ἤδη μέν ποθι κόλπον ἐπώνυμον Λ̓μβρακιήων,
ἤδη Κουρῆτιν ἔλιπον χθόνα πεπταμένοισιν
λαίφεσι καὶ στεινὰς αὐταῖς σὺν Ἐχινάσι νήσους1230
ἑξείης, Πέλοπος δὲ νέον κατεφαίνετο γαῖα:
καὶ τότ᾽ ἀναρπάγδην ὀλοὴ βορέαο θύελλα
μεσσηγὺς πέλαγόσδε Λιβυστικὸν ἐννέα πάσας
νύκτας ὁμῶς καὶ τόσσα φέρ᾽ ἤματα, μέχρις ἵκοντο
προπρὸ μάλ᾽ ἔνδοθι Σύρτιν, ὅθ᾽ οὐκέτι νόστος ὀπίσσω1235
νηυσὶ πέλει, ὅτε τόνγε βιῴατο κόλπον ἱκέσθαι.
πάντῃ γὰρ τέναγος, πάντῃ μνιόεντα βυθοῖο
τάρφεα: κωφὴ δέ σφιν ἐπιβλύει ὕδατος ἄχνη:
ἠερίη δ᾽ ἄμαθος παρακέκλιται: οὐδέ τι κεῖσε
ἑρπετόν, οὐδὲ ποτητὸν ἀείρεται. ἔνθ᾽ ἄρα τούσγε1240
πλυμμυρίσ--καὶ γάρ τ᾽ ἀναχάζεται ἠπείροιο
ἦ θαμὰ δὴ τόδε χεῦμα, καὶ ἂψ ἐπερεύγεται ἀκτὰς
λάβρον ἐποιχόμενον--μυχάτῃ ἐνέωσε τάχιστα
ἠιόνι, τρόπιος δὲ μάλ᾽ ὕδασι παῦρον ἔλειπτο.
οἱ δ᾽ ἀπὸ νηὸς ὄρουσαν, ἄχος δ᾽ ἕλεν εἰσορόωντας1245
ἠέρα καὶ μεγάλης νῶτα χθονὸς ἠέρι ἶσα,
τηλοῦ ὑπερτείνοντα διηνεκές: οὐδέ τιν᾽ ἀρδμόν,
οὐ πάτον, οὐκ ἀπάνευθε κατηυγάσσαντο βοτήρων
αὔλιον, εὐκήλῳ δὲ κατείχετο πάντα γαλήνῃ.
ἄλλος δ᾽ αὖτ᾽ ἄλλον τετιημένος ἐξερέεινεν:1250
τίς χθὼν εὔχεται ἥδε; πόθι ξυνέωσαν ἄελλαι
ἡμέας; αἴθ᾽ ἔτλημεν, ἀφειδέες οὐλομένοιο
δείματος, αὐτὰ κέλευθα διαμπερὲς ὁρμηθῆναι
πετράων. ἦ τ᾽ ἂν καὶ ὑπὲρ Διὸς αἶσαν ἰοῦσιν
βέλτερον ἦν μέγα δή τι μενοινώοντας ὀλέσθαι.1255
νῦν δὲ τί κεν ῥέξαιμεν, ἐρυκόμενοι ἀνέμοισιν
αὖθι μένειν τυτθόν περ ἐπὶ χρόνον; οἷον ἐρήμη
πέζα διωλυγίης ἀναπέπταται ἠπείροιο.
ὧς ἄρ᾽ ἔφη: μετὰ δ᾽ αὐτὸς ἀμηχανίῃ κακότητος
ἰθυντὴρ Ἀγκαῖος ἀκηχέμενος ἀγόρευσεν:1260
Ὠλόμεθ᾽ αἰνότατον δῆθεν μόρον, οὐδ᾽ ὑπάλυξις
ἔστ᾽ ἄτης: πάρα δ᾽ ἄμμι τὰ κύντατα πημανθῆναι
τῇδ᾽ ἐπ᾽ ἐρημαίῃ πεπτηότας, εἰ καὶ ἀῆται
χερσόθεν ἀμπνεύσειαν: ἐπεὶ τεναγώδεα λεύσσω
τῆλε περισκοπέων ἅλα πάντοθεν: ἤλιθα δ᾽ ὕδωρ1265
ξαινόμενον πολιῇσιν ἐπιτροχάει ψαμάθοισιν.
