495. A finite verb agrees with its subject in number and person, as in English and Latin.
496. But a neuter plural subject commonly takes a singular verb.
Πολλὰ τῶν ὑποζυγίων ἀπώλετο.
Many of the baggage-animals died.
Xen. Anabasis 1.5.5
ἅπαντα ἦσαν εὐώδη.
All were sweet-smelling.
Xen. Anabasis 1.5.1
497. A dual subject may take a plural verb.
498. The agreement often follows the sense instead of form; but sometimes it follows the form instead of sense.
a. Tὸ πλῆθος οἴονται
the multitude suppose (Agreement with a collective subject)
b. Bασιλεὺς καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ εἰσπῑ́πτει.
The king with his followers breaks in.
(The king is thought of as the central figure.)
Xen. Anabasis 1.10.1
c. Ἔπεμψέ με Ἀριαῖος καὶ Ἀρτάοζος.
Ariaios and Artaozos sent me. (Agreement with the nearer noun only)
Xen. Anabasis 2.4.16
499. The Active and Passive voices have the same force as in English.
a. Some active verbs are used as passives of other verbs.
(die) am killed
cast out, exile
|ἐκπῑ́πτω (fall out), φεύγω (flee)
|εὖ or κακῶς ποιῶ
do good or ill to
|εὖ or κακῶς πάσχω
am well or badly treated
bring to a certain disposition
am in (this or that) disposition
500. The Middle voice expresses an action of the subject.
a. On himself, as direct object (Direct Middle).
stop myself, cease
show myself, appear
persuade myself, believe
teach myself, learn
fasten myself to something, touch
hοld myself to, cling to, am next to
b. For, to, with reference to himself (Indirect Middle).
begin for myself, begin my task
|ποιοῦμαί τινα φίλον
make one my friend
take to myself a wife, marry
plan for myself, deliberate
take for myself, choose
am on my guard
c. From himself, from his own powers or means (Subjective Middle, sometimes very like the active).
cause a war
carry on war
act as a citizen, take part in government
show forth my opinion
offer or promise something (announce from myself)
τοὺς ἀγράφους νόμους οὐχ οἱ ἄνθρωποι ἔθεντο ἀλλὰ θεοὶ τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ἔθεσαν.
the unwrttten laws not men established of themselves, but gods for men.
(see Xen. Memorabilia 4.4.19)
d. The indirect and the subjective middle can not always be distinguished; both are sometimes causative.
send for, have one sent to me
διδάσκομαι τὸν παῖδα
have the boy taught
get judgment rendered, bring suit
501. Deponent verbs are properly middle, in the indirect or subjective sense, and the active was not thought necessary. The aorist passive was originally not passive, but merely intransitive, and in some verbs this intransitive sense continued in common use.
ἐδόκει μοι ταύτῃ πειρᾶσθαι σωθῆναι.
It seemed to me best to try to attain safety in this way.
So always ἐχάρην (rejoiced), from χαίρω.