ὣς φάτο: τὴν δὲ Θέτις τοίῳ προσελέξατο μύθῳ:
εἰ μὲν δὴ μαλεροῖο πυρὸς μένος ἠδὲ θύελλαι
ζαχρηεῖς λήξουσιν ἐτήτυμον, ἦ τ᾽ ἂν ἔγωγε835
θαρσαλέη φαίην, καὶ κύματος ἀντιόωντος
νῆα σαωσέμεναι, ζεφύρου λίγα κινυμένοιο.
ἀλλ᾽ ὥρη δολιχήν τε καὶ ἄσπετον οἶμον ὁδεύειν,
ὄφρα κασιγνήτας μετελεύσομαι, αἵ μοι ἀρωγοὶ
ἔσσονται, καὶ νηὸς ὅθι πρυμνήσι᾽ ἀνῆπται,840
ὥς κεν ὑπηῷοι μνησαίατο νόστον ἑλέσθαι.
ἦ, καὶ ἀναΐξασα κατ᾽ αἰθέρος ἔμπεσε δίναις
κυανέου πόντοιο: κάλει δ᾽ ἐπαμυνέμεν ἄλλας
αὐτοκασιγνήτας Νηρηίδας: αἱ δ᾽ ἀίουσαι
ἤντεον ἀλλήλῃσι: Θέτις δ᾽ ἀγόρευεν ἐφετμὰς845
Ἥρης: αἶψα δ᾽ ἴαλλε μετ᾽ Αὐσονίην ἅλα πάσας.
αὐτὴ δ᾽ ὠκυτέρη ἀμαρύγματος ἠὲ βολάων
ἠελίου, ὅτ᾽ ἄνεισι περαίης ὑψόθι γαίης,
σεύατ᾽ ἴμεν λαιψηρὰ δι᾽ ὕδατος, ἔστ᾽ ἀφίκανεν
ἀκτὴν Αἰαίην Τυρσηνίδος ἠπείροιο.850
τοὺς δ᾽ εὗρεν παρὰ νηὶ σόλῳ ῥιπῇσί τ᾽ ὀιστῶν
τερπομένους: ἡ δ᾽ ἆσσον ὀρεξαμένη χερὸς ἄκρης
Αἰακίδεω Πηλῆος: ὁ γάρ ῥά οἱ ἦεν ἀκοίτης:
οὐδέ τις εἰσιδέειν δύνατ᾽ ἔμπεδον, ἀλλ᾽ ἄρα τῷγε
οἴῳ ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖσιν ἐείσατο, φώνησέν τε:855
μηκέτι νῦν ἀκταῖς Τυρσηνίσιν ἧσθε μένοντες,
ἠῶθεν δὲ θοῆς πρυμνήσια λύετε νηός,
Ἥρῃ πειθόμενοι ἐπαρηγόνι. τῆς γὰρ ἐφετμῇς
πασσυδίῃ κοῦραι Νηρηίδες ἀντιόωσιν,
νῆα διὲκ πέτρας, αἵ τε Πλαγκταὶ καλέονται,860
ῥυσόμεναι. κείνη γὰρ ἐναίσιμος ὔμμι κέλευθος.
ἀλλὰ σὺ μή τῳ ἐμὸν δείξῃς δέμας, εὖτ᾽ ἂν ἴδηαι
ἀντομένην σὺν τῇσι: νόῳ δ᾽ ἔχε, μή με χολώσῃς
πλεῖον ἔτ᾽, ἢ τὸ πάροιθεν ἀπηλεγέως ἐχόλωσας.
ἦ, καὶ ἔπειτ᾽ ἀίδηλος ἐδύσατο βένθεα πόντου:865
τὸν δ᾽ ἄχος αἰνὸν ἔτυψεν, ἐπεὶ πάρος οὐκέτ᾽ ἰοῦσαν
ἔδρακεν, ἐξότε πρῶτα λίπεν θάλαμόν τε καὶ εὐνὴν
χωσαμένη Ἀχιλῆος ἀγαυοῦ νηπιάχοντος.
ἡ μὲν γὰρ βροτέας αἰεὶ περὶ σάρκας ἔδαιεν
νύκτα διὰ μέσσην φλογμῷ πυρός: ἤματα δ᾽ αὖτε870
ἀμβροσίῃ χρίεσκε τέρεν δέμας, ὄφρα πέλοιτο
ἀθάνατος, καί οἱ στυγερὸν χροῒ γῆρας ἀλάλκοι.
αὐτὰρ ὅγ᾽ ἐξ εὐνῆς ἀνεπάλμενος εἰσενόησεν
παῖδα φίλον σπαίροντα διὰ φλογός: ἧκε δ᾽ ἀυτὴν
σμερδαλέην ἐσιδών, μέγα νήπιος: ἡ δ᾽ ἀίουσα875
τὸν μὲν ἄρ᾽ ἁρπάγδην χαμάδις βάλε κεκληγῶτα,
αὐτὴ δὲ πνοιῇ ἰκέλη δέμας, ἠύτ᾽ ὄνειρος,
βῆ ῥ᾽ ἴμεν ἐκ μεγάροιο θοῶς, καὶ ἐσήλατο πόντον
χωσαμένη: μετὰ δ᾽ οὔτι παλίσσυτος ἵκετ᾽ ὀπίσσω.
τῶ μιν ἀμηχανίη δῆσεν φρένας: ἀλλὰ καὶ ἔμπης880
πᾶσαν ἐφημοσύνην Θέτιδος μετέειπεν ἑταίροις.
οἱ δ᾽ ἄρα μεσσηγὺς λῆξαν καὶ ἔπαυσαν ἀέθλους
ἐσσυμένως, δόρπον τε χαμεύνας τ᾽ ἀμφεπένοντο,
τῇς ἔνι δαισάμενοι νύκτ᾽ ἄεσαν, ὡς τὸ πάροιθεν.
Thetis visits Peleus and tells him of the will of Hera:
Thetis' reply to Hera's involved rhetoric and manipulative disingenuousness is terse, with no particular answers to the points that the Queen of the Gods has made. She wants to get on with the job. Her anger with her husband Peleus is still an issue as will become apparent during their encounter beside the Argo.
833 ὣς φάτο: “Thus she spoke:” The normal epic summarising tag at the end of a speech. τήν: “her”, that is Hera. The article is used as a pronoun. προσελέξατο: There may be a pun involved with this verb. Here it must mean “spoke to”, as at 3.426, from προσλέγομαι but is identical in form to the aorist of προσλέχομαι, which is attested only at Od. 12.34 in the form προσέλεκτο, used of Circe lying beside Odysseus before she explains the route to him. In giving information, Thetis will do for Peleus what Circe did for Odysseus, but despite the similarity of the verb, she is not sleeping with him but only speaking to him, even though they are married! (See further 4.794n. and Knight 1995, 302).
