Further Reading

Greek texts

Boter, G. 1999. The Encheiridion of Epictetus and its Three Christian Adaptations. Leiden: Brill.

Schenkl, H. 1916. Epicteti Dissertationes ab Arriano Digestae. Leipzig: Teubner. Editio maior, 2nd ed. Archive.org. Includes testimonia.


Long, A.A. 2018. How to be Free: An Ancient Guide to the Stoic Life. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Oldfather, W.A. 1928. Epictetus: The Discourses as Reported by Arrian, the Manual, and Fragments. Vol. 2. Discourses Books 3 and 4, Tha Manual, and Fragments. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Smith, S. 2014.  “Epictetus, A Handbook of Stoic Philosophy.” In Ancient Rome: An Anthology of Sources, edited by Christopher Francese and R. Scott Smith. Indianapolis: Hackett. 

White, N.P. 1983. Epictetus: The Handbook (The Encheiridion). Indianapolis: Hackett.


Brant, U. 2015. Kommntar zu Epiktets Encheiridion. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter.


List of manuscripts of the Encheiridion at Pinakeshttps://pinakes.irht.cnrs.fr/notices/oeuvre/4724/

The Thought of Epictetus

Graver, M. 2007Stoicism and Emotion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Graver, M. 2019. “Epictetus.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed July 18, 2019.

Hadot, P. 1995. Philosophy as a Way of Life: Spiritual Exercises from Socrates to Foucault. Translated by M. Chase, edited by A.I. Davidson. Malden, MA: Blackwell. French original 1987 (2nd edition).

Johnson, B. 2014The Role Ethics of Epictetus: Stoicism in Ordinary Life. Lanham: Lexington Books. Review by Margaret Graver.

Long, A.A. 2002Epictetus: A Stoic and Socratic Guide to Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press. See also M. Graver’s review in Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, 25 (2003): 343–359.

Seddon, K. “Epictetus (55–135 C.E.).” Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed July 17, 2019. http://www.iep.utm.edu/epictetu/.

Stephens, W.O. 2007. Stoic Ethics: Epictetus and Happiness as Freedom. London and New York: Continuum Intl. Publ. Group.


Adamson, Peter. 2012. “You Can Chain My Leg: Epictetus.” The History of Philosophy without Any Gaps, Episode 66. Accessed July 17, 2019. https://historyofphilosophy.net/epictetus.

Adamson, Peter. 2012. “John Sellars on the Roman Stoics.” The History of Philosophy without Any Gaps, Episode 68. Accessed July 17, 2019. https://historyofphilosophy.net/sellars-stoics

Stoic Thought

Long, A.A. 1986. Hellenistic Philosophy: Stoics, Epicureans, Sceptics. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Sandbach, F.H. 1975. The Stoics. London: Chatto & Windus.

Fragments of the Early Stoa

Long, A.A. and D. Sedley. 1987. Hellenistic Philosophers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2 vols.


Holiday, Ryan and Stepehen Hanselman. A Model of Late Stoic Practice and a Glossary of Key Terms and Passages. 2016. https://dailystoic.com/glossary/

Suggested Citation

Albert Watanabe, Epictetus: Encheiridion. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2020. ISBN: 978-1-947822-13-9