Argonautica IV 1595-1651

δαῖμον, ὅτις λίμνης ἐπὶ πείρασι τῆσδ᾽ ἐφαάνθης,

εἴτε σέγε Τρίτων᾽, ἅλιον τέρας, εἴτε σε Φόρκυν,

ἢ Νηρῆα θύγατρες ἐπικλείουσ᾽ ἁλοσύδναι,

ἵλαθι, καὶ νόστοιο τέλος θυμηδὲς ὄπαζε.1600

ἦ ῥ᾽, ἅμα δ᾽ εὐχωλῇσιν ἐς ὕδατα λαιμοτομήσας

ἧκε κατὰ πρύμνης: ὁ δὲ βένθεος ἐξεφαάνθη

τοῖος ἐών, οἷός περ ἐτήτυμος ἦεν ἰδέσθαι.

ὡς δ᾽ ὅτ᾽ ἀνὴρ θοὸν ἵππον ἐς εὐρέα κύκλον ἀγῶνος

στέλλῃ, ὀρεξάμενος λασίης εὐπειθέα χαίτης,1605

εἶθαρ ἐπιτροχάων, ὁ δ᾽ ἐπ᾽ αὐχένι γαῦρος ἀερθεὶς

ἕσπεται, ἀργινόεντα δ᾽ ἐνὶ στομάτεσσι χαλινὰ

ἀμφὶς ὀδακτάζοντι παραβλήδην κροτέονται:

ὧς ὅγ᾽ ἐπισχόμενος γλαφυρῆς ὁλκήιον Ἀργοῦς

ἦγ᾽ ἅλαδε προτέρωσε. δέμας δέ οἱ ἐξ ὑπάτοιο1610

κράατος, ἀμφί τε νῶτα καὶ ἰξύας ἔστ᾽ ἐπὶ νηδὺν

ἀντικρὺ μακάρεσσι φυὴν ἔκπαγλον ἔικτο:

αὐτὰρ ὑπαὶ λαγόνων δίκραιρά οἱ ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα

κήτεος ὁλκαίη μηκύνετο: κόπτε δ᾽ ἀκάνθαις

ἄκρον ὕδωρ, αἵ τε σκολιοῖς ἐπινειόθι κέντροις1615

μήνης ὡς κεράεσσιν ἐειδόμεναι διχόωντο.

τόφρα δ᾽ ἄγεν, τείως μιν ἐπιπροέηκε θαλάσσῃ

νισσομένην: δῦ δ᾽ αἶψα μέγαν βυθόν: οἱ δ᾽ ὁμάδησαν

ἥρωες, τέρας αἰνὸν ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖσιν ἰδόντες.

ἔνθα μὲν Ἀργῷός τε λιμὴν καὶ σήματα νηὸς1620

ἠδὲ Ποσειδάωνος ἰδὲ Τρίτωνος ἔασιν

βωμοί: ἐπεὶ κεῖν᾽ ἦμαρ ἐπέσχεθον. αὐτὰρ ἐς ἠῶ

λαίφεσι πεπταμένοις αὐτὴν ἐπὶ δεξί᾽ ἔχοντες

γαῖαν ἐρημαίην, πνοιῇ ζεφύροιο θέεσκον.

ἦρι δ᾽ ἔπειτ᾽ ἀγκῶνά θ᾽ ὁμοῦ μυχάτην τε θάλασσαν1625

κεκλιμένην ἀγκῶνος ὕπερ προύχοντος ἴδοντο.

αὐτίκα δὲ ζέφυρος μὲν ἐλώφεεν, ἤλυθε δ᾽ αὔρη

ἀργέσταο νότου: κεχάροντο δὲ θυμὸν ἰωῇ.

