Consonant Declension Nouns

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98. Tο the consonant declension belong, among nouns,

  • Liquid stems ending in , , ;
  • Guttural stems ending in , , ;
  • Labial and dental stems ending in , , and in , , ;
  • Neuter stems ending in ;
  • Masculine stems ending in -ντ;
  • Stems ending in -εσ, -ασ;
  • Stems ending in , ;
  • Stems ending in -ευ, -αυ, -ου;
  • Stems ending in , -ο;
  • Some irregular nouns.

99. Liquid Stems in ,

Goodell: Greek Consonant Declension Nouns: Liquid Stems in -λ, -ν paradigm

100. In ἅλς (see 40.a) both stem and case-endings are unchanged throughout.

101. Monosyllabic stems of this declension accent the ending in the genitive and dative; -ῶν and -οῖν take the circumflex.

a. Not so, however, the genitive plural (and dual) of

 παῖς, παιδ-ός child
ὁ Τρώς, Τρω-ός Trojan
τὸ οὖς, ὠτ-ός ear
ὁ δμώς, δμω-ός slave (poetic)

Thus παιδ-ί, παι-σί, but παίδ-ων, παίδ-οιν.

102. Liquid Stems in ,

Goodell: Greek Consonant Declension Nouns: Liquid Stems in -ν, -ρ paradigm

103. Stems in and

a. Οmit the case-ending and lengthen a short ultima (40).

δαίμων for δαιμον-ς
ῥήτωρ for ῥητορ-ς

b. But note ὁ δελφῑ́ς (dolphin) for δελφῑν-ς and ἡ Σαλαμῑ́ς (Salamis) for Σαλαμῑν-ς.

c. As a vocative singular they use the nominative if the ultima is accented; otherwise the simple stem.

d. For λιμέ-σι, δαίμο-σι, see 51.d.

104. Ἀπόλλων (Apollo) has in the accusative singular Ἀπόλλωνα, but oftener Ἀπόλλω; the vocative is Ἄπολλον, with recessive accent (cp. δέσποτα, 72.d).

105. A few common stems in -ερ make a class by themselves. They accent the ending in the genitive and dative singular as if monosyllabic, reject -ε- in those cases, change -ερ to -ρα in the dative plural, and in the vocative singular have recessive accent (cp. Ἄπολλον, 104).

106. Stems in -ερ

Goodell: Greek Consonant Declension Nouns: Liquid Stems in -ερ paradigm

107. In ἀνήρ after -ε- was lost -δ- was developed between -ν- and -ρ- (49). Thus the stem becomes ἀνδρ- in most forms; hence the accent of ἀνδρῶν, ἀνδροῖν (101).

108. a. Like πατήρ is declined ὁ γαστήρ (γαστερ-, belly).

b. Nearly like μήτηρ except in accent is Δημήτηρ (Demeter)

Goodell: Greek Consonant Declension Nouns: Δημήτηρ paradigm

109. Guttural Stems in ,

Goodell: Greek Consonant Declension Nouns: Gurtural Stems in -Κ, -Γ paradigm

110. For and -ξι see 45.a.

111. a. In ὁ κῆρυξ, κήρῡκ-ος (herald), -ῡ- becomes short in the nominative and vocative singular. So -ῑ- in ὁ φοῖνιξ, φοίνῑκ-ος (date-palm).

b.The stem θριχ- (hair) follows 47.d.

Goodell: Greek Consonant Declension Nouns: θρίξ paradigm

c. The stem () ἀνακτ- (king, chief) loses -τ- before and -σι, and loses -κτ- in the vocative singular.

Goodell: Greek Consonant Declension Nouns: ἄναξ paradigm

So, too, ἡ νύξ, νυκτ-ός (night), makes the dative plural νυξί.

Suggested Citation

Meagan Ayer, ed. Goodell’s School Grammar of Attic Greek. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-10-8. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/grammar/goodell/consonant-declension-nouns