(1) Hinc Iūliānus rērum potītus est ingentīque apparātū Parthīs intulit bellum, cuī expedītiōnī ego quoque interfuī. Aliquot oppida et castella Persārum in dēditiōnem accēpit vel vī expūgnāvit Assyriamque populātus castra apud Ctēsiphōntem statīva aliquamdiū habuit.

(2) Remeānsque victor, dum sē incōnsultius proeliīs īnserit, hostīlī manū interfectus est VI Kal. Iūl., imperiī annō septimō, aetātis alterō et trīcēsimō atque inter dīvōs relātus est, vir ēgregius et rem pūblicam īnsīgniter moderātūrus, sī per fāta licuisset.

(3) Līberālibus disciplīnīs apprīmē ērudītus, Graecīs doctior atque adeō ut Latīna ērudītiō nēquāquam cum Graecā scientiā convenīret, fācundiā ingentī et prōmptā, memoriae tenācissimae, in quibusdam philosophō proprior, in amicōs līberālis, sed minus dīligēns quam tantum prīncipem decuit. Fuērunt enim nōnnūllī, quī vulnera glōriae eius īnferrent. In prōvinciālēs iūstissimus et tribūtōrum, quātenus fierī posset, repressor, cīvīlis in cūnctōs, mediocrem habēns aerāriī cūram, glōriae avidus ac per eam animī plērumque inmodicī, nimius religiōnis Christiānae īnsectātor, perinde tamen ut cruōre abstinēret, M. Antōnīnō nōn absimilis, quem etiam aemulārī studēbat.

    Julian's Parthian expedition; his death (363 CE) and character.  

    (1) rērum potītus est: potior takes a genitive object (AG 357.A)

    cuī expedītiōnī ego quoque interfuī: what part Eutropius took in this expedition is not known (Hazzard). Julian arrived at Antioch on July 18, 362 CE and probably was accompanied by Eutropius from Constantinople (Bird).

    apud Ctēsiphōntem: see Ctesiphon. According to the Epitome de Caesaribus:

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    Then Julian, the care of the Roman world having been returned to one man, himself, excessively desirous of glory, marched toward Persia. There, led by a certain deserter into an ambush, when the Parthians were pressing upon him from different directions, he rushed from a just-established camp with a hastily snatched shield. And when, with unthinking ardor, he attempted to order the ranks for battle, he was struck with a pike by a single man from the enemy and, in fact, in flight. And borne back to his tent and having emerged once again to encourage his men, gradually drained of blood, he died at just about midnight, having said beforehand, when consulted about imperium, that he recommended no one, lest, as is customary in a multitude with discrepant inclinations, he produce danger for a friend from envy and for the state as a result of the discord of the army (Epit. De Caes. 43.1–4; translated by Thomas M. Banchich).

    castra statīva: "permanent camp"

    (2) Remeānsque victor: in the last battle fought on the 26th of June, Julian was mortally wounded by an arrow and died the same day (Hazzard).

    inter dīvōs: For more information on the deification of Roman emperors, see Apotheosis

    sī per fāta licuisset: contrary to fact condition (AG 514.C.2)

    (3) Graecīs doctior atque adeō ut Latīna ērudītiō nēquāquam cum Graecā scientiā convenīret: "but more learned in Greek literature to such an extent that his erudition in Latin was by no means comparable to his knowledge in Greek" (Bird); adeō ut introduces a result clause (AG 537).

    minus diligēns: "not careful enough" in choosing his friends, as is explained in the next sentence.

    per eam: supply glōriam

    nimius religiōnis Christiānae īnsectātor: According to Ammianus Marcellinus:

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    Although Julian from the earliest days of his childhood had been more inclined towards the worship of the pagan gods, and as he gradually grew up burned with longing to practice it, yet because of his many reasons for anxiety he observed certain of its rites with the greatest possible secrecy. But when his fears were ended, and he saw that the time had come when he could do as he wished, he revealed the secrets of his heart and by plain and formal decrees ordered the temples to be opened, victims brought to the altars, and the worship of the gods restored. And in order to add to the effectiveness of these ordinances, he summoned to the palace the bishops of the Christians, who were of conflicting opinions, and the people, who were also at variance, and politely advised them to lay aside their differences, and each fearlessly and without opposition to observe his own beliefs (22.5.1–3, Translated by J. C. Rolfe).

     M. Antōnīnō nōn absimilis: Julian often emulated Marcus Aurelius; see Ammianus Marc. 22.5.

    Core Vocabulary | Numbers | Dates


    Iūliānus, ī, m.

