The Root-Perfect

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370. A few verbs have some perfect active forms without a tense suffix, the endings being added directly to the reduplicated verb stem, always a root.

(1) From ἵστημι, besides the regular κα- perfect, occur the following, in the intransitive sense (stand).

Indicative Perfect ἕστα-μεν
ἕστα-τε
ἑστᾶσι
ἕστα-τον
Pluperfect ἕστα-σαν
Subjunctive Perfect ἑστῶ
ἑστῶμεν
Pluperfect ἑστῶσι
Optative Perfect ἑσταίην, etc.
Imperative ἕστα-θι, etc.
Infinitive ἑστά-ναι Participle ἑστώς (173)

(2) From βαίνω, besides βέβηκα (am gone, stand fast) occur indicative 3rd plural βεβᾶσι, subjunctive 3rd plural βεβῶσι, participle βεβώς, like έστώς.

(3) From γίγνομαι, besides γένονα, occurs γεγώς, like ἑστώς.

(4) From θνήσκω, besides τέθνηκα (am dead) the following occur.

Indicative Perfect

τέθνα-μεν

τέθνα-τε
τεθνᾶσι
τέθνα-τον
Pluperfect ἐτέθνα-σαν
Optative τεθναίην
Imperative τέθνα-θι
Infinitive τεθνά-ναι Participle τεθνεώς (173)

(5) Besides δέδοικα (δι-, δει-, δοι-fear) and the α- perfect δέδια, δεδιε, δεδιέναι, the following occur.

Indicative Perfect

δέδι-μεν

δέδι-τε
δεδί-ᾱσι
Pluperfect ἐδέδι-σαν
Subjunctive δεδίω
Participle δεδιώς, δεδιυῖα, δεδιός

(6) From ἔοικα (ἰκ-, εἰκ-, οἱκ-am like, appear), pluperfect ἐῴκη, the following occur.

Indicative Perfect

ἔοιγ-μεν

εἴξᾱσι
Infinitive εκέναι Participle εἰκώς, εἰκυῖα, εἰκός
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Suggested Citation

Meagan Ayer, ed. Goodell’s School Grammar of Attic Greek. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-10-8. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/grammar/goodell/root-perfect