(1) Cōnstantīnus tamen vir ingēns et omnia efficere nītēns quae animō praeparāsset, simul prīncipātum tōtīus orbis adfectāns, Liciniō bellum intulit, quamquam necessitūdō et adfīnitās cum eō esset; nam soror Cōnstantia nūpta Liciniō erat. Ac prīmō eum in Pannoniā secundā ingentī apparātū bellum apud Cibalās īnstruentem repentīnus oppressit omnīque Dardaniā, Moesiā, Macedoniā potītus numerōsās prōvinciās occupāvit.

    Constantine versus Licinius (316 CE)

    (1) ingēns: "remarkable" (Bird), i.e. of remarkable ambition.

    praeparāsset: praeparavisset 

    Liciniō bellum intulit: inferō takes a dative and accusative construction (AG 370)

    adfīnitās: as described below, Constantia was a marriage tie between Licinius and Constantine

    eum ... bellum ... instruentem: "[Licinius] preparing for war"

    in Pannoniā secundā: see Pannonia Secunda

    apud Cibalās: "at Cibalae." This was in the great battle of Adrianople (Hadrianoupolis, now Edirne) in July 323 CE; it was followed by the reduction of Byzantium (Hazzard). According to Zosimus:

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    The empire being thus devolved on Constantine and Licinius, they soon quarreled. Not because Licinius gave any cause for it, but that Constantine, in his usual manner, was unfaithful to his agreement, by endeavoring to alienate from Licinius some nations that belonged to his dominions. By this means an open rupture ensued, and both prepared for war. Licinius took up his head-quarters at Cibalis, a city of Pannonia, which stands on a hill; the road to which is rugged and narrow. The greatest part of this road is through a deep morass, and the remainder up a mountain, on which stands the city. Below it extends a spacious plain, which entertains the view with a boundless prospect. On this Licinius fixed his camp, and extended the body of his army under the hill, that his flanks might be protected from the enemy. Constantine in the meantime drew up his men near the mountain, placing the horse in front, thinking that to be the best disposition lest the enemy should fall upon the foot, who moved but slowly, and hinder their advance. Having done this, he immediately gave the charge, and attacked the enemy. This engagement was one of the most furious that was ever fought; for when each side had expended their darts, they fought a long time with spears and javelins; and after the action had continued from morning to night, the right wing, where Constantine himself commanded, began to prevail. The enemy being routed, Licinius's troops, seeing him mounted and ready to fly, dared not stay to eat their portions, but left behind them all their cattle and provisions, taking only as much food as would suffice for one night, and marched with great precipitation along with Licinius to Sirmium. (New History 2.22.3–7; 1814 translation, edited by Thomas Spark)

    omnīque Dardaniā, Moesiā, Macedoniā potītus: deponent verb potior takes an ablative object (LS potior)

    Core Vocabulary | Numbers | Dates

    Cōnstantīnus, ī, m.

    Cōnstantīnus, surnamed "the Great." Roman emperor 306–337 A.D.

    nītor, ī, nīsus or nīxus sum

    to strive, attempt; rely upon

    praeparō, āre, āvī, ātus

    to make ready beforehand, provide

    prīncipātus, ūs [prīnceps], m.

    a chief authority (in the state); headship, leadership; reign, sovereignty

    adfectō, āre, āvī, ātus [ad + fectō, freq. of faciō]

    to strive after, aspire to

    Licinius, ī, m. the name of a Roman gens.

    (P. Flavius) Licinius, Roman emperor 307–324 A.D.

    necessitūdō, inis [necesse, necessary], f.

    friendship, intimacy

    adfīnitās, ātis [ad + fīnis], f.

    relationship (by marriage)

    Cōnstantia, ae, f.

    daughter of Constantius Chlorus

    nūbō, ere, nūpsī, nūptus

    to marry + dat.

    prīmō [prīmus], adv.

    at first

    Pannonia, ae, f.

    one of the most important provinces of Rome, lying between the Danube and the Alps

    apparātus, ūs, m.

    equipment, preparation; splendor, pomp

    Cibalae, ārum, pl. f.

    a town in Pannonia

    īnstruō, ere, strūxī, strūctus [in + struō, to pile up]

    to build; arrange, draw up or array (troops); make ready, equip, fit out

    repentīnus, a, um [repēns, sudden], adj.

    sudden, unexpected

    opprimō, ere, pressī, pressus

    to crush utterly, overpower, overwhelm

    Dardania, ae, f.

    a district of the Troad, lying along the Hellespont

    Moesia, ae, f.

    the modern Bulgaria and Servia, divided into Moesia Superior and Inferior; hence the pl., Moesiae

    Macedonia, ae, f.

    an extensive country north of Greece, between Thessaly and Thrace

    potior, īrī, ītus sum [potis, able]

    to get possession, acquire

    numerōsus, a, um [numerus], adj.

    in full numbers, numerous, manifold


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