The Ω-Conjugation: Liquid Verbs

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323. Verb stems ending in , , , or usually form the future and aorist stems, sometimes also the perfect active and the passive stems, in a slightly diferent way. (Liquid future, liquid aorist, α-perfect, η-passive.)

324. In the future they add the suffix -εο:ε- to the verb stem (originally -εσο:ε-), and then contract. (Liquid future)

325. The inflection throughout—indicative, optative, infinitive, participle—is like that of contract presents in -έω (§ 331).

326. A contract future middle with the suffix -σεο:ε- (so-called Doric future) is formed from the mute verbs πῑ́πτω, πλέω, φεύγω.

327. Liquid verbs usually form the aorist stem (indicative) by adding the suffix -α:ε- to the verb stem and lengthening the stem vowel; -α- in the stem lengthens to -ᾱ- after -ι- or -ρ-, otherwise to -η-; -ε- lengthens to -ει-. (Liquid aorist)

a. But κερδαίνω (κερδαν-, gain) makes ἐκέρδᾱνα.

328. The inflection throughout is like that of the σα-aorist, omitting -σ- (§ 331).

329. The present stem of these verbs may be of the formative-vowel class (§ 257), the ι-class (§ 259), or the nasal class (§ 261), as shown by the principal parts. (See Verb-list.) Thus στέλλω (στελ-, σταλ-, § 259.a) send, has future στελῶ, aorist ἔστειλα, perfect active ἔσταλκα, perfect middle ἔ-σταλμαι (§§ 338 and 339), aorist passive ἐστάλην (§§ 334 – 337).

330. Other frequent combinations are shown in the following verbs; for other tenses of these verbs see Verb-list.

Present Future Aorist
αἴρω, raise
(ᾱ̓ρ-, § 259.b)
φαίνω, show
(φαν-, § 259.b)
φανῶ ἔφηνα
καθαίρω, cleanse
(καθαρ-, § 259.b)
καθαρῶ ἐκάθηρα
κτείνω, kill
(κτεν-, § 259.b)
κτενῶ ἔκτεινα
κρῑ́νω, decide
(κριν-, § 259.b)
κρινῶ ἔκρῑνα
ἀμῡ́νω, ward off
(ἀμυν, § 259.b)
ἀμυνῶ ἤμῡνα
μένω, remain
(μεν-, § 257)
μενῶ ἔμεινα

a. Not all liquid verbs follow these formations; especially several form the aorist according to § 347.

Suggested Citation

Meagan Ayer, ed. Goodell’s School Grammar of Attic Greek. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-10-8.