834 εἰ μὲν δή: “If indeed in truth” Smyth 2900 talks about “positive certainty”, but in this context, the tone seems to be more of grudging acceptance (see also here). μαλεροῖο πυρὸς μένος: “the furious of raging flame. μ. π. depends on μένος. The phrase picks up the language of 819n. For the genitive endings, see here and here. θύελλαι: also echoes some of the language of Hera᾽s speech (797). It is a feature of A.”s style that he avoids exact repetition, (Thalmann 2011, 205) as might be the case in Homer, when a character refers to instructions or the like that have been previously stated.
835 ζαχρηεῖς: “raging, furious”: the whole phrase echoes Il. 5.525 μένος Βορέαο καὶ ἄλλων ζαχρηῶν ἀνέμων and becomes part of A.'s system of semi-formulae. ἦ τ᾿ ἂν ἐγώ γε: “surely will I undertake.” For this use of ἦ to stress a strong affirmation, see these examples. The conditional is a mixed one (future in the protasis; optative in the apodosis).
836 θαρσαλέη: “bold” rather than “overbold” in the sense of “shamelessly audacious.” φαίην: first pers. opt.< φημί. “ I promise, I assert that I will save” (infinitive σαωσέμεναι = fut. with Aeolic ending, depends on (A) φημί). καί: “even though”, for this use of κ. see here (B9) and for the genitive absolute (Smyth 2070 and here). ἀντιόωντος: “meet with, encounter,” here in a hostile sense < ἀντιάω. For the epic contracted form –όων, see here.
837 νῆα σαωσέμεναι: “to save the ship.” The important statement, as often in A., is in emjambment. ζεφύρου: in an attempt to find contemporary Ptolemaic references (Clayman 2014, 75) in the Argonautica, a connection has been been made between references such as this and the cult of Arsinoe-Zephyritis, devoted to Arsinoe II, the wife of Ptolemy Philadelphus (Mori 2018); for the Zephyr (West Wind) itself, see further 821n. ζεφύρου λίγα κινυμένοιο: The whole phrase recalls Od. 4.567 Ζεφύροιο λιγὺ πνείοντας ἀήτας, Od. 7.119 ζεφυρίη πνείουσα combined with perhaps Il. 4.423 ὄρνυτ' ἐπασσύτερον Ζεφύρου ὕπο κινήσαντος and Il. 2.147 ὡς δ” ὅτε κινήσῃ Ζέφυρος βαθὺ λήϊον ἐλθών. In view of the Iliad parallels (especially Il. 4.423), there seems no need to invoke Aristarchus” alternative reading πνείοντος ἀήτας at Od. 4.567 (Hunter ad. loc.).
838 ἀλλ᾿ ὥρη . . . ὁδεύειν: For ὥρη / ὥρα with the infinitive, expressing urgency, (sometimes perhaps with a hint of desperation) see here (B3). As here, the main verb (e.g. ἐστί) is often omitted. δολιχήν τε καὶ ἄσπετον οἶμον: “a long and immeasurable journey” The phrase recalls the Homeric Hermes, complaining that he would have never flown out as far as Ogygia had Zeus not commanded him (Od. 5.99–101). Like Apollonius᾽Thetis, however, Hermes” journey had not seemed especially taxing (Od. 5.50–55). Thetis᾽reluctance may have a darker edge, deriving from her continuing bitterness at Peleus.The phrase may also have literary overtones. οἶμος / οἴμη, meaning “voyage, journey” or “way of song”, is almost a metaphor for the whole poem (cf. Od. 8.481 οἴμας Μοῦσ” ἐδίδαξε with 4.296 στέλλεσθαι τήνδ᾽οἶμον; see Albis (1996) particularly chapter 4 entitled ἡ δολιχὴ οἴμη, where the theme of the “journey” is traced through Book 4. Kayachev (2016,146) sees a link with Pindar: Pyth. 4.247–8 μακρά μοι νεῖσθαι κατ᾽ ἀμαξιτόν· ὥρα γὰρ συνάπτει· καί τινα οἶμον ἴσαμι βραχύν πολλοῖσι δ᾽ ἅγημαι σοφίας ἑτέροις, “Returning home by the highway is too long; for time is pressing me and I know a short path: for many others I lead the way in skill.”
839 μετελεύσομαι: future < μετέρχομαι: οften used with a dependent ὄφρα clause, eg. Il. 6.280 ἔρχευ, ἐγὼ δὲ Πάριν μετελεύσομαι ὄφρα καλέσσω, Arg. 3.482 ἔμπης δ᾽ ἐξαῦτις μετελεύσομαι ἀντιβολήσων not as part of it. This type of variation on the micro-level is typical of A. and Hellenistic poetry in general.ἀρωγοί: is often used predicatively of gods invoked in cletic prayers.
840 ὅθι πρυμνήσι᾿ ἀνῆπται: “and (seek out) the spot where the ship”s hawsers are attached.” This formula only occurs in the Odyssey and A. introduces a number of variations (e.g. Arg. 2.462 πείσματ᾽ ἀνάψασθαι) on it. ἀνῆπται: < ἀνάπτω: perfect, passive, indicative, 3rd, singular.
841 ὥς κεν: “so that.”: Smyth 2193. ὑπηῷοι: a unique form. Perhaps a textual variant for ὑπηοῖος in one of the many Homeric mss. that A. would have known. A similar formation is ὀρεσκῳ̃ος, where writing οι rather than ῷ has been suggested (s.v.). The matter seems to be one of orthography, a question about which A., as a Homeric critic, would have been interested. The idiom of using an adjective (agreeing with either subject or object: possible since it qualifies neither), when one might expect an adverb (of direction, or of order in space or time) is found in Homer (Od. 4.656 χθιζὸν ὑπηοῖον. τότε δ᾽ἔμβη νηῒ Πύλονδε) is frequent in A. (Arg. 1.929, 4.7, 69, 1395, 1434) and developed later by Virgil: Aen. 8.465 nec minus Aeneas se matutinus agebat: see further here for the history of the feature (Viti 2015, 313). μνησαίατο: aorist, middle, optative, 3rd plural (epic Ionic): For the ending (instead of –ντο) see these paradigms. νόστον ἑλέσθαι: “to achieve their return.” For the phrase see 379–81n. (θυμηδέα νόστον ἕλοιο;).
842 ἦ: “spoke,” 3rd sg impf. < ἠμί (Goodell 383). The chief point of reference for this line and the beginning of the next must be the description of Hermes, speeding on his way to visit Calypso (Od. 5.50) ἐξ αἰθέρος ἔμπεσε πόντῳ, with other elements of A.'s wording coming from Hom. Hym. 33.13 δι' αἰθέρος ἀΐξαντες, Empedocles fr. 115.11 ὁ δ' αἰθέρος ἔμβαλε δίναις and perhaps Xenarchus fr. 1.7 πόντου κυανέαις δίναις. The narrative moves very quickly at this point: (ἀναΐξασα . . . ἔμπεσε δίναις . . . κάλει δ᾿ ἐπαμυνέμεν . . . αἱ δ᾿ ἀίουσαι / ἤντεον.)
