Denominative Verbs

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415. Verb-stems are made from nouns:

  1. By merely adding the endings of conjugation, the stem being unchanged, except by the usual processes of conjugation;
  2. By changing the final stem-vowel;
  3. By adding a new element; the final stem vowel may be changed at the same time. All under this head belong in the present system to the -ι class (259); originally the presents of the other types belonged to the same class, although in Attic Greek the -ι- no longer appears.

Thus arose, with some crossing of types, several models, on which denominative verbs were made pretty freely; the classes are clearly separated in form, much less clearly in meaning.

416. a. Stems in -ο:ω, present indicative in -όω, regularly transitive, often causative:

δουλό-ω (δουλο:ω-)
enslave
δοῦλος
slave
ἀξιό-ω (ἀξιο:ω-)
deem worthy or fit
ἄξιος
worthy

On the same model, from other stems, with a change of vowel:

ζημιό-ω (ζημιο:ω-)
punish
ζημίᾱ
damage
ῥιζό-ω (ῥιζο:ω-)
cause to root
ῥίζα
root

From consonant stems, with added -ο:

μαστῑγό-ω (μαστῑγο:ω-)
whip
μάστιξ (μαστῑγ-)
whip

b. Stems in -α:ᾱ or -α:η, present in -άω:

τῑμά-ω (τῑμα:η-)
honor
τῑμή
honor
νῑκά-ω (νῑκα:η-)
am victorious
νῑ́κη
victory
ἡττά-ομαι (ἡττα:η-)
am worsted
ἧττα
defeat

From stems in -ο, with change of vowel:

ᾱ̓ριστά-ω (ριστα:η-)
breakfast
ᾱ̓́ριστον
breakfast
γοά-ομαι (γοα:η-)
wail
γόος
wail

c. Stems in -ε:η, present in -έω, generally intransitive:

οἰκέ-ω (οἰκε:η-)
dwell
οἶκος
house
φιλέ-ω (φιλε:η-)
love
φίλος
friend
ἀποδημέ-ω (ἀποδημε:η-)
am abroad
ἀπόδημος
away from home
ἀπορέ-ω (ἀπορε:η-)
am at a loss, or poor
ἄπορος
without resources

From stems in -εσ, with loss of σ (55.a):

κρατέ-ω (κρατε:η-)
am strong, rule
κράτος (κρατεσ-)
strength
ἀσθενέ-ω (ἀσθενε:η-)
am weak, ill
ἀσθενής, -ές
weak
εὐτυχέ-ω (εὐτυχε:η-)
am fortunate
εὐτυχής, -ές
fortunate

From consonant stems, with added -ε:

σωφρονέ-ω (σωφρονε:η-)
am discreet
σώφρων
of sound mind
ἱστορέ-ω (ἱστορε:η-)
investigate
ἵστωρ
one who knows (405)

417. a. Stems in -ευ, present indicative in -εύω:

βασιλεύ-ω (βασιλευ-)
reign
βασιλεύς
king
ἱππεύ-ω (ἱππευ-)
serve in the cavalry
ἱππεύς
horseman

From other vowel stems, with change of vowel:

ὑποπτεύ-ω (ὑποπτευ-)
suspect
ὕποπτος
suspicious
πορεύ-ω (πορευ-)
make proceed
πόρος
passage
πιστεύ-ω (πιστευ-)
trust
πιστός
faithful
βουλεύ-ω (βουλευ-)
plan
βουλή
will, plan
ἱκετεύ-ω (ἱκετευ-)
entreat
ἱκέτης
suppliant
ἀληθεύω (ἀληθευ-)
speak truth
ἀληθής, -ες
true

From consonant-stems, with added -ευ:

παιδεύ-ω (παιδευ-)
educate
παῖς (παιδ-)
child
φυγαδεύ-ω (φυγαδευ-)
exile
φυγάς (φυγαδ-)
exile

b. A few stems in -υ, present in -ω:

δακρῡ́-ω (δακρυ-)
weep
δάκρυ
tear
γηρῡ́-ω (γηρυ-)
speak, sing
γῆρυς
voice

418. Stems in -ιδ, present indicative in -ίζω (ι-class, 259.d):

ἐλπίζω (ἐλπιδ-)
hope, anticipate
ἐλπίς (ἐλπιδ-)
hope
ἐρίζω (ἐριδ-)
quarrel
ἔρις (ἐριδ-)
strife

From other stems, with change or addition of the final element:

