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35. Crasis (κρᾶσις mingling) is like contraction (29) except that it occurs between separate words, which are then written as one. If the first syllable had the rough breathing, that is retained over the mingled syllable; otherwise the smooth breathing is written.

ἐγᾦμαι ᾱ̔́ν ὠγαθέ τᾱ̓μά
ἐγὼ οἶμαι ἅ ἄν ὦ ἀγαθέ τὰ ἐμά

36.   a. Final -ι of a diphthong disappears in crasis.

οὑν for oἱ ἐν or ὁ ἐν:

b. Initial α- absorbs the vowel or diphthong of a preceding article and of τοι; most vowels and diphthongs absorb the αι οf καί.

ᾱ̔νήρ τᾱ̓νδρός ᾱ̔́νδρες αὑτός τᾱ̓́ν κεἰ
ὁ ἀνήρ τοῦ ἀνδρός οἱ ἄνδρες ὁ αὐτός τοι ἄν καὶ εἰ

    But note

κᾱ̓ς for καὶ ἐς

κᾆτα for καὶ εἶτα

κᾱ̓ν for καὶ ἐν

c. Ἕτερος is treated as ἅτερος, probably the older form.

ᾱ̔́τερος for ὁ ἕτερος

d. Note also applications of 42.

θᾱ̓́τερον χἠ χοἰ θοἰμάτιον
τὸ ἕτερον καὶ ἡ καὶ οἱ τὸ ῑ̔μάτιον

37. The accent of the first word is lost in crasis, that of the second retained; see examples in 35 and 36 above.

Suggested Citation

Meagan Ayer, ed. Goodell’s School Grammar of Attic Greek. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-10-8.