843 On κυανέου πόντοιο and the Greek perception of colour see 303–4n. ἐπαμυνέμεν: “She was calling (imperfect- κάλει) the rest of the Nereids (ἄλλας . . . Νηρηίδας), her own sisters to aid her.” (ἐπαμύνω) can carry connotations of the battlefield (398–400n.): the Nereids and their leader are going on campaign! ἀίουσαι: echoing ἀναΐξασα (842): see above.
845 ἤντεον ἀλλήλῃσι: “they met each other, they came together” The phrase recalls Il. 7.423 . . . οἳ δ' ἤντεον ἀλλήλοισιν (the verb form occurs only here), where the context is of the Trojans meeting the Greeks on the battlefield, as they bury their dead. As with ἐπαμυνέμεν above the word carries some martial associations. It is typical of A. to reuse Homeric language in this way, giving a subtle flavour to its new context. Thetis and her companions are on very different manoeuvres from those that take place on the plain of Troy. A. may have found evidence of this reworking of phrases and formulae from one situation to a, perhaps, very different one already present in the Homeric poems (Buchan 2012, 17) themselves (16–17n., 305–6n.). The narrative sequence, at this point, is not all together clear: at line 780 Thetis and her sisters appear to be together, at line 930 not so. However, the problem is not a great one. Perhaps they were swimming in loose formation! ἐφετμάς: “Commands”: Recalls Homeric phraseology when the accomplishment of the orders of gods is described: Il. 5.508: πάντοσ᾽ ἐποιχόμενος· τοῦ δ' ἐκραίαινεν ἐφετμάς (of Apollo), Il. 15.593 νηυσὶν ἐπεσσεύοντο, Διὸς δ' ἐτέλειον ἐφετμάς; other imitations at 4.755 . . . ἐμὰς ἐτέλεσσας ἐφετμάς, 4.965 . . . ἀλόχοιο Διὸς πόρσυνον ἐφετμάς.
846 αἶψα δ᾿ ἴαλλε . . . πάσας: The sense of urgency in this passage is reinforced by ἰάλλω (+αἶψα). The verb has a later sense of “send, dispatch” but in its original Homeric context it often emphasises the speed of an action. μετ᾿ Αὐσονίην ἅλα: “The Ausonian Sea.”
847 ὠκυτέρη: “swifter than a twinkle of light or the rays of the sun.” This two-part comparison must owe something to the similar two-part description at Hom. Hym. Herm. 45 ὡς δ᾽ ὁπότ᾽ ὠκὺ νόημα διὰ στέρνοιο περήσῃ / ἀνέρος, ὅν τε θαμειαὶ ἐπιστρωφῶσι μέριμναι, / ἢ ὅτε δινηθῶσιν ἀπ᾽ ὀφθαλμῶν ἀμαρυγαί, / ὣς ἅμ᾽ ἔπος τε καὶ ἔργον ἐμήδετο κύδιμος Ἑρμῆς, “ As a swift thought darts through the heart of a man when thronging cares haunt him, or as bright glances flash from the eyes, so glorious Hermes planned both thought and deed at once.” Comparisons that refer to the effects of light are frequent in A. (109–13n. and see on ἀμαρύσσετο (177–8n.).
848 ἄνεισι: present active indicative 3rd singular < ἄνειμι. περαίης ὑψόθι γαίης: “high above the land on the other side (of the sea).” This must refer to the horizon. Hellenistic scientists calculated the circumference of the earth and A. may well have understood this. For more on A.'s use of similar astrological expressions, see 54–6n.
849 σεύατ᾿ ἴμεν: “Hurried to go”, hastened on her way.” A. uses the phrase again at 2.540. It is a variation on the frequent βῆ δ” ἴμεν. In the phrase λαιψηρὰ δι᾿ ὕδατος: “swiftly through the water," λ. Is the neuter plural used adverbially Smyth 1606–11. ἔστ᾿ ἀφίκανεν: < ἀφικνέομαι s.v. A.
850 ἀκτὴν Αἰαίην balances Τυρσηνίδος ἠπείροιο chiastically, “the Aeaean beach of the Tyrrhenian mainland.” Aeaean refers to Circe. Geographically adjectives in –ις are frequent in Hellenistic poetry (see 132–2, 329–30nn.).
851 τοὺς δ᾿ εὗρεν: “She found them." τούς refers to the Argonauts and goes with τερπομένους. The language still remains sparse in keeping with the urgency of the situation. The whole phrase (τοὺς . . . τερπομένους), in typical Hellenistic fashion, recalls a number of Homeric originals: Il. 2.774 δίσκοισιν τέρποντο καὶ αἰγανέῃσιν ἱέντες / τόξοισίν which recurs in a slightly shortened version in the Odyssey: Od. 4.626 = 17.168 δίσκοισιν τέρποντο καὶ αἰγανέῃσιν ἱέντες, with perhaps an additional reference to Il. 9.186 τὸν δ” εὗρον φρένα τερπόμενον φόρμιγγι λιγείῃ, τέρποντο. A. has substituted σόλος for δίσκος and the Pindarically influenced ῥιπῇσί τ᾿ ὀιστῶν (Pi. N. 1.68 βελέων ὑπὸ ῥιπαῖσι) for αἰγανέῃσιν (τόξοισίν).
852 ἡ δ᾿ ἆσσον: “And she drew near.” As the transmitted text stands, there is no main verb, though it”s not hard to understand one and, in fact there is a papyrus (see 464n.) that reads στῆ for ἡ; see further (Benaissa, Slattery, and Henry 2019.) The main parallel is Il. 1.197–8 (Athena, sent by Hera like Thetis here, to Achilles, son of Peleus) στῆ δ᾽ ὄπιθεν, ξανθῆς δὲ κόμης ἕλε Πηλεΐωνα οἴῳ φαινομένη: τῶν δ᾽ ἄλλων οὔ τις ὁρᾶτο, which bears obvious parallels with the present passage. Other scenes of divine / otherworldly apparitions are Il. 2.18ff. (Oneiros” apparition to Agamemnon) βῆ …, ἐκίχανεν (~ 4.851 εὗρεν) …, στῆ δ”…, ἐεισάμενος προσεφώνεε … εὕδεις (~ 4.856 ἧσθε μένοντεϲ). Il. 23.97 (Achilles to the shade of Patroclus) ἆϲϲον ϲτῆθι, 4.1313–14 (epiphany of the Libyan Heroïssai to the Argonauts) αἱ δὲ ϲχεδὸν Αἰϲονίδαο / ἔϲταν. For further examples see here (Arend 1933, 61–3). ὀρεξαμένη χερὸς ἄκρης: “stretched out and touched him on the edge of his hand.” Modern Commentators try to distinguish between ὀρέγω, meaning “reach” but also “touch.” The two meanings must be relevant here: Thetis is still angry with Peleus and so will permit only the slightest physical intimacy. She reaches out and brushes against his hand. Scholiastic comments on the poignant moment in Il. 6.466 where Hector reaches out for Astyanax seem to see similar meanings there: D-Scholia: ἐξέτεινε τὰς χεῖρας ἢ ἐπελάβετο. ἀντὶ τοῦ ἐλάβετο.
