10.2

(1) Gālerius vir et probē mōrātus et ēgregius rē mīlitārī, cum Ītaliam quoque sinente Cōnstantiō administrātionī suae accessisse sentīret, Caesarēs duōs creāvit, Maximīnum, quem Orientī praefēcit, et Sevērum, cuī Ītaliam dedit. Ipse in Īllyricō commorātus est.

(2) Vērum Cōnstantiō mortuō Cōnstantīnus, ex obscūriōre mātrimōniō ēius fīlius in Britanniā creātus est imperātōr et in locum patris exoptātissimus moderātor accessit.

(3) Rōmae intereā praetōriānī excitō tumultū Maxentium, Herculīī fīlium, quī haud procul ab urbe in vīllā pūblicā morābātur, Augustum nūncupāvērunt. Quō nūntiō Maximiānus Herculius ad spem arrēctus resūmendī fastīgiī, quod invītus āmīserat, Rōmam advolāvit ē Lūcāniā, quam sēdem prīvātus ēlēgerat in agrīs amoenissimīs cōnsenēscēns, Dioclētiānumque etiam per litterās adhortātus est, ut dēpositam resūmeret potestātem, quās ille inrītās habuit.

(4) Sed adversum mōtum praetōriānōrum atque Maxentīī Sevērus Caesar Rōmam missus ā Gāleriō cum exercitū vēnit obsidēnsque urbem mīlitum suōrum scelere dēsertus est. Auctae Maxentīī opēs cōnfirmātumque imperium. Sevērus fugiēns Ravennae interfectus est.

    Constantine Emperor, 306307 CE

    (1) probē mōrātus: "honorable in character" (LS moratus II). See below for Galerius' administrative foresight 

    Ipse: Galerius

    (2) Cōnstantiō mortuō:  this occurred in 306 CE.

    Cōnstantīnus: known in history as Constantine the Great. The most important change he introduced was the adoption of Christianity as the state religion. The story is told that while marching from Gaul at the head of his legions, he saw in the heavens a luminous cross with this inscription, "By this conquer." In 313 CE he issued the famous Milan decree that gave imperial sanction to the religion of the Christians (Hazzard).

    obscūriōre mātrimōniō : "from a marriage (to a woman) of relatively low social status."

    (3) Rōmae: "at Rome," locative case (AG 427.3)

    praetōriānī: These were what the cohors praetoria of the Republic developed into under the military monarchy. The praetorium was now wherever the emperor was. The supreme commander of these was of course the emperor, but from the year 2 CE, the praetorians were commanded in the name of the emperor by two praefecti praetorio, sometimes by one, after the time of Commodus by three" (Smith, s.v. exercitus).

    Māxentium: Maxentius was the son of Maximian.

    in villā pūblicā: a building in the Campus Martius, intended for a lodging house or hotel for foreign ambassadors (Hazzard)

    arrectus: "roused," "encouraged" > arrigo

    resūmendī fastīgiī: "of regaining the elevated position." The gerundive resūmendī is objective genitive after spem (AG 504).

    Rōmam: "to Rome" (AG 427)

    Lūcāniā: Maximian chose to retire in Lucania because of its pleasant scenery (Hazzard).

    quās ille inrītās habuit: supply litterās, "which he (Diocletian) utterly disregarded" (Hazzard)

    (4) Auctae Māxentīī opēs: supply sunt

    Ravennae: "at Ravenna," locative case (AG 427.3); this occurred in 307 CE.

    Core Vocabulary | Numbers | Dates

    Gālerius, ī, m.

    Gālerius (Valerius) Māximiānus, Roman emperor, 305–311 A.D.

    probē [probus, estimable], adv.

    right, well, properly, correctly

    mōrātus, a, um [mōs], adj.

    mannered, of morals, constituted; characteristic

    mīlitāris, e [mīles], adj.

    military; as subst., a soldier; rēs mīlitāris, the art of war, military operations

    Ītalia, ae, f.

    Italy

    Cōnstantius, ī, m.