καί κεν ἐπισμυγερῶς διὰ δὴ πάλαι ἥδ᾽ ἐκεάσθη
νηῦς ἱερὴ χέρσου πολλὸν πρόσω: ἀλλά μιν αὐτὴ
πλημμυρὶς ἐκ πόντοιο μεταχθονίην ἐκόμισσεν.
νῦν δ᾽ ἡ μὲν πέλαγόσδε μετέσσυται, οἰόθι δ᾽ ἅλμη1270
ἄπλοος εἰλεῖται, γαίης ὕπερ ὅσσον ἔχουσα.
τούνεκ᾽ ἐγὼ πᾶσαν μὲν ἀπ᾽ ἐλπίδα φημὶ κεκόφθαι
ναυτιλίης νόστου τε. δαημοσύνην δέ τις ἄλλος
φαίνοι ἑήν: πάρα γάρ οἱ ἐπ᾽ οἰήκεσσι θαάσσειν
μαιομένῳ κομιδῆς. ἀλλ᾽ οὐ μάλα νόστιμον ἦμαρ1275
Ζεὺς ἐθέλει καμάτοισιν ἐφ᾽ ἡμετέροισι τελέσσαι.
ὧς φάτο δακρυόεις: σὺν δ᾽ ἔννεπον ἀσχαλόωντι
ὅσσοι ἔσαν νηῶν δεδαημένοι: ἐν δ᾽ ἄρα πᾶσιν
παχνώθη κραδίη, χύτο δὲ χλόος ἀμφὶ παρειάς.
οἷον δ᾽ ἀψύχοισιν ἐοικότες εἰδώλοισιν1280
ἀνέρες εἱλίσσονται ἀνὰ πτόλιν, ἢ πολέμοιο
ἢ λοιμοῖο τέλος ποτιδέγμενοι, ἠέ τιν᾽ ὄμβρον
ἄσπετον, ὅς τε βοῶν κατὰ μυρία ἔκλυσεν ἔργα,
ἢ ὅταν αὐτόματα ξόανα ῥέῃ ἱδρώοντα
αἵματι, καὶ μυκαὶ σηκοῖς ἔνι φαντάζωνται,1285
ὴὲ καὶ ἠέλιος μέσῳ ἤματι νύκτ᾽ ἐπάγῃσιν
οὐρανόθεν, τὰ δὲ λαμπρὰ δι᾽ ἠέρος ἄστρα φαείνοι:
ὧς τότ᾽ ἀριστῆες δολιχοῦ πρόπαρ αἰγιαλοῖο
ἤλυον ἑρπύζοντες. ἐπήλυθε δ᾽ αὐτίκ᾽ ἐρεμνὴ
ἕσπερος. οἱ δ᾽ ἐλεεινὰ χεροῖν σφέας ἀμφιβαλόντες1290
δακρυόειν ἀγάπαζον, ἵν᾽ ἄνδιχα δῆθεν ἕκαστος
θυμὸν ἀποφθίσειαν ἐνὶ ψαμάθοισι πεσόντες.
βὰν δ᾽ ἴμεν ἄλλυδις ἄλλος ἑκαστέρω αὖλιν ἑλέσθαι:
ἐν δὲ κάρη πέπλοισι καλυψάμενοι σφετέροισιν
ἄκμηνοι καὶ ἄπαστοι ἐκείατο νύκτ᾽ ἔπι πᾶσαν1295
καὶ φάος, οἰκτίστῳ θανάτῳ ἔπι. νόσφι δὲ κοῦραι
ἀθρόαι Αἰήταο παρεστενάχοντο θυγατρί.
ὡς δ᾽ ὅτ᾽ ἐρημαῖοι πεπτηότες ἔκτοθι πέτρης
χηραμοῦ ἀπτῆνες λιγέα κλάζουσι νεοσσοί:
ἢ ὅτε καλὰ νάοντος ἐπ᾽ ὀφρύσι Πακτωλοῖο1300
κύκνοι κινήσωσιν ἑὸν μέλος, ἀμφὶ δὲ λειμὼν
ἑρσήεις βρέμεται ποταμοῖό τε καλὰ ῥέεθρα:
ὧς αἱ ἐπὶ ξανθὰς θέμεναι κονίῃσιν ἐθείρας
παννύχιαι ἐλεεινὸν ἰήλεμον ὠδύροντο.