853 Αἰακίδεω Πηλῆος: “Aeacus” son Peleus”. A deliberate reference to the first line of the Iliad: Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος: “Achilles, the son of Peleus.” ὁ . . . ἀκοίτης: “For was he not her husband?” Possibly in name only. This short explanatory clause covers a delicate moment. There are good examples and explanations of this use of ῥά here (Cooper and Krüger 2002, 2871). οἱ: is the dative of possession.
854 οὐδέ τις εἰσιδέειν δύνατ᾿: On this lack of visibility to others present see 852n. (above) and contrast the opening of Sophocles” Ajax, where Athena although visible to the audience, cannot be seen by Odysseus, who recognises her by her voice (cf. further Finglass 2011 on 14–17n.). εἰσιδεῖν: < aorist active infinitive from εἰσοράω. ἔμπεδον: “surely, certainly.” 4.1429–30 δενδρέων, οἷαι ἔσαν, τοῖαι πάλιν ἔμπεδον αὔτως / ἐξέφανεν, “and forth from those trees their forms looked out, as clear as they were before.” ἐείσατο: < εἴδομαι; form and meaning are Homeric, “seem,” “be like,” appear (145n.). ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖσιν ἐείσατο: a Hellenistic variation on the more usual ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖσιν ὁρᾶσθαι, ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖσιν ἴδηαι etc (see further here s.v. ὀφθαλμοῖσιν): a more recherché substituted for part of ὁράω.
856–64 The difficult relationship between Peleus and Thetis has been mentioned previously (816n.) but will only be explained below (see on 864–79). Thetis” instructions are very abrupt and to the point. “Don”t stay sitting on the Tyrrhenian shore!” is her opening without polite preliminaries. Thetis” more or less forced marriage to Peleus (see the opening to Hera᾽s speech) is referred to in the Cypria fr. 2 (West), Pindar, Isthmian 8.26–57 (cf. also [Aeschylus] PB 757–70; the Worse Argument in Aristophanes” Clouds jokes about why Thetis left Peleus (1067–70); Peleus' pursuit of Thetis in various forms was a popular subject in art, see Gantz (1993) 228–31. These references are owed to Torrance (2013) 89, 102n.
856 ἀκταῖς Τυρσηνίσιν: “on the Tyrrhenian beach.” (850n.) The poetic plural for singular follows Homeric usage. The most frequent Homeric words treated in this way are ὄχθαι, ήϊόνες, άκταί, λιμένες. Perhaps this kind of plural plural gives a sense of indefiniteness, vagueness—suggesting usually the parts that go to make up the whole. ἧσθε: impf. ind. mid. 2 pl. < ἧμαι. For the end of the line A. is perhaps recalling Il. 23.128 ἥατ” ἄρ” αὖθι μένοντες, describing the Achaeans pausing during the preparations for Patroclus' funeral.
857 πρυμνήσια: see 206–8n. θοῆς . . . νηός: “swift ship,” a frequent Homeric coupling but it may evoke the etymology of the ship Argo's name from ἀργός, “swift.” norm for ships (Casson 1971, 351). The derivation of Argo was disputed with four etymologies attested:
(i) the simplest and most popular etymology is from Argus, son of Arestor, the traditional builder of the vessel. This derivation, probably alluded to at Arg. 1.18-19, is cited by e.g. Diod. 4. 41, Hyg. Astr. 2. 37, Serv. on Ecl. 4. 34.
(ii) a closely related derivation, attested by Pherecydes (FGrHist 3F106 ap. Σ AR 1. 4), is from Argus, the son of Phrixus. This will have entailed variants in which the sons of Phrixus go to Thessaly prior to the sailing of Argo and perhaps as well the building of the vessel by Argus, son of Phrixus.
(iii) an etymology of Argo from ἀργός (“swift”), is also well attested, though it is usually mentioned as one of two alternatives rather than definitively asserted, e.g. Diod. 4. 41, Hyg. Astr. 2. 37, Eur. Med.1.
(iv) rather less popular is the derivation from “Argive.” This is first attested at Enn. Med. 212-13, and may be an Ennian invention; it occurs sporadically in subsequent Roman poetry (e.g. Cic. Arat. 277, Man. 1. 694; cf. Cat. 64. 4).
858 Ἥρῃ . . . ἐπαρηγόνι: “Hera . . . as helper.” Hera”s role as helper of the Argonauts is significant throughout the Argonautica. She opened her long speech to Thetis with an allusion to it (784–5). The rare word ἐπαρηγών functions almost as a cult title. According to Pausanias (7.4.4), the Argonauts first brought the image of Hera to Samos. At Od. 12.68–72 Circe names Hera as protector of the Argonauts. Similarly, at Od. 4.512–13, Menelaus tells Telemachus that the same goddess saved (σάωσ') Agamemnon on his way home from Troy, whereas Locrian Ajax was destroyed. For more about Hera as a protector of sailors see here (Boedeker 2016, 88–207). τῆς γὰρ ἐφετμῇς: “for by her orders”. (845n.) ἐφετμή is a word particularly associated with Thetis: Il. 1.495 Θέτις δʼ οὐ λήθετʼ ἐφετμέων παιδὸς ἑοῦ, “Thetis did not forget the orders of her child.”
859 πασσυδίῃ: Ancient grammarians also disagreed about the form of this Homeric word: Zenodotus preferred the spelling -σσ-, while Aristarchus later preferred -νσ. Callimachus in general seems to have readings that coincide with Zenodotus, but then Aristarchus lived a century later (see Rengakos 1993: 72 and n.4). In A. at 1.323, 710–1 it means “with all speed," while at 1.634, 1162, 2.759, 1063, 1169, 3.195 it means “all together.” Either meaning seems to be possible here. κοῦραι Νηρηίδες: “the daughters of Nereus” (also mentioned at 842 αὐτοκασιγνήτας Νηρηίδας and 928 κοῦραι Νηρηίδες) have an important part to play in escorting the Argonauts because not only is Thetis one of their number but they were believed to have power over the winds (Hes. Th. 252–4, Hdt. 7.191.2) and to protect and escort travellers (see here for a detailed review of Judith M. Barringer 1995 and cf. also Theocr. 7.59–60 where they are linked to the Halycons as guarantors of a calm voyage). For ἀντιόωσιν < ἀντιάω see here. The Latin poet Propertius adapts the myth of Peleus, Thetis and the Nereids his poem 1.17: see further “Nasty Nereids”, Heslin 2018, 121–6.