    (1) Cōnstantius Chlōrus, father of Constantine the Great. Roman emperor 305–306 A.D.; (2) Cōnstantius, third son of Constantine the Great. Roman emperor 337–361 A.D.

    administrātiō, ōnis [administrō], f.

    management, government

    Caesar, aris, m.

    a family name in the Julian gens. (1) C. Iūlius Caesar, the famous dictator; (2) Sex. Iūlius Caesar, uncle of the dictator. Consul 91 B.C.; (3) C. Octāviānus, the emperor Augustus

    Māximīnus, ī, m.

    (1) (C. Iūlius Verus) Māximīnus, Roman emperor 235–238 A.D.; (2) Gālerius (Valerius) Māximīnus, Roman emperor 305–314 A.D.

    Oriēns, entis [orior], m. (sc. sōl)

    the rising sun, the East, the Orient

    praeficiō, ficere, fēcī, fectum

    to place in command of, appoint + dat.

    Sevērus, ī, m.

    (1) (L.) Septimius Sevērus, Roman emperor 193—211 A.D.; (2) (Flavius Valerius) Sevērus, Roman emperor 306—307 A.D.

    Īllyricum, ī, n.

    a country east of the Adriatic Sea

    vērum [vērus, true], adv.

    truly, certainly; but 2

    Cōnstantīnus, ī, m.

    (1) Cōnstantīnus, surnamed "the Great." Roman emperor 306–337 A.D.; (2) Cōnstantīnus, son of (1)

    obscūrus, a, um, adj.

    dark, obscure; low born

    mātrimōnium, ī [māter], n.

    marriage; pl. wives

    Britannia, ae, f.

    Britain, England and Scotland; in the pl. includes Ireland

    exoptātus, a, um

    greatly wished or desired, longed for

    moderātor, ōris [moderor], m.

    a manager, governor, director

    intereā [inter + is], adv.

    in the meantime, meanwhile 3

    praetōriānus, a, um [praetōrium], adj.

    belonging to the bodyguard; praetorian; as subst., praetōriānī, ōrum, pl. m., the praetorians

    excieō, ciēre, cīvī, citum

    to arouse, excite, agitate

    tumultus, ūs, m.

    a disturbance, uproar; rebellion, riot

    Māxentius, ī, m.

    (M. Aurēlius Valerius) Māxentius, Roman emperor 306–312 A.D.

    Herculius, ī, m.

    a cognomen of Maximianus

    vīlla, ae, f.

    a country house, farm, villa

    Augustus, ī, m.

    a title of honor given to Octavianus in 27 BC and after him to all the Roman emperors

    nūncupō, āre, āvī, ātus [nōmen + capiō]

    to call, call by name; designate

    Māximiānus, ī, m.

    (1) Gālerius (Valerius) Māximiānus, Roman emperor, 305–311 A.D.; (2) (M. Aurēlius Valerius) Māximiānus, surnamed Herculius, Roman emperor 286–305 A.D.

    arrigō, ere, rēxī, rēctus

    rouse, encourage

    resūmō, ere, sūmpsī, sūmptus

    to resume, take up again

    fastīgium, ī, n.

    top, height; slope, descent; rank, dignity

    invītus, a, um, adj.

    unwilling

    advolō, āre, āvī, ātus [ad + volō, to fly]

    to fly to, hurry on, rush

    Lūcānia, ae, f.

    a district in southern Italy

    amoenus, a, um [amō, to love], adj

    pleasing, charming

    cōnsenēscō, ere, senuī, ——

    to grow old

    Dioclētiānus, ī, m.

    (Valerius) Dioclētiānus, emperor 284–305 A.D.

    adhortor, ārī, ātus sum [ad + hortor, to urge]

    to encourage, exhort, stimulate, urge

    dēpōnō, ere, posuī, positus

    to lay down or aside, put down; stop; arrange, establish

    irrīrītus, a, um

    ineffectual, unrealized, vain

    mōtus, ūs [moveō], m.

    motion, disturbance, revolt 4

    Māxentius, ī, m.

    (M. Aurēlius Valerius) Māxentius, Roman emperor 306–312 A.D.

    obsideō, ēre, sēdī, sessus

    to besiege, occupy; watch closely

    cōnfīrmō, āre, āvī, ātus [con + fīrmō, to make firm]

    to confirm, strengthen, encourage, affirm

    Ravenna, ae, f.

    a city in Cisalpine Gaul

     

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