(1) Dum bellum in Numidiā contrā Iugurtham geritur, Rōmānī cōnsulēs M. Mānlius et Q. Caepiō ā Cimbrīs et Teutonibus et Tugurīnīs et Ambrōnibus, quae erant Germānōrum et Gallōrum gentēs, victī sunt iūxta flūmen Rhodanum ingentī interneciōne etiam castra sua et māgnam partem exercitūs perdidērunt.

(2) Timor Rōmae grandis fuit, quantus vix Hannibalis tempore Punicī bellī, nē iterum Gallī Rōmam venīrent.

(3) Ergō Marius post victōriam Iugurthīnam secundō cōnsul est factus bellumque eī contrā Cimbrōs et Teutones dēcrētum est. Tertiō quoque eī et quārtō dēlātus est cōnsulātus, quia bellum Cimbricum prōtrahēbātur.

(4) Sed in quārtō cōnsulātū collēgam habuit Q. Lutātium Catulum. Cum Cimbrīs itaque cōnflīxit et duōbus proeliīs CC mīlia hostium cecīdit, LXXX mīlia cēpit et ducem eōrum Teutobodum. Propter quod meritum absēns quīntō cōnsul est factus.

    War with the Cimbri and Teutones, 105–101 BCE. Battle of Aquae Sextiae, 102 BCE

    Livy, Epitome 67–68; Plutarch, Marius 15–25.

    (1) bellum in Numidiā: for the war against Jugurtha, see Brev. 4.26–27.

    geritur: "was being waged." Historical present is normal with dum (AG 556).

    M. Mānlius et Q. Caepiō: At Arausio (Orange) on the Rhone in 105 BCE two Roman armies under the consul, Gnaeus Mallius Maximus, and the consul of the previous year, Q. Servilius Caepio, were totally defeated. The Romans were reported to have lost 80,000 soldiers and 40,000 support staff and camp followers. Caepio, who as proconsul was Mallius' subordinate, refused to cooperate with Mallius, whom he considered his social inferior, and was subsequently cashiered and had his property confiscated for what was Rome’s worst disaster since Cannae (Bird).

    ā Cimbrīs et Teutonibus: The Cimbri and Teutones were Germanic tribes who had migrated from their homes and had come into Gaul.

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    They defeated the Romans in several engagements. In the battle of Arausio, 105 BCE, three Roman armies were cut to pieces. Then they turned their course towards Spain and gave the Romans a respite of two years. In 102 BCE they returned from Spain and prepared to invade Italy. Before their entrance they divided. The Cimbri and the Tigurini crossed the Rhone, intending to enter Italy by the eastern Alps. The Teutones and the Ambrones tried to come in by the Maritime Alps, intending to join their countrymen in the valley of the Po. Marius met them at Aquae Sextiae, modern Aix, 102 BCE, and the mighty host of the barbarians was annihilated. The next year the united armies of Marius and Catulus met the Cimbri near Vercellae in Cisalpine Gaul and utterly defeated them. Those who survived the battle were either killed or sold in the slave market at Rome (Hazzard).

    (2) quantus vix Hannibalis tempore Punicī bellī: "barely was it as great in the time of Hannibal" (Hazzard). For Rome’s war with Hannibal, see Brev. 3.7 ff.

    nē iterum Gallī Rōmam venīrent: "that the Gauls would again come upon Rome." Fear clause (AG 564).

    (3) Marius: Gaius Marius was born near Arpinum 157 BCE of an obscure family.

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    By his valor and his energy he worked his way up in the army, winning distinction in the siege of Numantia in Spain. In 119 BCE he was elected tribune of the plebs. He now became a marked man. He acquired influence and importance by marrying into the family of the Caesars. In 109 BCE he went to Africa as lieutenant of Metellus. In 107 BCE he was elected consul and brought the war with Jugurtha to an end. After his return from Africa he was elected consul the second time in 104 BCE and took command of the war against the Cimbri and Teutones. Again in 103, 102, and 101 BCE he was elected to the consulship, and crushed the barbarians in the two famous battles of Aquae Sextiae and Vercellae, 102, 101 BCE. In 100 BCE he was elected consul for the sixth time. The Social War again called him into active service. He defeated the Marsi in two successive engagements. That he might gratify his ambition and be sent to the war with Mithridates, he procured the passage of a law removing Sulla from the command of the army and conferring it upon himself. Sulla refused to give up his command, marched upon Rome, and forced Marius to flee. After having arranged matters at Rome to his satisfaction Sulla left for the East. While he was away, Marius returned to Italy, besieged Rome, and entered the city as a conqueror. "The most frightful scenes followed. The guards of Marius stabbed everyone whom he did not salute, and the streets ran with the blood of the noblest of the Roman aristocracy." Without the formality of an election he became consul for the seventh time, 86 BCE. But de did not long enjoy his honor. On the eighteenth day of his consulship he died. (Hazzard).