860 νῆα διὲκ πέτρας: “(protect) the ship all the way through the rocks.” There have been attempts at emendation because in Homer, διὲκ only takes the genitive. A., on the other hand, has it eleven times with the genitive and ten times with the accusative: 1.1014 διὲξ ἁλὸς οἶδμα νέοντο; also 4.457, 657.–2.620 νῆα διὲκ πέλαγος σεῦεν, 2.558 ἵν” ἔπειτα διὲκ πέτρας ἐλάσειαν; similarly 4.304, 860, 963; 3.73 διὲκ προαλὲς φέρεν ὕδωρ. Πλαγκταὶ: “(the rocks) which are generally called Wandering.” There has already been a deal of deliberate verbal legerdemain in connection with the correct meaning and application of this word (see 768n.). Clashing or Wandering Rocks? Which Goddess (Athena or Hera) will offer or offered in the past assistance to the Argonauts in their passage through either obstacle? Matters are further blurred here by Thetis' ambiguous adaption of Circe's pronouncement at Od. 12.61 Πλαγκτὰς δή τοι τάς γε θεοὶ μάκαρες καλέουσι, “the blessed gods call them Clashes”, with the implication that mortal men might not know this name or might use a different one. The distinction still seems to be present in Thetis' allusion to Circe”s statement. For the generalising use of τε see here (s.v. B), though the lack of a definite statement as to who calls the rocks “clashing”, may be a detail in A.'s delicate description of how Hera uses subterfuge to gain Thetis” assistance. She has lied at 786 and perhaps Thetis' use of the passive here is an indication that, while she accepts that she must carry out the orders of a more powerful goddess, she does not necessarily believe what she has been told in Hera”s long speech of persuasion. In Circe”s account, it is clear why the Planktai lack a name among mortals: they are so terrible that they are outside human experience. The gods understand them, have a name for them and can help mortals overcome them. A. has taken this distinction between human mortality and divine knowledge and adapted it to the needs of his plot and characterisation. On this difference between mortal and divine language in Homer, see further Clay, 1972.
861 ῥυσόμεναι: The textual tradition is divided between this, the future participle, and the future infinitive (ῥυσέμεναι- an Aeolic formation) (Smyth 2009, 2065) of ἐρύω, “drag, protect.” As the present phrase seems to vary 4.836–7 θαρσαλέη φαίην, καὶ κύματος ἀντιόωντος / νῆα σαωσέμεναι, perhaps a case might be made for printing the infinitive. Both meanings of ἐρύω are combined here: the Nereids will have to drag the Argo, in order to protect it (see 950–55). ἐναίσιμος: This word contains a number of nuances that A. fully exploits. It means “fated” in the sense that through the Wandering Rocks is the “proper, fitting” way to go (see here), on the one hand according to Αἶσα (fate) but also according to the route as determined by the learned Alexandrian author, who knows about different possibilities for the Argonauts” nostos. The word also seems to bring with it a hint of ominous foreboding-fatal as well as fated.
862 τῳ: not τῷ is the equivalent of τινί, dat. sg. of τις, some one (see here). μή . . . δείξῃς: The aorist subjunctive (< δείκνυμι) is used here with μή to denote fear and warning (Smyth 1802). ἐμὸν . . . δέμας: “my body.” The whole phrase seems to be the equivalent of saying “don”t point me out!” (to the other Argonauts). She cannot be seen at the moment but will be visible, when she and the rest of the Nereids foregather to help the Argo through the rocks. Her lack of affection for Peleus could not be more painfully obvious. ἴδηαι: aorist, subjunctive, 2nd. singular (epic) < εἴδω / εἰδόμην < ὁράω.
863 ἀντομένην σὺν τῇσι: “coming with them (the other Nereids).” νόῳ δ᾿ ἔχε: “bear it in mind” (see s.v. 4 here). Also, perhaps a hint to the reader that more literary allusion is to follow (see below). μή με χολώσῃς: “lest you anger me.” Why is Thetis so angry with Peleus? She repeats the word in consecutive lines. A. explains her resentment in a number of ways and uses literary allusion to the Iliad and the Homeric Hymn to Demeter to further this aim. One of the main reasons for her continued resentment must be the aborted attempt to make her son, Achilles, immortal, described below. He has been left vulnerable “to insult, to suffering, and to mortality (that is to the narrative of the Iliad)”; see further Mira Seo 2013, 25–31).
864 The repetition χολώσῃς ~ ἐχόλωσας is very emphatic. ἀπηλεγέως: “without taking heed (ἀπό + ἀλέγω)." There is a full evaluation of the nuances connected with this word here (Cuypers 1970 on Arg. 2.25).
865 Thetis” exit is abrupt as her speech has been. ἀίδηλος: “unseen.” See 47–9n. The alllusions to the Homeric Hymn to Demeter begin with the rest of this line: Hom. Hym. Demeter 38 . . . βένθεα πόντου. There is a strange adaption of this phrase at Lycophron, Alexandra 1277 δύνοντος εἰς ἄφαντα κευθμῶνος βάθη, “where a cavern plunges beneath the earth into the invisible depths.” ἄφαντος here and at Arg. 4.1590 is synonymous with ἀίδηλος. As Hunter says ad loc. βένθεα πόντου is not in Homer or Hesiod. However, θαλάσσης / πάσης βένθεα (Od. 1.52–3) and similar phrases certainly are. ἐδύσατο: A. is also making use of the variable formula ἐπὶ / ἐς / ὑπὸ πόντον ἐδύσετο κυμαίνοντα (Il. 14.229, Od. 4.570, 5.352, 11.253.). On the alternation between ἐδύσατο and ἐδύσετο see 456–8n.
866 τὸν δ᾿ ἄχος αἰνὸν ἔτυψεν: Hom. Hym. Demeter 40 ὀξὺ δέ μιν κραδίην ἄχος ἔλλαβεν: 90 τὴν δ᾽ ἄχος αἰνότερον καὶ κύντερον ἵκετο θυμόν. Although the reminiscence of the Homeric Hymn is significant, A.”s phrase does have other Homeric parallels. Particularly relevant is Il. 19.125 τὸν δ᾽ ἄχος ὀξὺ κατὰ φρένα τύψε βαθεῖαν (describing Zeus in another famous episode which also involves deception practised by Hera concerning the birth of an heroic child-Heracles). ἄχος αἰνὸν is a Homeric combination, though always as αἰνὸν ἄχος. ἐπεὶ πάρος οὐκέτ᾿: The use of οὐκέτι (“Since before, no longer coming”) in this context is awkward. The required sense is that Peleus had never seen Thetis before (πάρος), since the night she had left their bed chamber in anger. Od. 6.325 νῦν δή πέρ μευ ἄκουσον, ἐπεὶ πάρος οὔ ποτ' ἄκουσας, “Now hear me, since before you never heard me . . . “, which is Odysseus appealing to Athene because he believes that she has abandoned him to the wrath of Poseidon, makes it probable that we should read (with Lloyd-Jones) οὔποτ”.
867 ἔδρακεν < δέρκομαι. For the importance of a woman leaving behind her chamber and marriage bed, see 26–7, 30–2nn.
868 χωσαμένη: The repetition of this word in the same metrical sedes (879) creates an example of small-scale ring composition, which recurs elsewhere in A. (see 313–6n.). The The contrast between Ἀχιλῆος ἀγαυοῦ ( ἀγαυός – most frequently used of kings and heroes) and νηπιάχοντος (used of Astyanax – Il. 22.502) is evidence for the Hellenistic interest in the portrayal of children (136–8n.)