χαρίζομαι (χαριδ-)
do a favor
χάρις (χαριτ-)
grace
ὁρίζω (ὁριδ-)
limit, bound
ὅρος
boundary
τειχίζω (τειχιδ-)
build a wall
τεῖχος (τειχεσ-)
wall
ἀθροίζω (ἀθροιδ-)
assemble
ἄθροος, ἅθροος
in a crowd
ἑλληνίζω (ἑλληνιδ-)
speak Greek
Ἕλλην
Greek
χωρίζω (χωριδ-)
set apart
χωρίς (adv.)
apart

For ἐμποδίζω and διαχειρίζω see 448.a.

a. Similar in the present only is σαλπίζω (σαλπιγγ-, sound the trumpet) from σάλπιγξ (trumpet); but aorist ἐσάλπιγξα.

419. Stems in -αδ, present in -άζω (ι-class, 259.d), are partly from noun-stems in -ατ, but mostly from noun-stems in -ᾱ and adjective-stems in -ο, with change of -ᾱ or -ο:

θαυμάζω (θαυμαδ-)
wonder
θαῦμα (θαυματ-)
wonder
ὀνομάζω (ὀνομαδ-)
name
ὄνομα (ὀνοματ-)
name
δικάζω (δικαδ-)
give judgment
δίκη
decision, justice
βιάζομαι (βιαδ-)
use force
βίᾱ
violence
ἀτῑμάζω (ἀτιμαδ-)
dishonor
ἄτῑμος
unhonored

Also from other stems, with the final element changed to -αδ:

διχάζω (διχαδ-)
divide in two
δίχα (adv.)
in two parts
στασιάζω (στασιαδ-)
form a faction
στάσις (στασι-)
faction

420. Stems in -αν, present in -αίνω (ι-class, 259.b). These are partly from noun— or adjective— stems in -αν, but oftener from others, with change of the final element, or with an addition:

μελαίνω (μελαν-)
blacken
μέλᾱς (μελαν-)
black
ποιμαίνω (ποιμαν-)
herd
ποιμήν (ποιμεν-)
herdsman
εὐφραίνω (εὐφραν-)
gladden
εὔφρων (εὐφρον-)
glad
σημαίνω (σημαν-)
signify
σῆμα (σηματ-)
sign
χαλεπαίνω (χαλεπαν-)
am angry
χαλεπός (χαλεπο-)
hard, angry
κερδαίνω (κερδαν-)
gain
κέρδος (κερδεσ-)
gain

421. Stems in -υν, present in -ῡ́νω (ι-class, 259.b). These are largely from adjective-stems in -υ, but also from other stems, which are changed or extended to conform to the model:

βαρῡ́νω (βαρυν-)
make heavy
βαρύς
heavy
ταχῡ́νω (ταχυν-)
hasten
ταχύς
swift
λαμπρῡ́νω( λαμπρυν-)
brighten
λαμπρός
shining
αἰσχῡ́νω (αἱσχυν-)
make ashamed
αἶσχος
shame
μηκῡ́νω (μηκυν-)
lengthen
μῆκος
length

422. Similar formations, with presents of the ι-class, are seen in

ἀγγέλλω (ἀγγελ-)
report
ἄγγελος
messenger
τεκμαίρομαι (τεκμαρ-)
settle by signs, infer
τέκμαρ
sign
καθαίρω (καθαρ-)
cleanse, purify
καθαρός
clean
ἐχθαίρω (ἐχθαρ-)
hate
ἔχθος
hatred
μαρτῡ́ρομαι (μαρτυρ-)
call to witness
μάρτυς
witness
ῑ̔μείρω (ῑ̔μερ-)
long for
ῑ̔μερος
longing
οἰκτῑ́ρω (οἰκτιρ-)
pity
οἶκτος
pity
παίζω (παιδ-)
play
παῖς (παιδ-)
child

423. The differences of use between the above verb formations are best seen when two verbs are made from one stem:

οἰκέω
dwell
οἰκίζω
settle (a town)
ἀτῑμόω
disfranchise
ἀτῑμάζω
dishοnor
μαρτυρέω
am a witness, testify
μαρτῡ́ρομαι
call to witness
καθαρεύω
am pure
καθαίρω
cleanse
δουλεύω
am a slave
δουλόω
enslave
πολεμέω
make war
πολεμόω
make hostile
σωφρονέω
am discreet
σωφρονίζω
make discreet, chastise

Suggested Citation

Meagan Ayer, ed. Goodell’s School Grammar of Attic Greek. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-10-8. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/grammar/goodell/denominative-verbs