ἦμος δ᾽ ἠέλιος μὲν ἔδυ, ἀνὰ δ᾽ ἤλυθεν ἀστὴρ

αὔλιος, ὅς τ᾽ ἀνέπαυσεν ὀιζυροὺς ἀροτῆρας,1630

δὴ τότ᾽ ἔπειτ᾽ ἀνέμοιο κελαινῇ νυκτὶ λιπόντος

ἱστία λυσάμενοι περιμήκεά τε κλίναντες

ἱστόν, ἐυξέστῃσιν ἐπερρώοντ᾽ ἐλάτῃσιν

παννύχιοι καὶ ἐπ᾽ ἦμαρ, ἐπ᾽ ἤματι δ᾽ αὖτις ἰοῦσαν

νύχθ᾽ ἑτέρην. ὑπέδεκτο δ᾽ ἀπόπροθι παιπαλόεσσα1635

Κάρπαθος: ἔνθεν δ᾽ οἵγε περαιώσεσθαι ἔμελλον

Κρήτην, ἥ τ᾽ ἄλλων ὑπερέπλετο εἰν ἁλὶ νήσων.

τοὺς δὲ Τάλως χάλκειος, ἀπὸ στιβαροῦ σκοπέλοιο

ῥηγνύμενος πέτρας, εἶργε χθονὶ πείσματ᾽ ἀνάψαι,

Δικταίην ὅρμοιο κατερχομένους ἐπιωγήν:1640

τὸν μὲν χαλκείης μελιηγενέων ἀνθρώπων

ῥίζης λοιπὸν ἐοντα μετ᾽ ἀνδράσιν ἡμιθέοισιν

Εὐρώπῃ Κρονίδης νήσου πόρεν ἔμμεναι σὖρον,

τρὶς περὶ χαλκείοις Κρήτην ποσὶ δινεύοντα.

ἀλλ᾽ ἤτοι τὸ μὲν ἄλλο δέμας καὶ γυῖα τέτυκτο1645

χάλκεος ἠδ᾽ ἄρρηκτος: ὑπαὶ δέ οἱ ἔσκε τένοντος

σύριγξ αἱματόεσσα κατὰ σφυρόν: αὐτὰρ ὁ τήν γε

λεπτὸς ὑμὴν ζωῆς ἔχε πείρατα καὶ θανάτοιο.

οἱ δέ, δύῃ μάλα περ δεδμημένοι, αἶψ᾽ ἀπὸ χέρσου

νῆα περιδδείσαντες ἀνακρούεσκον ἐρετμοῖς.1650

καί νύ κ᾽ ἐπισμυγερῶς Κρήτης ἑκὰς ἠέρθησαν,

ἀμφότερον δίψῃ τε καὶ ἄλγεσι μοχθίζοντες,

εἰ μή σφιν Μήδεια λιαζομένοις ἀγόρευσεν:

The Story of Triton continued:

Triton, in the guise of Eurypylus, has given the Argonauts instructions about reaching the sea from his eponymous Lake. After the sacrifice that Jason dedicates to him, he reveals his true self and guides the Argo safely on its way. The description of Triton's epiphany is vividly detailed and must surely be ecphrastic.

1596  σφάξε κατὰ πρύμνης: “he slaughtered it over the stern.” ἐπὶ δ᾿ ἔννεπεν εὐχωλῇσιν: “and in addition, spoke in prayer.”

1597  δαῖμον: “O god!”, recognising that their recent encounter was divine. φαάνθης: aor. ind. pass. 3rd. pl. (epic) <φαίνω, “appeared, made manifest.”

1598  εἴτε: as often in such prayers, alternative forms of address are mentioned. ἅλιον τέρας: “sea-wonder.” Φόρκυν: Phorcys, the brother of Nereus. ἁλοσύδναι: “children of the sea,” used of Thetis at Il. 20.207.

1600  ἵλαθι: “be gracious,” pres. imperat. act. 2nd. sg. (doric) < ἵλημι. The remainder of the line = 1.249.

1601  λαιμοτομήσας: perhaps “after having cut its throat,” linking back to σφάξε (1595).