καί νύ κεν αὐτοῦ πάντες ἀπὸ ζωῆς ἐλίασθεν1305
νώνυμνοι καὶ ἄφαντοι ἐπιχθονίοισι δαῆναι
ἡρώων οἱ ἄριστοι ἀνηνύστῳ ἐπ᾽ ἀέθλῳ:
ἀλλά σφεας ἐλέηραν ἀμηχανίῃ μινύθοντας
ἡρῷσσαι, Λιβύης τιμήοροι, αἵ ποτ᾽ Λ̓θήνην,
ἦμος ὅτ᾽ ἐκ πατρὸς κεφαλῆς θόρε παμφαίνουσα,1310
ἀντόμεναι Τρίτωνος ἐφ᾽ ὕδασι χυτλώσαντο.
ἔνδιον ἦμαρ ἔην, περὶ δ᾽ ὀξύταται θέρον αὐγαὶ
ἠελίου Λιβύην: αἱ δὲ σχεδὸν Λἰσονίδαο
ἔσταν, ἕλον δ᾽ ἀπὸ χερσὶ καρήατος ἠρέμα πέπλον.
αὐτὰρ ὅγ᾽ εἰς ἑτέρωσε παλιμπετὲς ὄμματ᾽ ἔνεικεν,1315
δαίμονας αἰδεσθείς: αὐτὸν δέ μιν ἀμφαδὸν οἶον
μειλιχίοις ἐπέεσσιν ἀτυζόμενον προσέειπον:
The Departure from Drepane:
The Argonauts sail to Libya and are stranded on the Syrtes (shoals off the Libyan coast).
1223: ἤματι δ᾿ ἑβδομάτῳ: References to the itinerary are often numerically detailed; see further (Murray 2014). Δρεπάνην λίπον: A. resumes the brisk style that he adopts when narrating the Argonauts’ travels. For a similar description from the Odyssey, see Od. 15.290–95.
1224: ὑπεύδιος: “under a clear sky.” The omens seem to be good but see below.
1225: ἀλλὰ γὰρ οὔ πω: “but not yet.” This phrase coming at the end of the line, with its full meaning running into the next seems to apply the breaks to the Argo’s swift progress.
1226: αἴσιμον ἦν: “was it permitted by fate.” αἴσιμον ἦμαρ (Il. 8.72, 22.212) and the like is a frequent Homeric phrase. ἡρώεσσιν: a heavy spondaic ending to the line (followed by two more) marks this as a major moment.
1227: Λιβύης ἐπὶ πείρασιν: the Argonauts are destined to suffer (ὀτλήσειαν) in the wastes of Libya. ὀτλήσειαν: the optative is used after a past tense (Od. 3.285).
1228: ἤδη: in this and the next line marks the immediacy of the moment (225–7n.). †ποτί†: read προτί=πρός, in the sense of, ‘on the side of, towards’ LSJ s.v. πρός Ai2 and understanding, perhaps, χθόνα from the next line, translate, “they left (behind) the land in the direction of the Ambracian Gulf.”
1230: στεινὰς αὐταῖς σὺν Ἐχινάσι νήσους: “some narrow islands together with the Echinades. themselves.”
1231: Πέλοπος . . . κατεφαίνετο γαῖα: the Argonauts are getting closer to home, just like Odysseus (Od. 10.29), when disaster strikes. Πέλοπος depends on γαῖα.
1232: The end of the line recalls Il. 6.346, and Od. 10.48. Odysseus’ troubles begin when he is swept off course to the land of the Lotus-Eaters. The Argonauts are heading for a far more desolate destination.
1233: μεσσηγὺς: “in mid-course.” πέλαγόσδε Λιβυστικὸν: “towards the Libyan Sea.” δε: indicates direction: Smyth § 1589.
1233–4: ἐννέα πάσας / νύκτας ὁμῶς καὶ τόσσα: “nine nights and as many days.” φέρ(ε): unaugmented impf. is the main verb, incorporated into the phrase to, perhaps, emphasise the length of the storm.
