10.17

(1) Post hunc Ioviānus, quī tunc domesticus mīlitābat, ad obtinendum imperium cōnsēnsū exercitūs lēctus est, commendātiōne patris mīlitibus quam suā nōtior. Quī iam, turbātīs rēbus, exercitū quoque inopiā labōrante, ūnō ā Persīs atque alterō proeliō victus pācem cum Sapōre, necessārium quidem, sed ignōbilem, fēcit multātus fīnibus ac nōnnūllā imperiī Rōmānī parte trāditā.

(2) Quod ante eum annīs mīlle centum et duōbus dē vīgintī ferē, ex quō Rōmānum imperium conditum erat, numquam accidit. Quīn etiam legiōnēs nostrae ita et apud Caudium per Pontium Telesīnum et in Hispāniā apud Numantiam et in Numidiā sub iugum missae sunt ut nihil tamen fīnium trāderētur. Ea pācis condiciō nōn penitus reprehendenda foret, sī foederis necessitātem tum, cum integrum fuit, mūtāre voluisset, sīcut ā Rōmānīs omnibus hīs bellīs, quae commemorāvī, factum est. Nam et Samnītibus et Numantīnīs et Numidīs cōnfestim bella inlāta sunt neque pāx rata fuit.

(3) Sed dum aemulum imperiī verētur intrā Orientem residēns, glōriae parum cōnsuluit. Isque iter ingressus atque Īllyricum petēns in Galatiae fīnibus repentīnā morte obiit, vir alias neque iners neque imprūdēns.

    Jovian Emperor, 363364 CE

    (1) Ioviānus: his full name was Flavius Claudius Jovianus. His short reign is remarkable only for the disgraceful peace he made with the Persians (Hazzard).

    domesticus: "bodyguard." Jovian was commanding the two-hundred strong core of domesticii et protectores, carefully chosen officer cadets, who served as the imperial bodyguards and were subsequently seconded to equestrian commands (Bird).

    ad obtinendum imperium: gerundive denoting purpose (AG 503)

    commendātiōne ... nōtior: order: notior militibus commendatione patris quam suā; militibus is dative after notior. Commendatione and suā are ablatives of cause. 

    ūnō ... atque alterō proeliō: "in one or two battles" 

    cum Sapōre: Shapur II

    fīnibus: he agreed that the Romans would surrender their conquests beyond the Tigris and would give up several fortresses in Mesopotamia (Hazzard).

    nōnnūllā ... parte trāditā: ablative absolute

    (2) ita ... ut: "in such a way ... with the result that..." result clause (AG 537)

    apud Caudium: see Caudium

    per Pontium Telesīnum: it is generally stated that Gavius Pontius was the leader of the Samnites in the battle of Caudine Forks. Perhaps Eutropius confuses him with Pontius Telesinus, the leader of the Samnites in the Social war (Hazzard).

    apud Numantiam: see Numantia

    iugum: "the yoke," a symbol of humiliation and defeat, consisting of two upright spears, and a third laid transversely upon them, under which vanquished enemies were made to pass (LS iugum I.B.4).

    sī foederis necessitātem tum cum integrum fuit mūtāre voluisset: "if he had been willing to change the obligations of the treaty as soon as it was in his power" (Bird)

    (3) glōriae parum cōnsuluit: "he showed insufficient concern for his glory" 

    iter ingressus: "embarking on the journey." ingredior is a deponent verb (AG 190)

    in Galatiae fīnibus: see Galatia

    Core Vocabulary | Numbers | Dates

    Ioviānus, ī, m.

    (Flavius Claudius) Ioviānus, Roman emperor 363–364 A.D.

    domesticus, a, um [domus], adj.

    private, domestic; domesticum bellum, civil war

    mīlitō, āre, āvī, ātus [mīles]

    to be a soldier, wage war

    obtineō, ēre, uī, tentus

    to hold, possess; rule, govern

    cōnsēnsus, ūs [cōnsentiō], m.

    consent, assent, united opinion; ex commūnī cōnsēnsū, by common consent

    commendātiō, ōnīs [commendō], f.

    recommendation

    turbō, āre, āvī, ātus [turba, a crowd]

    to disturb, confuse

    inopia, ae [inops, needy], f.

    want, scarcity, poverty

    Persae, ārum, pl. m.

    the Persians

    Sapōr, ōris, m.

    the name of several Persian kings; (1) Sapor I., 240273 A.D.; (2) Sapor II., 310381 A.D.

    necessārius, a, um [necesse, necessary], adj.

    necessary, indispensable; as subst., an intimate friend, relative

    ignōbilis, e [in + (g)nōbilis], adj.

    unknown, unrenowned, obscure; base, ignoble

    multō, āre, āvī, ātus [multa, a fine]

    to fine, deprive; punish, condemn

    nōnnūllus, a, um [nōn + nūllus], adj.

    some, several

    Caudium, ī, n.

    a town in Samnium 2

    Pontius, ī, m.

    Pontius Telesīnus, commander of the Samnites in the war against Sulla

    Telesīnus, ī, m.

    Pontius Telesīnus, commander of the Samnites in the war against Sulla.

    Hispānia, ae, f.

    Spain (including Portugal). It was divided into two provinces, Hispania Citerior and Ulterior; hence the pl. Hispaniae.

    Numantia, ae, f.

    a city in Spain

    Numidae, ārum, pl. m.

    the Numidians

    penitus, adv.

    inwardly, within; deeply, completely

    reprehendō, ere, ī, hēnsus

    to hold back, check; blame, criticise, reprove

    foedus, eris, n.

    a treaty, alliance, league

    commemorō, āre, āvī, ātus [con + memor, mindful]

    to call to mind, mention, tell

    Samnītēs, um, Gr. acc. pl. Samnītas, pl. m.

    the Samnites, a branch of the Sabine race inhabiting the mountains southeast of Latium

    Numantīnī, ōrum, pl. m.

    the inhabitants of Numantia

    Numidia, ae, f.

    a country of northern Africa, west of Carthage

    cōnfestim, adv.

    immediately, at once

    aemulus, a, um, adj.

    striving earnestly after, emulating, rivaling; envious 3

    Oriēns, entis [orior], m. (sc. sōl)

    the rising sun, the East, the Orient

    resideō, ēre, sēdī, —

    to sit back, remain sitting, be left behind, remain

    Īllyricum, ī, n.

    a country east of the Adriatic Sea

    Galatia, ae, f.

    a province of Asia Minor settled by Gallic tribes in the third century B.C.

    repentīnus, a, um [repēns, sudden], adj.

    sudden, unexpected

    obeō, īre, īvī (iī), itus

    to go to meet; attend to, perform; die, perish

    aliās [alius], adv.

    at another time, under other circumstances

    iners, ertis [in + ars], adj.

    unskillful, idle, effeminate

    imprūdēns, entis [in + prūdens, foreseeing], adj.

    not foreseeing, imprudent, off guard

     

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