3.  T. Mānliō Torquātō C. Atīliō Bulcō cōnsulibus dē Sardīs triumphātum est et pāce omnibus locīs factā Rōmānī nūllum bellum habuērunt, quod hīs post Rōmam conditam semel tantum Numā Pompiliō rēgnante contigerat.

4.  L. Postumius Albīnus Cn. Fulvius Centumalus cōnsulēs bellum contrā Īllyriōs gessērunt et multīs cīvitātibus captīs etiam rēgēs in dēditiōnem accēpērunt. Ac tum prīmum ex Īllyriīs triumphātum est.

    Ch. 3: Peace throughout Roman Lands (235 BCE)

    T. Mānliō Torquātō C. Atīliō Bulcō cōnsulibus: ablative absolute with form of esse assumed (AG 419a). Titus Manlius Torquatus and Gaius Atilius Bulbus were consuls in 235 BCE.

    dē Sardīs: the Roman campaign in Sardinia is discussed in the previous chapter, Brev. 3.2.

    triumphātum est: verb here used impersonally (AG 207.d). For more information on triumphs, see triumphs

    pāce omnibus locīs factā: ablative absolute using perfect passive participle, used causally (AG 419)

    semel tantum: "only once" (Hazzard)

    Numā Pompiliō rēgnante: ablative absolute using a present active participle (AG 419).

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    In 235 BCE the Romans closed the gates of the Temple of Janus in the Forum. According to Livy (1.19.2-5), Numa had built this temple as a visible sign of the alternations of peace and war (see Brev. 1.3). When its twin gates (Janus means gate) were open it signified that Rome was at war. If the gates were closed it denoted that all wars against neighboring peoples had been successfully concluded. The two-headed god Janus was the numen of doors, gates, arches and good beginnings, and his month, January, began the year from 153 BCE (Bird). This feat will not happen again until the rise of the Principate in the first century BCE. In his autobiographical account (known as the Res Gestae Divi Augusti), the emperor Augustus boasts of closing the temple doors thus:

    "The closing of the Gates of Janus Quirinus, a symbol that our ancestors ordered only twice in the history of the time before I was born to signify that the peace of victory reigned throughout the Roman empire on both land and sea, occurred three times during my reign." (section 13)

    Ch. 4: War with the Illyrians, 229 BCE

    contrā ĪllyriōsAn Illyrian chieftain called Agron had united the tribes of Illyria along the Adriatic. His widow, Teuta, refused a Roman request to stop piracy against South Italy and Roman merchantmen. In 229 BCE Gnaeus Fulvius Centumalus and Lucius Postumius Albinus, in a concerted naval and land operation, captured Corcyra, Apollonia and other cities, reduced Teuta’s kingdom and forced her to pay a substantial tribute (Bird).

    multīs cīvitātibus captīs: ablative absolute with a perfect passive participle (AG 419)

    ex Īllyriīs: dē Īllyriīs would be more common (Hazzard).

    Core Vocabulary | Numbers | Dates


    abbreviation of the praenomen Titus

    Mānlius, ī, m.

    (1) A. Mānlius, consul 241 B.C.; (2) M. Mānlius, consul 105 B.C.

    Torquātus, ī, m.

    (1) T. Mānlius Torquātus, dictator 353 B.C.; (2) T. Mānlius Torquātus, consul 235 B.C.


    abbreviation of the praenomen Gaius

    Atīlius, ī, m. the name of a Roman gens
    Bulcus, ī, m.

    C. Atīlius Bulcus, consul 237 B.C. [now Bordeaux]

    Sardī, ōrum, pl. m.

    the Sardinians, inhabitants of the island of Sardinia

    triumphō, āre, āvī, ātus to celebrate a triumph
    Numa, ae, m.

    Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome, 715–672 B.C.

    Pompilius, ī, m.

    Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome, 715—672 B.C.

    rēgnō, āre, āvī, ātus [rēgnum] to be king, rule
    Postumius, ī, m.

    1) Sp. Postumius (Albīnus), consul 344 and 321 B.C.; 2) Aulus Postumius Albinus, consul 242 B.C.; 3) L. Postumius Albīnus, consul 234 and 229 B.C.; 4) Sp. Postumius Albinus, consul 186 B.C.; 5) Sp. Postumius Albīnus, consul 110 B.C.

    Albīnus, ī, m.

    a family name at Rome, Clōdius Albīnus, governor of Britain at the death of Commodus. He revolted, and was defeated and slain by Septimius Sevērus at Lugdūnum, 197 A.D.; Sp. Postumius (Albīnus), consul 344 and 321 B.C.; Aulus Postumius Albinus, consul 242 B.C., L. Postumius Albīnus, consul 234 and 229 B.C.; Sp. Postumius Albinus, consul 186 B.C.; Sp. Postumius Albīnus, consul 110 B.C.


    abbreviation of the praenomen Gnaeus

    Fulvius, ī, m. the name of a Roman gens
    Centumalus, ī, m.

    the name of a Roman family. (1) Cn. Fulvius Centumalus, consul 229 B.C.; (2) Cn. Fulvius (Centumalus), consul 211 B.C.

    Īllyriī, ōrum, pl. m.

    the inhabitants of Illyricum

    dēditiō, ōnis [dēdō], f. a surrender
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