869 βροτέας . . . σάρκας ἔδαιεν: Another reminiscence of the Homeric Hymn: Hom. Hym. Demeter 239 νύκτας δὲ κρύπτεσκε πυρὸς μένει ἠύτε δαλὸν / λάθρα φίλων γονέων. “It seems clear that this odd mythical incident has widespread antecedents, and that two primary objectives of passing a child through or over the fire must be considered: (i) the pursuit of immortality and avoidance of old age; (ii) protection from the dangers, real or imagined, attendant on infancy. See Frazer's 1921 APOLLODORUS, The Library, Volume II) App. I, “Putting Children on the Fire,” in his edition of Apollodoros, 2: 311–17," (Green ad loc.), to which should be added Johnston in Graf and Johnston 2007, 84–5 and 200 n. 54 suggesting a generic link with Dionysos” rebirth: “to be cooked is not necessarily the end of one's story." This reference is owed to Hornblower on Lycophron, Alexandra 178. Βροτέας: used of χρώς at Hes. Op. 416. Another important recent discussion is Pache (2004) Baby and Child Heroes in Ancient Greece (Chapter 2 passim), reviewed here.
870 νύκτα διὰ μέσσην: For more examples of this use of διά with a local sense see here (Cooper and Krüger 2002, 2771). φλογμῷ πυρός: This pleonastic expression perhaps has a lyric feel about it, in keeping with the extraordinary scene that A. is describing (see further 66–9n.).
871 ἀμβροσίῃ χρίεσκε τέρεν δέμας: Hom. Hym. Demeter 237 χρίεσκ᾽ ἀμβροσίῃ. The problem of the nature of Ambrosia is well discussed here (Onians 1951, 293). On occasion it is said to be “eaten” by a god, when nectar is drunk. However, it is also used by Hera as a cleansing substance on her own body and by the gods to anoint the body of Sarpedon. It seems to be part of the process of turning Achilles into an immortal: Od. 18.193–4 κάλλεϊ . . . ἀμβροσίῳ οἵῳ . . . Κυθέρεια χρίεται (Penelope being made to look like Aphrodite). ὄφρα πέλοιτο: This line ending occurs twice and only in the Iliad. The echo of Il. 22.443 ἀμφὶ πυρὶ στῆσαι τρίποδα μέγαν, ὄφρα πέλοιτο / Ἕκτορι θερμὰ λοετρὰ μάχης ἐκ νοστήσαντι seems to be significant. Hector never returns from his final battle with Achilles who, in turn, never takes on the qualities described in the following line
872 ἀθάνατος καί οἱ στυγερὸν χροῒ γῆρας ἀλάλκοι: Hom. Hym. Demeter 242 καί κέν μιν ποίησεν ἀγήρων τ᾽ ἀθάνατόν τε. Again, there seems to be multiple literary reminiscences: Aphrodite tries to protect Hector”s with Ambrosia at Il. 23.185–7 ἀλλὰ κύνας μὲν ἄλαλκε (~ἀλάλκοι ) Διὸς θυγάτηρ Ἀφροδίτη / ἤματα καὶ νύκτας, ῥοδόεντι δὲ χρῖεν ἐλαίῳ / ἀμβροσίῳ, ἵνα μή μιν ἀποδρύφοι ἑλκυστάζων, “Aphrodite . . . kept dogs from him by day and night and anointed him with rose-sweet, ambrosial oil that Achilles might not tear him . . ." Thetis' attempts to save her son from στυγερὸν . . . γῆρας poignantly pre-echo the sad picture that Achilles paints of his mortal father Peleus at Il. 19.334–6 ἤδη γὰρ Πηλῆά γ᾽ ὀΐομαι ἢ κατὰ πάμπαν / τεθνάμεν, ἤ που τυτθὸν ἔτι ζώοντ᾽ ἀκάχησθαι / γήραΐ τε στυγερῷ, “for I think that by now Peleus is either long dead or if he is still barely alive is in sore distress from hateful old age . . .” There are other significant verbal Homeric echoes: Hom. Hym. Aphrod. 233 στυγερὸν κατὰ γῆρας ἔπειγεν, Od. 11.196 σὸν νόστον ποθέων· χαλεπὸν δ” ἐπὶ γῆρας ἱκάνει (see further here) and particularly Hom. Hym. Apoll. 193 εὑρέμεναι θανάτοιό τ᾽ ἄκος καὶ γήραος ἄλκαρ. The double datives οἱ . . . χροΐ: The dative of the Personal Pronoun (οἱ) is very often used where we might expect a possessive agreeing with a Noun in the clause: Il. 1.104 ὄσσε δέ οἱ πυρὶ λαμπετόωντι ἐΐκτην, “his eyes were like blazing fire”, Od. 2.50 μητέρι μοι μνηστῆρες ἐπέχραον οὐκ ἐθελούσῃ, “the suitors accost my mother when she doesn't wish it”, Hes. Op. 76 πάντα δέ οἱ χροῒ κόσμον ἐφήρμοσε Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη, “And Pallas Athena bedecked her form with all manner of finery.”
873 Peleus” leaping from his bed recalls Amphitryon doing the same at Theocritus, Herakliskos 41 ὥς φάθ᾽. ὁ δ᾽ ἐξ εὐνᾶς ἀλόχῳ κατέβαινε πιθήσας, ᾽So said she, and at his wife”s bidding Amphitryon rose from his bed᾽ . . ., when Heracles is attacked by the serpents sent by Hera. ἀναπάλμενος: on the form of this verb, see 464n. and here. It constitutes a variation on the more usual Homeric expressions such as Od. 8.2 ὤρνυτ” ἄρ” ἐξ εὐνῆς, Od. 15.96 ἀνστὰς ἐξ εὐνῆς. The verb εἰσενόησεν < εἰσνοέω is rare and may well be meant to recall Il.24.700–1 φίλον πατέρα εἰσενόησεν ἑσταότ” ἐν δίφρῳ, when Cassandra perceives Priam bringing back Hector”s body. It is used when the viewer sees something remarkable.
875 μέγα νήπιος: “great fool, that he was!”; Hom. Hym. Demeter 256 νήιδες ἄνθρωποι καὶ ἀφράδμονες. Also, “lacking in understanding, foresight”, and therefore, in some respects, “like a child.” “A nēpios person is also unable to know or understand the plans of the gods. For example: (Agamemnon) νήπιος, οὐδὲ τὰ ᾔδη ἅ ῥα Ζεὺς μήδετο ἔργα. “nēpios, who knew nothing of all the things Zeus planned to accomplish . . .”. ἡ δ᾿ ἀίουσα: Hom. Hym. Demeter 250 τῆς δ᾽ἄιε.
876 τὸν μὲν ἄρ᾿ ἁρπάγδην χαμάδις βάλε κεκληγῶτα: Thetis” reaction is more violent than that of Demeter: Hom. Hym. Demeter 253–4 χείρεσσ᾽ ἀθανάτῃσιν ἀπὸ ἕθεν ἧκε πέδονδε, / ἐξανελοῦσα πυρός. ἁρπάγδην: An adverb formed from ἁρπαγή, ᾽lit. snatchingly”, compressing two actions into one clause. Thetis snatches Achilles from the fire and throws him to the ground as he gives a long-drawn out howl (κεκληγῶτα). On the formation of the adverb see Rau 2006 and for more examples see here (Frohwein 1868). κεκληγῶτα: Perfect participle < κλάζω = a loud, piercing scream and a heavy spondaic word with which to end the line. It is, almost as if the spell has been broken by Peleus' loud cry and Thetis' violent action. The moment is gone. Achilles has lost his chance of immortality and Thetis vanishes, as though she had been a dream (see below).