    (Flavius Claudius) Iūliānus, Roman emperor 361–363 A.D.

    potior, īrī, ītus sum [potis, able]

    to get possession, acquire

    apparātus, ūs, m.

    equipment, preparation; splendor, pomp

    Parthī, ōrum, pl. m.

    a Scythian people southeast of the Caspian Sea

    expedītiō, ōnis [expediō, to set fire], f.

    an expedition, campaign

    aliquot [alius + quot], indef. indecl. adj.

    some, several

    castellum, ī [dim. from castrum], n.

    a stronghold, castle, fort

    Persae, ārum, pl. m.

    the Persians

    dēditiō, ōnis [dēdō], f.

    a surrender

    expūgnō, āre, āvī, ātus

    to take by storm, capture; overpower, prevail upon

    Assyria, ae, f.

    a division of Asia between Media, Mesopotamia, and Babylon

    populō, āre, āvī, ātus

    to plunder, ravage, lay waste

    Ctēsiphōn, ōntis, f.

    a city in Assyria, on the Tigris

    statīvus, a, um [stō], adj.

    permanent, stationary; castra statīva, a permanent camp

    aliquamdiū [aliquis + diū], adv.

    for a while, for some time

    remeō, āre, āvī, —

    to go back, return 2

    incōnsultē [incōnsultus, not asked], adv.

    unadvisedly, inconsiderately

    īnserō, ere, uī, tus

    to fasten into; insert

    hostīlis, e [hostis], adj.


    Kal. = Kalendae, ārum, pl. f.

    the Kalends, the first day of the month

    Iūlius, i, m.

    the name of a Roman gens

    īnsīgniter [īnsīgnis], adv.

    remarkably, extraordinarily

    moderor, ārī, ātus sum [modus]

    to set bounds to, check, restrict, regulate

    līberālis, e [līber], adj.

    free-born, noble; liberal, generous 3

    apprīmē [prīmus], adv.

    most of all

    ērudītus, a, um

    polished, educated, trained

    Graecus, a, um, adj.

    Grecian, Greek

    doctus, a, um

    learned, skilled, versed, experienced

    Latīnus, a, um, adj.

    Latin, pertaining to Latium

    ērudītiō, ōnis [ērudiō], f.

    a polishing, training

    nēquāquam [nē + quāquam, anywhere], adv.

    not at all, by no means

    fācundia, ae [fācundus], f.

    eloquence, oratory

    prōmptus, a, um [prōmō, to set forth], adj.

    prepared, quick, prompt

    tenāx, ācis [teneō], adj.

    holding fast, tenacious; firm, steadfast, persistent

    philosophus, ī, m.

    a philosopher

    dīligēns, tis [dīligō], adj.

    careful, diligent, attentive; sparing; fond of

    nōnnūllus, a, um [nōn + nūllus], adj.

    some, several

    prōvinciālis, is, m.

    a provincial

    tribūtum, ī [tribuō], n.

    a tax, tribute

    quātenus, adv.

    (1) interrog., to what point? how far? (2) rel., as far as

    repressor, ōris [reprimō, to check], m.

    a restrainer, represser

    cīvīlis, e [cīvis], adj.

    pertaining to a citizen; civil; polite, moderate

    mediocris, cre [medius], adj.

    common, moderate, mediocre

    aerārium, ī [aes, copper], n.

    treasury, fund

    avidus, a, um, adj.

    comp. avidior; desirous, eager, greedy

    immodicus, a, um [in + modus], adj.

    beyond bounds, enormous, high; excessive

    religiō, ōnis, f.

    sense of duty; religion, devotion to the gods; scruple

    Christiānus, a, um, adj.


    īnsectātor, ōris, m.

    a persecutor

    perinde [per + inde], adv.

    in the same manner, just as, equally

    cruor, ōris, m.

    running blood, gore

    abstineō, ēre, uī, tentus

    to hold back or from; keep aloof from; refrain from, abstain


    M., abbreviation of the praenomen Marcus; M'., abbreviation of the praenomen Manius

    Antōnīnus, ī, m.

    the name of a dynasty of Roman emperors. (1) T. Aurēlius Antōnīnus Fulvius Bōiōnius Pius, 138–161 A.D.; (2) M. Aurēlius Antōnīnus Vērus, 161–180 A.D.; (3) L. Annius Antōnīnus Vērus, 161–169 A.D.; (4) L. Antōnīnus Commodus, 180–193 A.D.; (5) M. Aurēlius Antōnīnus Bassānius Caracalla, 211–217 A.D.; (6) M. Aurēlius Antōnīnus, Heliogabalus, 218–222 A.D.

    absimilis, e [ab + similis], adj.


    aemulor, ārī, ātus sum [aemulus]

    to rival, vie with, emulate


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