1602  ἧκε κατὰ πρύμνης: “threw it into the water from the stern.” This action reveals the god in his true form: ἐξεφαάνθη: aor. ind. pass. 3rd. sg. (epic) < ἐκφαίνω, recalling ἐφαάνθης in 1597.

1603  ἐτήτυμος: lit. “how he was in truth for the seeing (ἰδέσθαι).

1604-10  Triton is thought of as leading a proud racehorse (Argo): “The swift ships, those horses of the sea / with which men traverse its unmeasured waste (Od4.708-9). Triton has brought joy to the expedition rather than the furious twisting and turning signalled by the snake simile (1541-7).

1604  εὐρέα κύκλον ἀγῶνος: “the broad circle of the race-course.”

1605  στέλλῃ: “brings, leads” (LSJ Αiii). ὀρεξάμενος: “grasping” with the genitive λασίης . . . χαίτης. εὐπειθέα: “obedient,” agreeing in remarkable hyperbaton with ἵππον in the previous line.

1606  εἶθαρ ἐπιτροχάων: “quickly trotting alongside,” referring to the trainer. ἐπιτροχάω is a rare word, perhaps owed to A. (LSJ s.v.). ἐπʼ αὐχένι γαῦρος ἀερθεὶς: “proud in its raised neck:” i.eἐπʼ αὐχένι γαῦρος ἀερθέντι. For enallage in A. see (Hulse 2020, 323).

1607  ἀργινόεντα δ᾿ ἐπὶ στομάτεσσι χαλινὰ: succinctly phrased! “the gleaming bit(s) in his jaws.” As always in A. word order closely echoes meaning.

1608  ἀμφὶς ὀδακτάζοντι (dative of possession), “champing on both sides.” ἀμφὶς and παραβλήδην explain each other: “on both ends, on both sides of its mouth.”

1609  ὣς  γ᾿ ἐπισχόμενος: “thus he taking hold.” γλαφυρῆς ὁλκήιον Ἀργοῦς: “the keel of the hollow Argo. The phrase echoes the Homeric formulaic νῆες γλαφυραί.

1610  ἦγ᾿ ἅλαδε προτέρωσε: “guided her onward towards the open sea.”

1610-11  δέμας δέ οἱ ἐξ ὑπάτοιο / κράατος: “and his body from the top of his head.” Triton is human as far as his waist. Then he becomes a sea-serpent (‘Band-Cup | British Museum’ n.d.).

1611  ἀμφί τε νῶτα καὶ ἰξύας ἔστ᾿ ἐπὶ νηδὺν: “round his back (νῶτα) and sides (ἰξύας) as far as his belly (νηδύν).

1612  ἀντικρὺ μακάρεσσι: “was exactly alike in extraordinary appearance to the blessed ones.” ἔϊκτο: plup. ind. pass. 3rd. sg. (Homeric, ionic) < ἔοικα.

1613  ὑπαὶ λαγόνων: “below his sides.” δίκραιρά: “with two forks (see link above) agrees with ἀλκαίη, “tail.”

1614-5  κόπτε δ᾿ ἀκάνθαις / ἄκρον ὕδωρ: “he struck the surface of the water with his fins.” This presumably refers to the bifurcated ends of his tail (see link above).

1615  σκολιοῖς ἐπινειόθι κέντροις: “with curving needles below.” See further: “some animals have developed dorsal fins with protective functions, such as spines or venom.” Perhaps this is what Triton had. See image in Media section.

1616  μήνης ὡς κεράεσσιν ἐειδόμεναι: “seeming like the horns of the moon.” διχόωντο: “they are divided.”

1617  τόφρα δ᾿ ἄγεντείως: “he led until . . .”

1617-8  μιν ἐπιπροέηκε θαλάσσῃ / νισσομένην: “he sent her on her way travelling (νισσομένην) over the sea.”

