Middle and Passive Forms with Peculiar Meaning

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392. In many verbs otherwise active the future active is wanting and the future middle has the active meaning. Especially common are

ἀκούω, ἀκούσομαι hear μανθάνω, μαθήσομαι learn
ἁμαρτάνω, ἁμαρτήσομαι fail οἶδα, εἴσομαι know
ἀπο-θνῄσκω, ἀποθανοῦμαι die ὄμνῡμι, ὀμοῦμαι swear
βαδίζω, βαδιοῦμαι walk ὁράω, ὄψομαι see
γιγνώσκω, γνώσομαι recognize πάσχω, πείσομαι suffer
διώκω, διώξομαι pursue πῑ́πτω, πεσοῦμαι fall
εἶμι, ἔσομαι am, be, etc. πλέω, πλεύσομαι sail
ἐπαινέω, ἐπαινέσομαι praise τρέχω, δραμοῦμαι run
κάμνω, καμοῦμαι am weary τυγχάνω, τεύξομαι happen
λαγχάνω, λήξομαι get by lot or fate φεύγω, φεύξομαι flee
λαμβάνω, λήψομαι take

393. The future middle of some verbs has the passive meaning; among the more common are

ἀδικήσομαι shall be wronged ὠφελήσομαι shall be benefited
αὐξήσομαι shall be increased ταράξομαι shall be disturbed
οἰκήσομαι shall be administered θρέψομαι shall be nurtured
πολιορκήσομαι shall be besieged φυλάξομαι shall be guarded

a. Some others have in the passive sense both middle and passive forms:

ζημιώσομαι and ζημιωθήσομαι shall be damaged
ἀπο-στερήσομαι and -στερηθήσομαι shall be deprived
τῖμήσομαι and τῖμηθήσομαι shall be honored

394. Of deponent verbs (middle or passive in form but active in meaning; cp. 501) some have in the aorist tense middle forms (middle deponents), others passive forms (passive deponents). Among middle deponents many have also the passive aorist with passive meaning, as αἰτιάομαι (accuse), ᾐτιᾱσάμην (accused), ᾐτιᾱ́θην (was accused). So also

δέχομαι accept λῡμαίνομαι injure
δωρέομαι present μέμφομαι blame
ἐργάζομαι work μῑμέομαι imitate
ἀποκρῑ́νομαι answer μεταπέμπομαι send for
λογίζομαι reckon ἐντέλλομαι enjoin upon

395. Most passive deponents have in the future the middle forms.

βούλομαι wish βουλήσομαι, ἐβουλήθην
δέομαι want, ask δεήσομαι, ἐδεήθην
δύναμαι can δυνήσομαι, ἐδυνήθην
οἴομαι think οἰήσομαι, ᾠήθην

a. But some passive deponents have in the future both middle and passive forms.

αἰδέομαι respect αἰδέσομαι and αἰδεσθήσομαι
διαλέγομαι converse διαλέξομαι and διαλεχθήσομαι

b. The following have only passive forms in both aorist and future.

ἔραμαι love ἠράσθην, ἐρασθήσομαι
ἥδομαι am pleased ἥσθην, ἡσθήσομαι
ἡττάομαι am worsted ἡττήθην, ἡττησθήσομαι

396. The perfect of some deponents has both active and passive meanings.

εἴργασται he has worked or it has been worked

ἐώνημαι I have bought or have been bought

Suggested Citation

Meagan Ayer, ed. Goodell’s School Grammar of Attic Greek. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-10-8. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/grammar/goodell/middle-and-passive-forms-peculiar-meaning