Phaethon

θηρίον, τό: a wild animal

ὑπόπτερος, -ον: winged

μύρμηξ, -ηκος, ὁ: an ant

προσέοικα: to be like, resemble (+ dat.)

δίπλεθρος, -ον: two hundred feet long or broad

κέρας, κέρως, τό: a horn (of an animal)

δεξιός, -ά, -όν: on the right hand or side

Ἀεροκώνωπες, οἱ: the Air-gnats

μυριάς, -αδος, ἡ: a unit of ten thousand; a myriad

τοξότης, -ου, ὁ: a bowman, archer

κώνωψ, -ωπος, ὁ: a gnat, mosquito

ἐποχέομαι: be carried upon, ride upon

Ἀεροκόρδακες, οἱ: the Sky-dancers

ψιλός, -ή, -όν: bare, light-armed

πεζός, -ή, -όν: on foot, walking

μάχιμος, -η, -ον: fit for battle, warlike, fierce

πόρρωθεν: from afar

σφενδονάω: sling, use the sling

ῥαφανίς, -ῖδος, ἡ: a radish

ὑπερμεγέθης, -ες: very large, huge

ἀντέχω: hold out, stand one's ground

δυσωδία, ἡ: foul smell

τραῦμα, -ατος, τό: a wound, injury

ἐγγίνομαι: spring up, appear in (+ dat.)

χρίω: anoint, smear

βέλος, -ους, τό: a missile, shot

μαλάχη, ἡ: the mallow plant

ἰός, ὁ: poison

Καυλομύκητες, οἱ: the Stalk-mushrooms

ὁπλίτης, -ου, ὁ: heavy-armed foot soldier, hoplite

ἀγχέμαχος, -ον: fighting hand to hand

μύριοι, -αι, -α: ten thousand

ἀσπίς, -ίδος, ἡ: a round shield

μυκητίνη, ἡ: a mushroom

δόρυ, δόρατος, τό: a spear

καύλινος, -η, -ον: made of a stalk

ἀσπάραγος (ἀσφάραγος), ὁ: asparagus

πλησίον: near (+ gen.)

Κυνοβάλανοι, οἱ: the Dog-acorns

Σείριος, ὁ: the Dog Star

κατοικέω: inhabit

πεντακισχίλιοι, -αι, -α: five thousand

κυνοπρόσωπος, -ον: dog-faced

βάλανος, ἡ: an acorn

πτερωτός, -ή, -όν: feathered

ὑστερίζω: come after, come later

μεταπέμπω: send after; mid. send for

σφενδονήτης, -ου, ὁ: a slinger

Νεφελοκένταυροι, οἱ: the Cloud-centaurs

ὀφείλω: owe; be obliged to, ought to (+ infin.)

παραγίγνομαι: be present, attend

διόπερ: wherefore, for this reason

ὀργίζω: make angry, irritate

πυρπολέω: devastate with fire

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Suggested Citation

Eric Casey, Stephen Nimis, and Evan Hayes, Lucian: True History, Book 1. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2014. ISBN: 978-1-947822-05-4. https://dcc.dickinson.edu/lucian-true/book-1/1-16