1619  τέρας αἰνὸν: “a dread portent,” recalling Jason’s ἅλιον τέρας in 1598.

1620  Ἀργῷός τε λιμὴν καὶ σήματα νηὸς: whenever they go the Argonauts’ leave traces behind them.

1622  κεῖν᾿ ἦμαρ ἐπέσχεθον: “during that day they made a pause.”

1623  λαίφεσι πεπταμένοις: ‘with sails spread.”

1623-4  αὐτὴν ἐπὶ δεξί᾿ ἔχοντες / γαῖαν: perhaps “keeping the land constantly (αὐτήν) on the right,” in line with Triton’s instructions. πνοιῇ ζεφύροιο θέεσκον: ‘they ran before the West Wind.”

1625-6  ἦρι δ᾿ ἔπειτ᾿ . . . ἴδοντο: “the next morning, they sighted (ἴδοντο) the headland (ἀγκῶνά) and at the same time a corner of the sea (μυχάτην τε θάλασσαν), that lay beyond the jutting cape (κεκλιμένην ἀγκῶνος ὕπερ προύχοντος).”

1627  ζέφυρος μὲν ἐλώφεεν: “the west wind dropped.”

1628  ἀργεστᾶο νότου: “the breeze of the clear south wind.” πρυμνησταο, the main textual alternative (“from the stern”) could be explained as a marginal comment, attempting to explain the transmitted text which recalls Il11.30621.334χήραντο: “they rejoiced.” It is difficult to decide between two textual variants here (χήραντο / κεχάροντο). There seem to have been a number of corrections in the oldest Medieval witness to the text: κε has been added by a second hand and α has perhaps been written in over an erased η; see further (‘Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana - Scaffale Digitale’ n.d.).

1629–30  ἀστὴρ / αὔλιος: “the homing-star.” ἀνέπαυσεν ὀιζυροὺς ἀροτῆρας: “brings rest to wretched ploughmen.”

1631  ἀνέμοιο . . . λιπόντος: intrans. “the wind having died down.”

1632  κλίναντες: they take down the mast (and the sails) because they are going to row.

1634  ἐπ᾿ ἤματι δ᾿ αὖτις ἰοῦσαν: “coming in turn after the day.” The Argonauts labours are prodigious.

1635  ὑπέδεκτο δ᾿ ἀπόπροθι: “received them from afar (understanding αὐτούς)” or “appeared next in the distance.” (LSJ  ὑποδέχομαι iv 2). Carpathus between Crete and Rhodes is indeed rocky (παιπαλόεσσα.)

1637  Κρήτην: accusative of motion after περαιώσεσθαι. The meaning of the verb ὑπερέπλετο is is unclear: either “surpassed,” or “is the furthest (of the Greek islands from the mainland).

1638  Τάλως χάλκειος: “Bronze Talos.” The final obstacle for the Argonauts is a survivor of the Bronze Age and the Crete before Troy. This theme of ‘bronze’ runs through the passage: χάλκειος ~ χαλκείης ~ χαλκείοις ~ χάλκεος.

1638–9  Talos breaks off (ῥηγνύμενος) the rocks (πέτρας) that he hurls at the Argonauts from the sturdy lookout-point (στιβαροῦ σκοπέλοιο) from which he guards Crete and has spotted the Argonauts approaching.

1639  εἶργε χθονὶ πείσματ᾿ ἀνάψαι: “prevented them from tying their cables to the land.

1640  Δικταίην ὅρμοιο κατερχομένους ἐπιωγήν: lit. “approaching the sheltered mooring of a Dictaean anchorage. “Dictaean” equals “Cretan” usually. A. may be thinking of Mount Dicte in particular.

