Derivation and Formation of Adverbs

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228. Several endings denoting place are much like case-endings; some words formed with them may be taken either as adverbs or as nouns.

, -θι, -σι (at or in) for the place where [locative]
-θεν (from) for the place whence [ablative]
-δε, -σε, -ζε (tο or toward) for the place whither

The ending -δε is added to the accusative (cp. accusative of limit, 533); -ζε seems to be for -σδε, -δε being added to the accusative plural; may be regarded as forming a locative singular, -σι a locative plural.

οἴκοι (14.a)
at home
οἴκοθεν
from home
οἴκαδε
homeward
ἄλλοθι
elsewhere
ἄλλοθεν
from elsewhere
ἄλλοσε
else-whither
Ἀθήνησι
in Athens
Ἀθήνηθεν
from Athens
Ἀθήνᾱζε
to Athens
Ἐλευσῖνι
at Eleusis
Ἐλευσῑνόθεν
from Eleusis
Ἐλευσῖνάδε
to Eleusis
ἑτέρωθι
on the other side
ἑτέρωθεν
from the other side
ἑτέρωσε
to the οther side
  πάντοθεν
from every side
πάντοσε
in all directions
θύρᾱσι
at the doors
θύρᾱθεν
from without
θύρᾱζε&
out οf doors
ἔνδοθι, ἔνδον
within
ἔνδοθεν
from within
 
χαμαί
on the ground
χαμᾶθεν
from the ground
χαμᾶζε
to the grοund

a. Several adverbs of the place where end in -ου.

πανταχοῦ
everywhere
πανταχόθεν
from everywhere
πανταχόσε
in all directions
αὐτοῦ
in the very place
αὐτόθεν
from the very place
αὐτόσε
to the very place

229. Adverbs of manner in -ως are made from many adjectives and some participles and pronouns; they are like the genitive plural masculine, with in place of .

  Gen. Pl. Adverb
σοφός
wise
σοφῶν σοφῶς
wisely
δίκαιος
just
δικαίων δικαίως
justly
ἀληθής
true
ἀληθῶν ἀληθῶς
truly
ἡδύς
pleasant
ἡδέων ἡδέως
pleasantly
εἰκώς
like
εἰκότων εἰκότως
naturally
τεταγμένος
arranged
τεταγμένων τεταγμένως
in an orderly way

230. For many adjectives the neuter accusative, singular or plural, is used as an adverb.

πολύ  much
πολλά  many times
μῑκρόν  a little
μέγα and μεγάλα  greatly
πρῶτον and πρῶτα  first

231. Some common adverbs do not readily fall into classes. Thus the adverb for ἀγαθός is εὖ (well); from ταχύς the old adverb τάχα (quickly) means in prose perhaps, while ταχέως or ταχύ means quickly. From several prepositions are made adverbs in -ω.

ἄνω  above, upward
κάτω  below
ἔσω  within
ἔξω  outside
πρόσω  forward
πόρρω, πόρσω  farther on, afar

Other adverbial endings are -δόν, -δην, -στί, -εί.

ἔνδον  within
στοιχηδόν  in rοws
κρύβδην  secretly
νεωστί  lately
ἔλληνιστί  in Greek
ἀμαχεί  without fighting
πανδημεί  with full levy

232. Adverbs of number for the first three cardinal numbers are ἄπαξ (once), δίς (twice), τρίς (thrice). For higher numbers the adverbs end in -άκις.

τετράκις  four times
πεντάκις  five times
ὀκτάκις  eight times
ἐνάκις  nine times
εἰκοσάκις  twenty times
ἑκατοντάκις etc.

On the same model are made others, like πολλάκις (often) from πολύς, ὀλιγάκις (a few times, seldom), πλεονἀκις (more times), ὁσάκις (as often as).

233. Other adverbs of number, commonly denoting division, are:

μοναχῇ (μόνος, μοναχός)  singly, in one way only
δίχα and διχῇ  in two parts, doubly
τρίχα and τριχῇ  in three parts, triply
πολλαχῇ  in many ways
πανταχῇ  in every way

234. Adverbs derived from adjectives, and some others, are compared like adjectives; for the comparative the neuter accusative singular is used, for the superlative the neuter accusative plural.

235. Some adverbs of place have the comparative and superlative in .

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Suggested Citation

Meagan Ayer, ed. Goodell’s School Grammar of Attic Greek. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-10-8. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/grammar/goodell/derivation-and-formation-adverbs