(1) Decimō annō, postquam Hannibal in Ītaliam vēnerat, P. Sulpiciō Cn. Fulviō cōnsulibus, Hannibal ūsque ad quārtum mīliārum urbis accessit, equitēs eius ūsque ad portam. Mox cōnsulum cum exercitū venientium metū Hannibal ad Campāniam sē recēpit.

(2) In Hispāniā ā frātre Hasdrubale ambō Scīpiōnēs, quī per multōs annōs victōrēs fuerant, interficiuntur, exercitus tamen integer mānsit; cāsū enim magis erant quam virtūte dēceptī.

(3) Quō tempore etiam ā cōnsule Mārcellō Siciliae māgna pars capta est, quam tenēre Āfrī coeperant, et nōbilissima urbs Syrācūsāna; praeda ingēns Rōmam perlāta est.

(4) Laevīnus in Macedoniā cum Philippō et multīs Graeciae populīs et rēge Asiae Attalō amīcitiam fēcit, et ad Siciliam profectus Hannōnem quendam, Āfrōrum ducem apud Agrigentum cīvitātem cum ipsō oppidō cēpit; eumque Rōmam cum captīvīs nōbilibus mīsit. XL cīvitātēs in dēditiōnem accēpit, XXVI expūgnāvit. Ita omni Siciliā receptā et Macedoniā fractā ingentī glōriā Rōmam regressus est. Hannibal in Ītaliā Cn. Fulvium cōnsulem subitō adgressus cum octō mīlibus hominum interfēcit.

    Hannibal in Italy, 214–210 BCE

    (1) P. Sulpiciō Cn. Fulviō cōnsulibus: ablative absolute with a form of esse understood (AG 419.a). Cn. Fulvius Centumalus Maximus and Publius Sulpicius Galba Maximus were consuls in 211 BCE. In that year, Q. Fulvius Flaccus, Appius Claudius and Claudius Nero besieged Capua. Hannibal, unable to break the siege lines, marched on Rome, camped three miles from the city and sent his cavalry up to the Colline Gate in an effort to draw the Romans from Capua. Flaccus took a force of 16,000 men from Capua, leaving the rest of the Roman forces under the other two commanders to continue the siege, and marched to Rome which was well garrisoned. Bad weather prevented a decisive battle and Hannibal had to retire. Flaccus returned to Capua and the city was compelled to surrender (Polybius 9.3–9; Livy 25.22, 26.4–14) (Bird).

    Hannibal ad Campāniam sē recēpit: This was not the first time that Hannibal had come perilously close to marching on Rome. Livy records a potentially apocryphal story in which Hannibal chose not to press the advantage he had gained from his decisive victory at Cannae, against his lieutenants' advice (see Brev. 3.10):

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    When the other soldiers surrounding Hannibal congratulated him and persuaded him that, having waged such a great battle, he himself should spend the remainder of the day and the following night at leisure, and give rest to his weary soldiers. But the cavalry commander Maharbal, hardly inclined to stop fighting, said: 'You will indeed feast as a victor on the Capitol five days from now, so you know what might happen in this battle. Follow me! I will travel first with a band of horsemen so that the Romans understand right away what is about to come.' This suggestion was seen as very pleasing to Hannibal and moreover immediately took hold of his mind. And Hannibal said that he commended Maharbal's eagerness, but he needed time's counsel for contemplation. Then Maharbal said: 'The gods do not give everything in excess to a person. You know how to win, Hannibal, but you do not know how to exploit your victories.' Hannibal's delay on that day is sufficiently believed to have rescued the city and its empire. (History of Rome 22.51.1-4, trans. N. J. Morris)

    ūsque ad portam: According to the second century CE Greek historian Appian, Hannibal’s imminent invasion of Rome caused a panic as never before seen:

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    The city was thrown into consternation as never before. They were without any suitable force (what they had being in Campania), and now this strong, hostile army came suddenly against them under a general of invincible bravery and good fortune. Nevertheless, for the present emergency those who were able to bear arms manned the gates, the old men mounted the walls, and the women and children brought stones and missiles, while those who were in the fields flocked in all haste to the city. Confused cries, lamentations, prayers, and mutual exhortations on every side filled the air. Some went out and cut down the bridge over the river Anio (Hann. 6.39, Trans. Horace White).

    (2) ā frātre Hasdrubale ambō Scīpiōnēs: Livy (25.32–39) informs us that in 211 BCE the two Scipios [P. Cornelius and Gnaeus] divided their army into two divisions and marched south from Saguntum but were weakened by the large scale desertions of their Spanish allies (25.32.7). In the meantime the Carthaginians had been strongly reinforced and Gnaeus Scipio was defeated and killed by Hasdrubal Barca, Hannibal's brother, at Ilorci inland from New Carthage, while Publius Scipio suffered a similar fate on the upper Baetis. The remnants of the Roman forces, however, regrouped under L. Marcius north of the Ebro and inflicted a sound defeat on the pursuing Carthaginians (Bird).

    cāsū enim magis erant quam virtūte dēceptī: order: enim dēceptī erant magis cāsū quam virtūte. Eutropius' order emphasizes the key word cāsū.

    (3) Quō tempore etiam ā cōnsule Mārcellō: quō is a connecting relative pronoun modifying tempore (AG 308.f). Marcus Claudius Metellus was consul for the fourth time in 210 BCE.

    nōbilissima urbs Syrācūsāna: also subject of capta est. After the death of Hiero II (215 BCE), Syracuse went over to the Carthaginians. It was besieged by Marcellus in 213 BCE and finally fell in 211 BCE (Livy 25.23–31, 25.40–41) (Bird).