1641–2  τὸν μέν: i.e. Talos. A. describes Talos as a relict (λοιπὸν ἐόντα) in the age of heroes (μετ᾿ ἀνδράσιν ἡμιθέοισιν) of the bronze stock (ῥίζης), an appropriate word, since men of the bronze race were born from ash-trees. Hesiod’s men of bronze are fundamental to A.’s description. Hesiod’s classification is metaphorical; Talos, on the other hand, is literally made of bronze; see further (Hopkinson 1988, ad loc.).

1643  Εὐρώπῃ Κρονίδης . . . : “The son of Cronos (Κρονίδης) gave him to Europa (Εὐρώπῃ) to be the guardian (lit. "the boundary") for the island.” Though probably not related in etymology, “Eurôpa” closely resembles in sound “euruopa,” “having a wide-sounding voice”—with 23 occurrences, one of the most frequent particularized epithets for Zeus in Homeric poetry. What is more, several Homeric lines juxtapose this epithet with his patronymic, e.g. Il. 15.152 (cf. 1.498, 24.98) εὗρον δ’ εὐρύοπα Κρονίδην ἀνὰ Γαργάρῳ ἄκρῳ. In short, A. while conspicuously omitting the epithet “euruopa” throughout his composition manages to smuggle in a close facsimile, in a callida iunctura that echoes Homeric phrasing; see further (Martin 2011, 11–12).

1644: τρίς: “whirling around Crete on his bronze feet three times (every day).” The timescale of Talos’ tours of the island is not explicably stated, which makes the text suspect, though A. can sometimes be short on explanatory details. Also, Κρήτην after νήσου in the previous line seems doubtful. Possibly it is an explanatory gloss that has displaced something in the text (αὐτήν or ἤματι: Fränkel ad loc.).

1645: ἀλλ᾿ ἤτοι: “but surely,” stressing his almost total invulnerability, compared with the weakness of the vein in his tendon. ἄλλο δέμας καὶ γυῖα τέτυκτο: “In the rest of his body and limbs he was made of bronze.” In his use of δέμας, A. is possibly making an allusion to contemporary Homeric scholarship (Kronenberg 2018). δέμας καὶ γυῖα: accusatives of respect.

1646: ὑπαὶ δέ οἱ ἔσκε τένοντος: “beneath his (οἱ) sinew (τένοντος) was”: ἔσκε <imperf. εἰμί.

1647: σύριγξ αἱματόεσσα: “a bloody vein” (LSJ ii 4) ~ σμῶδιξ This is his weak spot: see further (Raphael 2015, 182–84). κατὰ σφυρόν: “by his ankle.” †αὐτὰρ ὁ τήν γε: This expression is difficult and ὁ is unwelcome. As the text stands ζωῆς . . . πείρατα καὶ θανάτοιο is in apposition to ὑμήν with ἔχε in a dislocated position to create a chiasmus λεπτὸς ὑμὴν, ζωῆς, ~ πείρατα καὶ θανάτοιο. It would be more natural if ζωῆς πείρατα καὶ θανάτοιο could be read as the object of ἔχε. There have been a number of attempts at emendation and explanation  (e.g. Fränkel ἀμφ᾽ ἄρα τήν γε). αὐτὰρ ὁ τήνγε (or the like) is a common combination in A. (1.293, 1161, 1216, 2.482, 622, 3.432, 1292 etc). Another possible emendation might be αὐτὰρ ὕπερθεν, which only occurs twice in A. (2.734, 3.1259). There seem to be possibilities for confusion between the more frequent (αὐτὰρ ὁ τήνγε) and the rarer phrase in the Argonautica. It should be mentioned that αὐτὰρ ὕπερθεν occurs in Homer eight times (Il. 2.218, 5.724, 7.101, 12.398, 24.797, Od. 20.2, 24.230). However, it fits well into the context here and at Il. 2.218, the rhythm of the following line: φοξὸς ἔην κεφαλήν is similar to that of line 1648. Plut. 32.09: the oldest Medieval witness shows the transmitted text.

1648  ζωῆς . . . πείρατα καὶ θανάτοιο: “the difference between life and death.”

