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205. In early Greek , , τό, the later article (§ 61), was a demonstrative pronoun (this, that, he, it, etc.); in Attic this force is retained in a few phrases (see § 549). When thus used, some print , , οἵ, αἵ with the acute— which then always becomes grave (§ 15).

a. In poetry , , τό is also used as a relative pronoun.

206. Ὅδε, ἥδε, τόδε (this; Latin hic) is , , τό with the enclitic syllable -δε. For declension see § 209 (below). For the accent of ὅδε, ἥδε, οἵδε, αἵδε see § 21.c-d.

207. Οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτο (this, that; Latin is, ille) is also formed from , , τό, and hence begins with τ- or the rough breathing in the same places (§ 209, below).

208. Ἐκεῖνος, ἐκείνη, ἐκεῖνο (that yonder; in poetry also κεῖνος, κείνη, κεῖνο) is declined like αὐτός (§ 198).


Goodell: Demonstrative Pronouns, Ὅδε, ἥδε, τόδε

Goodell: Demonstrative Pronouns, Οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτο

a. For τοῖσιδε, ταῖσιδε, etc., cp. § 64 and § 69.c.

210. To all forms of ὅδε and οὗτος the syllable -ῑ́ is often added, sometimes also to other demonstratives, to point to something still more clearly as near at hand. This -ῑ́ always takes the accent; before it , -ο, and are lost.

ὁδῑ́, οὑτοσῑ́  this man here

So τουτουῑ́, ταυτησῑ́, τουτῑ́, ταυτῑ́, τοδῑ́, οὑτοιῑ́, τοιουτονῑ́.

211. With ὅδε go:

τοιόσδε τοιᾱ́δε τοιόνδε such
[Latin talis (of quality)]
τοσόσδε τοσήδε τοσόνδε

so much, so great
(pl.) so many
[Latin tantustot of this size or number]

τηλικόσδε τηλικήδε τηλικόνδε so great, so old

a. Poets often use the simpler forms without -δε.

τοῖος, -ᾱ, -ον

τόσος, , -ον

​​​​​​​τηλίκος, , -ον

212. With οὗτος go:

τοιοῦτος, τοιαύτη, τοιοῦτο(ν) [Latin talis]
τοσοῦτος, τοσαύτη, τοσοῦτο(ν) [Latin tantus, pl. tot]
τηλικοῦτος, τηλικαύτη, τηλικοῦτο(ν) so great or old

Suggested Citation

Meagan Ayer, ed. Goodell’s School Grammar of Attic Greek. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-10-8.