877 πνοιῇ ἰκέλη δέμας: Od. 6.20 ἡ δ᾽ ἀνέμου ὡς πνοιὴ ἐπέσσυτο δέμνια κούρης (of a dream) Od. 11.207–8 τρὶς δέ μοι ἐκ χειρῶν σκιῇ εἴκελον ἢ καὶ ὀνείρῳ / ἔπτατ᾽, “she flitted from my arms like a shadow or a dream” (of Odysseus” mother) 11.222, and perhaps most poignant of all, when Creusa escapes Aeneas” grasp at the end of Aeneid 2.791 par levibus ventis volucrique simillima somno, “ (fled from my hands), even as light winds and most like a winged dream.” δέμας: added to the Homeric phrase perhaps stresses the suddenness of her departure. One minute she's there and the next, she's thin air.
878 βῆ ῥ᾿ ἴμεν ἐκ μεγάροιο: Hom. Hym. Demeter 281 βῆ δὲ διὲκ μεγάρων. The second half of this line reworks 865 and, as it were, closes the incident. ἐσήλατο πόντον: Il. 1.532 εἰς ἅλα ἆλτο βαθεῖαν ἀπ” αἰγλήεντος Ὀλύμπου (Thetis leaving Olympus!), Callimachus h. 3.195 ἥλατο πόντον (a sea nymph jumping into the sea after having been chased by Minos.) The leap into the sea is obviously a significant act, often a means of escape (Bernabé et al. 2013) for a Greek heroine, but in Thetis” case a return to her natural realm(Hopman 2012).
879 χωσαμένη (863, 868): Another reference to Hom. Hym. Demeter 251 τῇ δὲ χολωσαμένη and also to Thetis” remarks to Peleus and the opening of the episode. μετὰ δ᾿ οὔ τι παλίσσυτος ἵκετ᾿ ὀπίσσω: “Never to return.” The closure of this “flashback” is emphatic and sudden. Such transitions (Fantuzzi and Hunter 2004) are typical of Hellenistic poetry.
880 τῶ μιν ἀμηχανίη δῆσεν φρένας: for ἀμηχανία as an Argonautic character trait, see 149, 825nn.
881 ἐφημοσύνην: “All the commands.” ἐφημοσύνη (like cognate ἐφετμή) is often used of the commands of the gods (757, 845nn.) The whole line recalls and varies Od. 16.340 αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δὴ πᾶσαν ἐφημοσύνην ἀπέειπε. A. writes μετέειπεν, rather than ἀπέειπε to avoid lengthening the final syllable of Θέτιδος in arsis which would break Wernicke”s Law (Mooney 1912, 413).
882 In view of Od. 4.659 μνηστῆρας δ” ἄμυδις κάθισαν καὶ παῦσαν ἀέθλων (of the suitors) and also Il. 15.15 Ἕκτορα δῖον ἔπαυσεμάχης, 15.250 ἔπαυσε δὲ θούριδος ἀλκῆς, 15.459 ἔπαυσε μάχης ἐπὶ νηυσὶν Ἀχαιῶν, 17.81 ἔπαυσε δὲ θούριδος ἀλκῆς perhaps we should read ἀέθλων rather than ἀέθλους as transmitted. μεσσηγὺς λῆξαν: “They ceased in the middle (of the games).” λῆξαν: 3rd. plur. Aorist < λήγω.
883 δόρπον τε χαμεύνας τ᾿ ἀμφεπένοντο: “They prepared dinner and beds” a Hendiadys based principally on the Homeric Il. 23.55 ἐσσυμένως δ” ἄρα δόρπον ἐφοπλίσσαντες ἕκαστοι, Il. 24.124 ἐσσυμένως ἐπένοντο καὶ ἐντύνοντο ἄριστον, Od. 14.347 ἐσσυμένως παρὰ θῖνα θαλάσσης δόρπον ἕλοντο but the presence of the rare word χαμεύνη seems to point to a link with Theocritus 13.32–3 ἐκβάντες δ᾽ ἐπὶ θῖνα κατὰ ζυγὰ δαῖτα πένοντο δειελινοί, πολλοὶ δὲ μίαν στορέσαντο χαμεύναν, ”and stepping out on the beach, they made ready their meal in the evening two by two, but one resting-place they laid for all.” Whichever poet is prior, both passages are based on the typical Homeric scenes (sections 3.1.3 and 3.1.5) of preparing a meal and retiring for the night.
884 δαισάμενοι: aor. part. < δαίνυμι “having feasted”. τῇς ἔνι . . . νύκτ᾿ ἄεσαν: “they slept upon them (i.e. the beds-which in the passage quoted above Theocritus specifies in more detail). A. (and Theocritus) are both at pains to avoid the repetition of formulaic phrases that one finds in such typical scenes in Homer. The mention of sleep is unusual for A. In spite of the phrase ὡς τὸ πάροιθεν, it does not normally break up the journey or narrative as it does in the Odyssey and Iliad; e.g. at Od. 9.168–70 (similar are Od. 4.430, 575 and Il. 1.475–7); on the subject of the Argonauts' indefatigability, see further Montiglio 2015 (Chapter 4) who notes that A. “even seems to advertise his rejection of sleep scenes by turning a sequence that, in Homer, would typically include sleep into one that emphatically excludes it.” ἄεσαν: for the form, see here.