1649  δύῃ μάλα περ δεδμημένοι: “although (περ) worn down by toil: δεδμημένοι < perf. part. masc. nom. pl. δαμάζω. the assonance in this line and the next (ἀνακρούεσκον ἐρετμοῖς) stresses the hectic struggles of the Argonauts to get out of range.

1650: ἀνακρούεσκον: “they were backing water”: a rare word in poetry (LSJ aii1).

1651  καί νύ κ: “and they would have”: a typical epic contrafactual; see further (Scafuro 2019, 290). ἠέρθησαν: aor. pass. < ἀείρω: “would have been carried away.’ Successive spondaic fifth feet (μοχθίζοντες) mark the weariness of the Argonauts.

1653  λιαζομένοις: “as they were departing.”

 

Bibliography:

‘Band-Cup | British Museum’. n.d. The British Museum. Accessed 26 February 2021. https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/G_1886-0401-1226.

‘Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana - Scaffale Digitale’. n.d. Accessed 28 February 2021. http://mss.bmlonline.it/s.aspx?Id=AWOIsVZgI1A4r7GxMI8k&c=III.%20Apollon….

Hulse, P. 2020. ‘MEDEA AIΔHΛOΣ?: Two Notes on Book 4 of the Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius’. Mnemosyne 73 (2): 321–26. https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525X-12342740.

δαίμων, δαίμονος, ὁ divinity, god, spirit

πεῖραρ, τό, a border

ἅλιος, α, ον, of the sea

τέρας, -ατος, τό, portent, monster

Φόρκυς, ὁ, Phorcys

Νηρεύς, ῆος, ὁ, Nereus (Name)

ἐπικλείω, to extol, to name

ἁλοσύδνη, -ης, ἡ, sea-born, of Thetis; of Nereids

ἵλημι, be gracious 1600

νόστος, -ου, ὁ, return home

τέλος, -ους, τό, result, fulfilment, end

θῡμηδής, ές, well-pleasing

ὀπάζω, grant

εὐχωλή, ἡ, a prayer, vow

ὕδωρ, ὕδατος, τό, water

λαιμοτομέω, cut the throat of

ἵημι, ἥσω, ἧκα, εἷκα, εἷμαι, εἵθην, put in motion, throw

πρύμνα, the stern

βένθος, τό, the depth

ἐκφαίνω, reveal, make manifest

τοῖος, -α -ον, such

θοός, -ή, -όν, swift

εὐρύς, -εῖα, -ύ, broad

κύκλος, -ου ὁ, ring, circle

ἀγών, ἀγῶνος ὁ, racecourse

στέλλω, στελῶ, ἔστειλα, ἔσταλκα, ἔσταλμαι, ἐστάλθην, send, lead 1605

ὀρέγω, to reach, stretch, stretch out

λάσῐος, α, ον, hairy, rough, shaggy

εὐπειθής, ές, ready to obey, obedient

χαίτη, ἡ, mane

εἶθαρ, at once, forthwith, quickly

ἐπιτροχάζω, run along side

αὐχήν, ένος, ὁ, the neck, throat

γαῦρος, ον, exulting in

ἀείρω, to lift, heave, raise up

ἕπομαι, ἕψομαι, ἑσπόμην, --- --- ---, to follow

ἀργινόεις, εσσα, εν, white

στόμα, -ατος, τό, the mouth

χαλινός, ὁ, a bridle, bit

ὀδακτάζω, bite, gnaw

παραβλήδην, on the two sides (of its mouth)