    dēcrētum est: "was entrusted" to Marius ()

    (4) Q. Lutātium Catulum: Marius was elected consul from 104–100 BCE consecutively, Catulus was elected consul for 102 BCE (Bird).

    cecīdit: "killed," pf. > caedo.

    ducem eōrum Teutobodum: The epitomator Florus states that, "King Teutobodus, accustomed to go through four or six horses at a time, could scarcely find one to fit him when he fled; he was caught in a nearby grove. He was an incredible sight during the triumph, for he towered over the other trophies during the procession due to his unusually tall height." (Epit. 1.38.10, trans. K. Masters)

    absēns: "in his absence," referring to Marius. This was unusual. The law provided that a man must be present to stand for the consulship, and that at least ten years must elapse before he could be reelected (Hazzard; see Smith, consul).

    Core Vocabulary | Numbers | Dates

    Numidia, ae, f.

    a country of northern Africa, west of Carthage

    Iugurtha, ae, m. Jugurtha, king of Numidia.

    M., abbreviation of the praenomen Marcus; M'., abbreviation of the praenomen Manius

    Mānlius, ī, m.

    (1) A. Mānlius, consul 241 B.C.; (2) M. Mānlius, consul 105 B.C.


    abbreviation of the praenomen Quīntus

    Caepiō, ōnis, m.

    the name of a Roman family, Cn. Servīlius Caepiō, consul 253 B.C., Q. (Cn.) Servīlius Caepiō, consul 140 B.C., Q. (Servilius) Caepiō, consul 106 B.C.

    Cimbrī, ōrum, pl. m.

    the Cimbri, a Germanic tribe which, together with the Teutones, invaded Italy, and was defeated by Marius, 101 B.C.

    Teutonēs, um, pl. m.

    the Teutonēs, a Germanic people which with the Cimbri invaded Italy, but were defeated by Marius, 102 B.C.

    Tugurīnī or Tigurīnī, ōrum, pl. m.

    a Helvetian people who invaded Italy with the Cimbri and Teutones

    Ambrōnēs, um, pl. m.

    a Celtic people defeated by Marius near Aquae Sextiae in 102 B.C.

    Germānī, ōrum, pl. m. the Germans
    Gallus, a, um

    pertaining to Gaul. Gallī, ōrum, pl. m., the Gauls. Gallus, ī, m., a Roman cognomen: (1) C. (Cn.) Cornēlius Gallus, governor of Egypt under Augustus; (2) Gallus Hostīliānus, Roman emperor 251–253 A.D.

    iūxtā, adv. and prep. with acc. near
    Rhodanus, ī, m. the Rhone
    interneciō, ōnis [internecō, to destroy], f. slaughter, utter ruin
    Hannibal, alis, m.

    the son of Hamilcar Barca, the great general of the Carthaginians in the second Punic war

    Pūnicus, a, um, adj.

    Phoenician, Punic; Carthaginian; Pūnicum bellum, Punic War, First, 264–241 B.C.; Second, 218–202 B.C.; Third, 149–146 B.C.

    Marius, ī, m.

    the name of a family at Rome; (1) C. Marius, seven times consul, leader of the democratic party in the Civil war between him and Sulla. (2) C. Marius, son of (1). Consul 82 B.C.; (3) M. Aurēlius Marius, one of the Thirty Tyrants

    Iugurthīnus, a, um, adj. pertaining to Iugurtha
    cōnsulātus, ūs [cōnsul], m. consulate, consulship
    Cimbricus, a, um, adj.

    Cimbrian, of the Cimbri, a Germanic tribe which, together with the Teutones, invaded Italy, and was defeated by Marius, 101 B.C.

    prōtrahō, ere, trāxī, trāctus

    to draw forth, bring forward, produce; discover, disclose

    collega -ae m.

    colleague, fellow, associate

    Lutātius, ī, m.

    the name of a Roman gens.

    Catulus, ī, m.

    a family name at Rome. (1) C. Lutātius Catulus, consul 242 B.C.; (2) Q. Lutātius (Catulus), consul 241 B.C.; (3) Q. Lutātius Catulus, consul 202 B.C.; (4) Q. (Lutātius) Catulus, consul 78 B.C.

    cōnflīgō, ere, flīxī, flīctus

    to strike together; contend, fight

    Teutobodus, ī, m. a leader of the Cimbri
    meritum, ī, n. service


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