    (4) amīcitiam fēcit: In 211 BCE Laevinus negotiated alliances with the Aetolian League and with Attalus I of Pergamum. Philip was finally forced to sign a peace treaty at Phoenice in 205 BCE after a show of force by Sempronius Tuditanus. In 210 BCE Laevinus negotiated the surrender of Agrigentum and the rest of Sicily quickly submitted. Hanno escaped to Africa (Livy 26.24–25, 26.40) (Bird).

    in dēditiōnem accēpit: "they received in surrender" (Hazzard)

    omni Siciliā receptā et Macedoniā fractā: ablative absolute using a perfect passive participle (AG 419)

    Cn. Fulvium cōnsulem: Cn. Fulvius was praetor, not consul. He was surprised by Hannibal and slain before Herdonia [in 210 BCE] (Hazzard).

    Core Vocabulary | Numbers | Dates

    Hannibal, alis, m.

    the son of Hamilcar Barca, the great general of the Carthaginians in the second Punic war


    abbreviation of the praenomen or nomen Publius

    Sulpicius, ī, m.

    the name of a Roman gens. 1) C. Sulpicius, dictator 304 B.C.; (2) P. Sulpicius, consul 279 B.C.; (3) P. Sulpicius, consul 211 B.C.


    abbreviation of the praenomen Gnaeus

    Fulvius, ī, m.

    the name of a Roman gens

    Campānia, ae, f.

    a district of Italy on the western side, south of Latium

    Hispānia, ae, f.

    Spain (including Portugal). It was divided into two provinces, Hispania Citerior and Ulterior; hence the pl. Hispaniae.

    Hasdrubal, alis, m.

    (1) Surnamed Calvus, "the Bald," commander of the Carthaginian expedition to Sardinia in the second Punic war 215 B.C.; (2) Brother of Hannibal, defeated and slain at the battle of the Metaurus 207 B.C.; (3) The leader of the Carthaginians in the third Punic war 149–146 B.C.

    ambō, ae, ō, adj. both    
    Scīpiō, ōnis, m.

    the name of one of the most illustrious families of Rome, Cornēlius Scīpiō, consul 83 B.C., Cn. Cornēlius Scīpiō, consul 222 B.C., L. (Cornēlius) Scīpiō, consul 259 B.C., P. Cornēlius Scīpiō, consul 218 B.C., P. Cornēlius Scīpiō, consul 191 B.C., P. Cornēlius Scīpiō, praetor 94 B.C., P. Cornēlius Scīpiō Āfricānus, consul 205 BC the conqueror of Hannibal in the First Punic War., P. Cornēlius Scīpiō Āfricānus (Minor), consul 147 B.C. He brought the Third Punic War to a close by capturing and destroying Carthage., L. Cornēlius Scīpiō Asiāgenēs, consul 83 B.C., P. (Cornēlius) Scīpiō Nāsīca, consul 91 B.C.

    dēcipiō, ere, cēpī, ceptus

    to take in, catch, deceive, cheat

    Mārcellus, ī, m.

    the name of a famous Roman family; (1) M. Claudius Mārcellus, consul 222 B.C.; (2) (M.) Claudius Mārcellus, consul 166 B.C.; (3) (M.) Claudius Mārcellus, consul 51 B.C.

    Sicilia, ae, f. the island of Sicily    
    captīvus, a, um [capiō], adj.

    captive; as subst., captīvus, ī, m., captīva, ae, f., captive, prisoner of war

    Āfer, Āfrī, m.

    an African, especially an inhabitant of Carthage

    Syrācūsānus, a, um, adj.

    belonging to Syracuse; urbs Syrācāsāna, the city of Syracuse

    perferō, ferre, tulī, lātus

    to carry through; convey, report; endure

    Agrigentum, ī, n. a Greek colony in Sicily
    Laevīnus, ī, m.

    the name of a Roman family. (1) L. Valerius (Laevīnus), consul 206 B.C.; (2) M. Valerius Laevīnus, consul 210 B.C.; (3) P. Valerius Laevīnus, consul 280 B.C.

    Macedonia, ae, f.

    an extensive country north of Greece, between Thessaly and Thrace

    Philippus, ī, m.

    (1) Philip V., king of Macedonia 220—178 B.C.; (2) (M. Iūlius) Philippus I., Roman emperor 244–249 A.D.; (3) (M. Iūlius) Philippus II., son of (2); (4) L. Mārcius Philippus, consul 91 B.C.; (5) Q. Mārcius Philippus, consul 186 B.C.

    Graecia, ae, f. Greece
    Asia, ae, f.

    Asia; the Roman province of Asia Minor

    Attalus, ī, m.

    Kings of Pergamon: 1. Attalus I., 241–197 B.C.; 2. Attalus Philadelphus, 159–138 B.C.; 3. Attalus Philometor, 138–133 B.C.

    Sicilia, ae, f. the island of Sicily
    Hannō, ōnis, m.

    (1) A Carthaginian general in the second Punic war, taken captive in Sicily 210 B.C.; (2) A Carthaginian general in the second Punic war, defeated by Scipio 203 B.C.

    dēditiō, ōnis [dēdō], f. a surrender
    expūgnō, āre, āvī, ātus

    to take by storm, capture; overpower, prevail upon

    Sicilia, ae, f. the island of Sicily
    regredior, gredī, gressus sum

    to step back, retreat, return

    aggredior, gredī, gressus sum

    to approach, attack, undertake

    Fulvius, ī, m.

    the name of a Roman gens

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