κροτέω, to make to rattle

ἐπέχω, ἐφέξω, ἐπέσχον, ἐπέσχηκα, --- ---, to size hold of

γλαφῠρός -ά, -όν, hollow

ὁλκήϊον, τό, stern post, keel

Ἀργώ, οῦς, ἡ, the ship named Argo 1610

ἅλαδε, to the sea

προτέρωσε, forward

δέμας, τό, the body

ὕπατος, -η, -ον, highest, the top of

κράς, τό, the head

νῶτον, τό, the back

ἰξύς, ύος, ἡ, the waist

ἔστε, until, so long as

νηδύς, ύος, ἡ, the stomach

ἀντικρύ, exactly

μακάριος, -α -ον, blessed, happy

φυή, ἡ, growth, stature

ἔκπαγλος, ον, extraordinary

ἔοικα, ptc. εἰκώς, be like, look like, seem

λᾰγών, όνος, ἡ, the flank

δίκραιρος, ον, two-forked

κῆτος, εος, τό any sea-monster

ἀλκαίη, ἡ, tail

μηκύνω, to lengthen, prolong, extend

κόπτω, κόψω, ἔκοψα, κέκοφα, κέκομμαι, ἐκόπην, cut

ἄκανθα, -ης, ἡ, dorsal fins, spines (see notes)

ἄκρος, -α -ον, edge, surface 1615

σκολιός, ά, όν, curved, winding, twisted, tangled

νειόθεν, below, at the base (see notes)

κέντρον, τό, goad, spur, sharp point

μήνη, ἡ, the moon

κέρας, τό, horn

εἴδομαι, are visible, appear

διχάω, poet. for διχάζω, to split

τόφρα, so long as, while

τείως, until

μιν, (accusative singular third person pronoun) him, her, it; himself, herself, itself. p>

ἐπιπροίημι, to send forth

νίσσομαι, to go

δὐω, -δύσω, -έδυσα, (or ἔδυν), δέδυκα, δέδυμαι, -εδύθην, plunge in, go into, sink

αἶψα, forthwith, at once, directly

βυθός, ὁ, the depth

ὁμαδέω, to make a noise

τέρας, -ατος, τό, portent, monster

αἰνός, -ή -όν, strange, supernatural

ὀφθαλμός, -οῦ ὁ, the eye

Ἀργῷος, -η, -ον, of the Argo 1620

λιμήν, -ένος, ὁ, harbor

σῆμα, ατος, τό, a sign, mark, token

Ποσειδῶν, -ῶνος, ὁ, Poseidon

ἠδέ, and

Τρίτων, ὁ, Triton

βωμός, -οῦ, ὁ, altar

ἦμαρ, τό, day

ἐπισχέθω, to hold in, check, make a pause

ἠώς, ἠοῦς, ἡ, dawn

λαῖφος, -εος, τό, sail

πετάννυμι, to spread out

δεξιός, -ά -όν, right

ἐρημαῖος, η, ον, desolate, solitary

πνοή, ἡ, a blowing, blast, breeze

Ζέφυρος, ὁ, Zephyrus, the west wind

θέω, θεύσομαι, --- --- --- ---, to run, to speed

ἔαρ, ἔαρος, τό, dawn

ἀγκών, ῶνος, ὁ, the headland 1625

μύχιος, deep

κλίνω, κλινῶ, ἔκλινα, κέκλικα, κέκλιμαι, ἐκλίνην, bend

προέχω, to jut

λωφάω, to rest

αὔρη, ἡ, breeze

ἀργεστής, οῦ, ὁ, clearing, brightening, epith. of the south wind (see notes)