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τοῖος -α -ον, quality, such, such-like
προσλέγομαι, say in addition, answer
μῦθος -ου ὁ, spoken thing, speech, plan, story
μαλερός, mighty, fierce, devouring, ravening
πῦρ πυρός τό, fire
μένος -εος τό, might
θύελλα, a storm
ζαχρηής, furious, raging
λήγω, allay, abate
φημί φήσω ἔφησα --- --- ---, say, promise
κῦμα -ατος τό, wave
ἀντιάω, to oppose
σαόω, save, preserve, deliver, mid., oneself
Ζέφυρος, Zephyrus, the west wind
κίνυμαι, to stir
ὥρα -ας ἡ, season, time, moment
οἶμος, a way, road, path
ὁδεύω, to go, travel
ὄφρα, so that, until
κασιγνήτη, a sister
μετέρχομαι, to come
ἀρωγός, aiding, succouring, propitious, serviceable
πρυμνήσιος, of/for the stern
ἀνάπτω, to make fast on
ὑπηοῖος, about dawn, towards morning, early
μιμνήσκω μνήσω ἔμνησα --- μέμνημαι ἐμνήσθην ---, remind, remember
νόστος -ου ὁ, return (home)
αἱρέω αἱρήσω εἷλον ᾕρηκα ᾕρημαι ᾑρέθην, take mid. choose
ἀναΐσσω, to start up, rise quickly
κατά, against, down
αἰθήρ,t he sky, heaven
ἐμπίτνω, fall upon
δίνη, a whirlpool, eddy
πόντος -ου ὁ, sea, the deep
καλέω καλῶ ἐκάλεσα κέκληκα κέκλημαι ἐκλήθην, call
ἐπαμύνω, to assist
αὐτοκασιγνήτη, an own sister
Νηρηΐς, daughter of Nereus, sea-nymph
ἀντάω, meet with
ἀλλήλων -οις, each other
ἀγορεύω ἀγορεύσω ἠγόρευσα ἠγόρευκα ἠγόρευμαι ἠγορεύθην, declare
ἐφετμή, a command, behest
αἶψα, forthwith, at once, directly
ἰάλλω, to send forth
μετά, to, in the direction of
Αὐσόνιος -α, -ον, Ausonian, Italian
ὠκύς ὠκεῖα ὠκύ, quick, swift, fast
ἀμάρυγμα, a sparkle, twinkle
βολή, a ray
ἄνειμι, go up, reach
πέραιος, on the further side (see notes)
ὑψόθι, aloft, on high
σεύω, start, drive; rush
λαιψηρός, light, nimble, swift
ὕδωρ ὕδατος τό, water
ἔστε, until, so long as
ἀφικάνω, to arrive at, to have come to
Αἰαίη, Aeaea, island of Circe
Τυρσηνίς, Etruscan, Tyrrhenian
ἤπειρος -ου ἡ, the land
εὑρίσκω εὑρήσω εὗρον εὕρηκα εὕρημαι εὑρέθην, find, discover
παρά, by the side of
ναῦς νεώς ἡ, ship
σόλος, a quoit
ῥιπή, the flight, shooting
ὀιστός, an arrow
ἆσσον, nearer, very near
ὀρέγω, to reach, touch
ἄκρος -α -ον, at the furthest point, topmost
Αἰακίδης, son of Aeacus
εἰσοράω, to look into, look upon, view, behold
δύναμαι δυνήσομαι --- --- δεδύνημαι ἐδυνήθην, be able to
ἔμπεδος, clearly, without possibility of error
οἶος -η -ον, alone
εἴδομαι, are visible, appear
μηκέτι, no more, no longer
Τυρσηνίς, Etruscan, Tyrrhenian
ἧμαι (or κάθημαι) --- --- --- --- ---, sit
μένω μενῶ ἔμεινα μεμένηκα --- ---, remain, await, stand fast
ἠῶθεν, at dawn
θοός -ή -όν, swift
πρυμνήσιος, of/for the stern
λύω λύσω ἔλυσα λέλυκα λέλυμαι ἐλύθην, loose
πείθω πείσω ἔπεισα πέπεικα (or πέποιθα) πέπεισμαι ἐπείσθην, mid. obey, trust
ἐφετμή, a command, behest
πασσυδίῃ, with all one's force, all together
Νηρηΐς, daughter of Nereus, sea-nymph
ἀντιάω, to come together
διέκ, through and out of
Πλαγκταί, the Wandering Rocks
ῥύομαι, to protect
δείκνυμι δείξω ἔδειξα δέδειχα δέδειγμαι ἐδείχθην, show
δέμας, the (physical frame, form of the) body
ὁράω ὄψομαι εἶδον ἑόρακα (or ἑώρακα) ἑώραμαι (or ὦμμαι) ὤφθην, to see, look, be able to see
ἄντομαι, to come (to your aid)
νόος, mind, perception
ἔχω ἕξω (or σχήσω) ἔσχον ἔσχηκα --- ---, keep
χολόω, to make angry, provoke
πλέον, more, rather
ἔτι, still, yet, besides, already
ἀπηλεγέως, without caring for anything, reckless of consequences, bluntly
ἀΐδηλος, unseen, making unseen, annihilating, destructive
δὐω -δύσω -έδυσα (or ἔδυν) δέδυκα δέδυμαι -εδύθην, plunge in, go into, sink
βένθος, the depth
πόντος -ου ὁ, sea, the deep
ἄχος -εος, anguish, distress
αἰνός -ή -όν, dread, grim
τύπτω, to strike
πάρος, before, formerly
οὐκέτι οὐκ ἔτι, no more, no longer (see notes)
δέρκομαι, to see clearly, see
ἐξότε, from the time when
λείπω λείψω ἔλιπον λέλοιπα λέλειμμαι ἐλείφθην, leave
θάλαμος ὁ, chamber
εὐνή, bed, couch
χώομαι, to be angry
ἀγαυός, illustrious, noble
νηπιάχω, to be childish, play like a child
βρότειος, mortal, human, of mortal mould
δαίω, to burn
νύξ νυκτός ἡ, night
μέσσος -η -ον, middle, in the middle
φλογμός, flame, blaze
πῦρ πυρός τό, fire
χρίω, to anoint, rub
ὄφρα, so that, until
πέλω, to be
ἀθάνατος -ον, immortal, deathless
στυγερός, hated, abominated, loathed
χρώς χρωτός ὁ, the surface of the body, the skin
γῆρας -ως τό, old age
ἄλαλκε, to ward off
ἀναπάλλω, jump, spring up
εἰσνοέω, to perceive, remark
φίλος -η -ον, dear, beloved, one's own
σπαίρω, to gasp
φλόξ, a flame
ἵημι ἥσω ἧκα εἷκα εἷμαι εἵθην, send forth, utter
ἀϋτή, to cry
σμερδαλέος, terrible to look on, fearful, aweful, direful
εἰσοράω, to look into, look upon, view, behold
νήπιος -α -ον, fool
ἀΐω, perceive, hear
ἁρπάγδην, hurriedly, violently
χαμάδις, to the ground, on the ground
βάλλω βαλῶ ἔβαλον βέβληκα βέβλημαι ἐβλήθην, throw, strike
κλάζω, to cry
πνοή, a breeze
ἴκελος, like, resembling
δέμας, the (physical frame, form of the) body
ἠύτε, as, like as
ὄνειρος, ὁ, a dream
μέγαρον -ου τό, hall
εἰσάλλομαι, to spring into
χώομαι, to be angry
ὄνειρος, ὁ, dream
παλίσσυτος, rushing hurriedly back
ἱκνέομαι ἵξομαι ἱκόμην --- ἷγμαι ---, come
ὀπίσσω, back, back again
δέω δήσω ἔδησα δέδεκα δέδεμαι ἐδέθην, bind, fetter
φρήν φρενός ἡ, heart, mind
ἐφημοσύνη, command, order
μετεῖπον, to speak among
ἑταῖρος -ου ὁ, comrade, companion
ἄρα, well then, really
μεσηγύ, in the middle (of what they were doing)
παύω παύσω ἔπαυσα πέπαυκα πέπαυμαι ἐπαύθην, stop, end
ἀέθλος -ου ὁ, contest
δόρπον, the evening meal
χαμεύνη, a bed on the ground, pallet-bed
ἀμφιπένομαι, to be busied about, prepare
δαίνυμι, to dine
ἄω, to sleep (see notes)