Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns

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217. The interrogative pronoun τίς, τί (who? what?) and the indefinite pronoun τις, τι (some one, something, any one, anything) are spelt alike but differ in accent (219).

Interrogative τίς never changes the acute to the grave (15 and 15.a); forms of two syllables accent the first.

Indefinite τις is enclitic (19.b); disyllabic forms that require an accent (20.d) have it on the ultima.

a. The poetic form ἄττα is not enclitic.

218. The enclitic τις added to ὅς makes the indefinite or general relative pronoun ὅστις, ἥτις, ὅτι (any one who, anything which, whoever) etc. (220). For the accent see 21.a & d.

In a similar way τις following other relatives (215, 222) makes their reference more general or inclusive.

219. Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns: τίς, τις

Goodell: Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns: τίς, τις Chart

220. Indefinite Pronouns: ὅστις, ἥτις, ὅτι

Goodell: Indefinite Pronouns: ὅστις, ἥτις, ὅτι Chart

221. a. The shorter forms ὅτου, ὅτῳ, ἅττα, ὅτων, ὅτοις, especially ὅτου and ὅτῳ, are more common than the corresponding trisyllabic forms.

b. The neuter ὅτι is usually printed ὅ τι or ὅ, τι to distinguish it from the conjunction ὅτι (that, because,) which is merely a special use of the same word.

c. The addition of οὖν makes the most inclusive general pronoun, with loss of all relative or interrogative force.

ὁστισοῦν (any one whatever), ὁτιοῦν (anything whatever)
ὁντινοῦν, ἡντινοῦν (accusative) etc.

222. Other interrogative pronouns, and the corresponding indefinite or general relatives (made by prefixing the relative stem ὁ-), are:

Interrogatives General Relatives
πότερος  which (of two)? ὁπότερος  whichever (of two)
ποῖος  of what sort? ὁποῖος  of whatever sort
πόσος  how large?
how many? (pl.) 
ὁπόσος  of whatever size (number)
πηλίκος  how great? how old? ὁπηλίκος  of whatever age or size

223. All indefinite or general relative words (sometimes also the simple relatives) are used as indirect interrogatives.

224. The general negative pronouns οὐδείς and μηδείς have been given in 189.

So from οὐδʼ (μηδʼ) ἕτερος we have οὐδέτερος and μηδέτερος (neither of the two).

a. Poets use οὔτις and μήτις for οὐδείς and μηδείς; the neuter forms οὔτι and μήτι are used also in prose as adverbs (230), not at all.

225. The indefinite (, τὸ) δεῖνα so-and-so, what's-his-name, is used as indeclinable, and is also declined:

Goodell: Indefinite Pronoun δεῖνα Chart

Suggested Citation

Meagan Ayer, ed. Goodell’s School Grammar of Attic Greek. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-10-8.