νότος, ὁ, the south

χαίρω, χαιρήσω, --- κεχάρηκα, κεχάρημαι, ἐχάρην, rejoice, be happy

θυμός, -οῦ ὁ, heart, spirit

ἰωή, ἡ, any loud sound, rustling of the wind

ἦμος at which time, when

ἥλιος, –ου, ὁ the Sun

ἀστήρ, –έρος, ὁ, -έρος, star

αὔλιος, of or for farm-yards, rustic 1630

ἀναπαύω, to make to cease, to stop

ὀιζυρός, ά, όν, woeful, pitiable, miserable

ἀροτήρ, -ῆρος, ὁ, a plougher, husbandman

ἄνεμος, –ου, ὁ wind, spirit

κελαινός, ή, όν, black, swart, dark, murky

ἱστίον, τό, any web, a sail

περιμήκης, -ες, very tall

κλίνω, κλινῶ, ἔκλινα, κέκλικα, κέκλιμαι, ἐκλίνην, bend

ἱστός, ὁ, mast, beam

εὔξεστος, well-planed, well-polished

ἐπιρρώομαι, to flow

ἐλάτη, ἡ, the silver fir

παννύχιος, ον, all night long 1635

ὑποδέχομαι, to receive, entertain; to promise

ἀπόπροθι, far away

παιπαλόεις, εσσα, εν, craggy, rugged

Κάρπαθος, ἡ, Carpathus

ἔνθεν, from there

περαιόω, to carry to the opposite side, carry over

μέλλω, μελλήσω, ἐμέλλησα, ––– ––– ––– think of doing, intend to do; be destined

ὑπερπέλομαι, to be superior to

ἅλς, ἁλός, ὁ, salt (m.) sea (f.)

Τάλως, ὁ, Talos, the man of bronze

χάλκειος, η, ον, of bronze

στῐβαρός, ά, όν, compact, strong, stout, sturdy

σκόπελος, ὁ, a look-out place, a peak, headland

ῥήγνυμι, break, shatter, tear

ἔργω, to bar one's way

χθών, χθονός, ἡ, the earth, ground

πεῖσμα, τό, a ship's cable

ἀνάπτω, to make fast on

Δικταῖος, ὁ, Dictaean 1640

ὅρμος, ὁ, anchorage

κατέρχομαι to come to

ἐπιωγή, ἡ, harbour, place of shelter

μελιηγενής, ές ash-born

ῥίζα, ἡ, a root

λοιπός –ή –όν, remainder, remaining over

ἡμίθεος, a half-god, demigod

Εὐρώπη,  ἡ, Europa, Europe

Κρονίδης, ὁ, son of Cronus

πόρω, pres. not attested; aor. to furnish, offer; perf. it is fated

οὐρός, ὁ, a boundary

Κρήτη, ἡ, Crete

δινεύω, to whirl

δέμας, τό, the body 1645

γυῖον -ου, τό only pl., joints

χάλκεος, of copper

ἄρρηκτος, ον, unbroken, not to be broken

τένων any tight-stretched band, a sinew, tendon

σῦριγξ, ἡ, a pipe

αἱματόεις, όεσσα, όεν, bloody

σφυρόν, τό, the ankle

λεπτός, ή, όν, fine, thin, delicate, subtle

ὑμήν, ένος, ὁ, a thin skin, membrane

ζωή, –ῆς, ἡ, life

θάνατος –ου, ὁ death

δύη, ἡ, woe, misery, anguish, pain

δαμάζω, to overpower, tame, conquer, subdue

χέρσος, ἡ, dry land, land

περιδείδω, to be in great fear about 1650

ἀνακρούω, to push back, stop short, check

ἐρετμός, ὁ, rowing

ἐπισμυγερός, gloomy

ἑκάς, far off

ἀείρω, to lift, heave, raise up

ἀμφότερος, ἀμφοτέρα, ἀμφότερον, both of two

δίψα, ἡ, thirst

ἄλγος, –ους, τό, pain

μοχθίζω, to suffer

σφεῖς, they

Μήδεια, ἡ, Medea

λιάζομαι to bend, incline

ἀγορεύω, ἀγορεύσω, ἠγόρευσα, ἠγόρευκα, ἠγόρευμαι, ἠγορεύθην, harangue, speak

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Suggested Citation

Peter Hulse. Apollonius: Argonautica Book IV. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2022. ISBN: 978-1-947822-21-4. https://dcc.dickinson.edu/apollonius-argonautica/argonautica-iv-1595-1651