10.9

(1) Is successōrēs fīliōs trēs relīquit atque ūnum frātris fīlium. Vērum Dalmatius Caesar prōsperrimā indole neque patruō absimilis haud multō post oppressus est factiōne mīlitārī, Cōnstantiō patruēlī suō sinente potius quam iubente.

(2) Cōnstantīnum porrō bellum frātrī īnferentem et apud Aquilēiam incōnsultius proelium adgressum Cōnstantis ducēs interēmērunt.

(3) Ita rēs pūblica ad duōs Augustōs redācta. Cōnstantis imperium strēnuum aliquamdiū et iūstum fuit. Mox cum et valētūdine inprōsperā et amīcīs prāviōribus ūterētur, ad gravia vitia conversus, cum intolerābilis prōvinciālibus, mīlitī iniūcundus esset, factiōne Māgnentiī occīsus est.

(4) Obiit haud longē ab Hispāniīs in castrō, cuī Helenae nomen est, annō imperiī septimō decimō, aetātis trīcēsimō, rēbus tamen plūrimīs strēnuē in mīlitiā gestīs, exercituīque per omne vītae tempus sine gravī crūdēlitāte terribilis.

    The sons of Constantine rule, 337360 CE

    (1) Is: Cōnstantīnus

    Dalmatius: Flavius Dalmatius (died 337), also known as Dalmatius Caesar

    haud multō post: "not long after" (AG 423)

    potius quam: "rather than/more than" 

    (2) bellum frātrī īnferentem: bellum inferre is a Latin idiom that takes a dative object (AG 370, LS infero 1.C.4); present active participle form, modifying Cōnstantīnum

    apud Aquilēiam: Aquileia was a city in Northern Italy. According to the Epitome de Caesaribus,

    However, on account of the legal right to Italy and Africa, Constantinus and Constans immediately disagreed. When Constantinus, reckless and horribly intoxicated, in a display of highway robbery, rushed into territories not his own, he was slain and thrown into a river, the name for which is Alsa, not far from Aquileia. (de Caes. 41.21, translated by Thomas M. Banchich)

    (3) ad duōs Augustōs: 340 CE

    redācta: "was left to," supply est (LS redigo II.B)

    Cōnstantis imperium: see Constans

    ūterētur:  "had," "experienced," + abl., as normal with utor. 

    iniūcundus: "unpleasant/disagreeable," litotes construction (AG 326.c)

    factiōne Māgnentiī: "by Magnentius's faction," Flavius Magnus Magnentius Augustus (ca. 303-353), usurper against Constantius II from 350 to 353.

    (4) cuī Helenae nomen est: "named Helena," cuī is dative of possession (AG 373)

    annō imperiī septimō decimō: 350 CE 

    exercituīque:  “[feared] by the army,” exercituī is the dative object of terribilis

    Core Vocabulary | Numbers | Dates

     

    successor, ōris [succēdō], m.

    a follower, successor

    vērum [vērus, true], adv.

    truly, certainly; but

    Dalmatius, ī, m.

    Dalmatius Caesar, a nephew of Constantine the Great

    Caesar, aris, m.

    a family name in the Julian gens. (1) C. Iūlius Caesar, the famous dictator; (2) Sex. Iūlius Caesar, uncle of the dictator. Consul 91 B.C.; (3) C. Octāviānus, the emperor Augustus

    prōsperus, a, um [prō + spēs], adj.

    according to one's hopes, favorable, prosperous

    indolēs, is, f.

    nature, disposition

    patruus, ī [pater], m.

    of a father's brother, paternal uncle

    absimilis, e [ab + similis], adj.

    unlike

    opprimō, ere, pressī, pressus

    to crush utterly, overpower, overwhelm

    factiō, ōnis [faciō], f.

    a party, political party, faction

    mīlitāris, e [mīles], adj.

    military; as subst., a soldier; rēs mīlitāris, the art of war, military operations

    Cōnstantius, ī, m.

    (1) Cōnstantius Chlōrus, father of Constantine the Great. Roman emperor 305–306 A.D.; (2) Cōnstantius, third son of Constantine the Great. Roman emperor 337–361 A.D.

    patruēlis, e [patruus], adj.

    of a father's brother, child of a father's brother; as subst., a cousin

    potius [comp. of potis, able], adv., sup. potissimum;

    rather, more, sooner

    Cōnstantīnus, ī, m.

    (1) Cōnstantīnus, surnamed "the Great." Roman emperor 306–337 A.D.; (2) Cōnstantīnus, son of (1) 2

    porrō [prō], adv.

    forward, henceforth, furthermore, again

    Aquilēia, ae, f.

    a city in northern Italy on the Adriatic Sea

    incōnsultē [incōnsultus, not asked], adv.

    unadvisedly, inconsiderately

    aggredior, gredī, gressus sum

    to approach, attack, undertake

    Cōnstāns, antis, m.

    the youngest of the three sons of Constantine the Great

    interimō, ere, ēmī, ēmptus

    to take from the midst of, kill

    Augustus, ī, m.

    a title of honor given to Octavianus in 27 BC and after him to all the Roman emperors 3

    redigō, ere, ēgī, āctus

    to drive back; reduce; render, bring

    strēnuus, a, um, adj.

    brisk, active, vigorous

    aliquamdiū [aliquis + diū], adv.

    for a while, for some time

    valētūdō, inis [valeō, to be well], f.

    health (good or bad), sickness, weakness

    imprōsper, spera, sperum [in + prōsperus, fortunate], adj.

    unfortunate, unprosperous

    prāvus, a, um, adj.

    crooked, wrong; perverse, wicked

    intolerābilis, e [in + tolerābilis, supportable], adj.

    unendurable

    prōvinciālis, is, m.

    a provincial

    iniūcundus, a, um [in + iūcundus], adj.

    unpleasant, disagreeable

    factiō, ōnis [faciō], f.

    a party, political party, faction

    Māgnentius, ī, m.

    Roman emperor, 350–353 A.D.

    obeō, īre, īvī (iī), itus

    to go to meet; attend to, perform; die, perish 4

    Hispānia, ae, f.

    Spain (including Portugal). It was divided into two provinces, Hispania Citerior and Ulterior; hence the pl. Hispaniae.

    Helena, ae, f.

    the name of a Roman camp in Spain where Constans died

    strēnuē [strēnuus], adv., sup. strēnuissimē

    vigorously

    mīlitia, ae [mīles], f.

    military service

    crūdēlitās, ātis [crūdēlis, cruel], f.

    cruelty

    terribilis, e [terreō], adj.

    frightful, dreadful

     

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