The Μι-Conjugation: Verbs in -ημι with stem in -α:η-

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361. Verbs of the root class (§ 357) with present stem in -α:η- follow ἵστημι (§ 362, below). They are like δείκνῡμι except as follows.

1. ά-ᾱσι contracts to -ᾶσ
2. The subjunctive contracts -άω- and -άη- to -ῶ- and -ῆ-
3. The optative mode suffix is -ιη-, or in the plural and dual more often -ι- (-ιε- in the 3rd plural), added directly to the stem. The accent never stands before the mode-suffix. (Cp. the passive aorist optative)

362. Present Active and Middle Systems: ἵστημι

Goodell: Present Active System Paradigm Chart for ἵστημι

Goodell: Present Middle System Paradigm Chart for ἵστημι

363. Ἵστημι and its compounds are very common, and the different tenses often require different translations. The fundamental distinctions are shown in the following table.

  Transitive Intransitive Passive
Active Indir. Middle
set set for oneself place oneself be placed
Present ἵστημι ἵσταμαι ἵσταμαι ἵσταμαι
Future στήσω στήσομαι στήσομαι σταθήσομαι
Aorist ἔστησα ἐστησάμην ἔστην ἐστάθην
Perfect   ἔστηκα
Pluperf.   εἱστήκη
was standing
Fut. Perf.   ἑστήξω
shall stand

The intransitive forms also serve for the passive, as with many other verbs. For ἔστην see § 366, for ἑστήξω see § 364 (below).

a. Similarly in compounds:

  Verb Meaning...
Active Middle Passive
Pres. ἀφίστημι set off from
cause to revolt
revolt am set off
Fut. ἀποστήσω shall cause to revolt shall revοlt shall be set οff
Σα-Aor. ἀπέστησα caused to revolt gοt to revolt was set οff
Root-Aor. ἀπέστην revolted  
Perfect ἀφέστηκα am in revolt  
Pluperf. ἀφειστήκη was in revolt  

Likewise καθίστημι (set down, settle), καταστήσω (shall settle, trans.), κατέστησα (settled, trans.), κατέστην (became settled), καθέστηκα (am settled), καθειστήκη (was settled).

364. A future perfect active ἑστήξω (shall stand) is formed by adding the future suffix and endings to ἑστηκ- as a perfect stem. In like manner θνῄσκω (die) forms τεθνήξω (shall be dead) from τέθνηκα.

365. The following verbs (which see in the Verb list) are like ἵστημι in the present system.

ὀνίνημι (benefit, mid. be advantaged)
πίμπλημι (fill)
πίμπρημι (set on fire; more frequent in the compound ἐμπίπρημι)
ἄγαμαι (admire)
δύναμαι (can)
ἐπίσταμαι (knοw, understand)

ἐδύνα(σ)ο regularly becomes ἐδύνω.

a. The deponents in this list have recessive accent in the subjunctive and optative, herein differing from ἵστημι.

Subjv. δύνωμαι δύνῃ δύνηται, etc.
Opt. δύναιο ἐπίσταιτο ἄγαιντο

Likewise in the root-aorist (§ 366) ὠνήμην from ὀνίνημι.

ὄναιο, ὄναιτο, ὄναιντο

and from ἐπριάμη (pres. ὠνέομαι): πρίωμαι, etc.

Suggested Citation

Meagan Ayer, ed. Goodell’s School Grammar of Attic Greek. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-10-8.