1235: προπρὸ μάλ᾿ ἔνδοθι Σύρτιν: “very far advanced into the Syrtis.” A. seems to mean the southern most part of the “great Syrtis”, i.e. the Gulf of Sidra, west of Cyrene, a true wilderness; see further Media images. οὐκέτι νόστος ὀπίσσω: referencing the main theme of the Argonautica: nostos: “no longer a return.”
1236: βιῴατο: pres. opt. 3rd. pl. (epic, ionic) < βιάω, “they are forced.” The present tenses (and the parenthesis: καὶ γάρ . . . ἐποιχόμενον) add to the drama of the description.
1237: πάντῃ . . . πάντῃ: “everywhere . . . everywhere.”
1237–8: μνιόεντα βυθοῖο / τάρφεα: “lit. sea-weedy clumps of the deep”, “tangled masses of sea-weed.” Strange language to match the strange and desolate scenery.
1238: κωφὴ . . . ὕδατος ἄχνη: “noiseless foam of the sea: (A. has in mind, Od. 5.403 and the whole context).
1239: ἠερίη δ᾿ ἄμαθος παρακέκλιται: “sand stretches away, raised into the air.” The meaning of ἠέριος is a matter of discussion: the explanation of the scholia (ad loc.), “vast quantities, abundant”, is not attested elsewhere. “Misty sandhills” would certainly be the more atmospheric interpretation. παρακέκλιται: perf. ind. 3rd. sg. < παρακλίνω, “turn aside.” οὐδέ τι κεῖσε: “nor there does anything . . .”
1240: ἑρπετὸν οὐδὲ ποτητὸν: “that creeps or flies (Hdt. 1.140 ἑρπετὰ καὶ πετεινά, Theoc. 15.118). ἀείρεται: “moves, raises itself.” ἔνθ᾿ ἄρα τούς γε: referring to the Argonauts.
1241: πλημυρίς: A. seems to be echoing (and almost reversing) Odysseus’ escape from the Cyclops (Od. 9.486), where Odysseus is nearly swept back ashore. καὶ γάρ τ᾿: the two καί’s (next line) balance one another: the tide (τόδε χεῦμα) ebbs (ἀναχάζεται) and flows back again (ἐπερεύγεται).
1243: λάβρον ἐποιχόμενον: “coming with a rush and a roar.”
1243–4: μυχάτῃ . . . / ἠιόνι: “the innermost shore. ἐνέωσε: aor. ind. act. 3rd. sg. <ἐνωθέω.
1244: τρόπιος . . . παῦρον: “very little of the ship’s keel.” ἔλειπτο: unreduplicated aorist passive < λείπω: LSJ s.v. B.
1245: οἱ δ᾿: the Argonauts rush to disembark. ἄχος δ᾿ ἕλεν εἰσορόωντας: they are dismayed the landscape (or lack of) that greets them. When Odysseus lands back in Ithaca, he is confronted by a many familiar landmarks (Od. 13.236–48, as listed by Athene).
1246: ἠέρα: see 1239n. they are dismayed by the “mist and the back of the great earth.”
1247: τηλοῦ ὑπερτείνοντα διηνεκές: the most terrifying thing is that this uninhabited landscape stretches off into the distance. A major factor is the mist. For ἠέριος / ἀήρ, ἠέρος, see further 265–8n. οὐδέ τιν᾿ ἀρδμόν: “no spot for water.” This is one of the words used in the description of Ithaca cited above (1245n.).
1248: οὐ πάτον: “nor beaten track.” This word echoes the landing made by Odysseus on “Goat Island” (Od. 9.119).
1248–9: βοτήρων / αὔλιον: “a farmstead.” The lack of one of these is a measure of the desolate of the Argonauts’ landing place. εὐκήλῳ δὲ κατείχετο πάντα γαλήνῃ: “silence reigned over a lifeless world.” (Rieu).
1250–1: τίς χθὼν εὔχεται ἥδε: “what land is this proud to be?” As often in A. an anonymous commentator sums up the situation, while echoing the usual Odyssean interrogative opening: τίς πόθεν εἰς ἀνδρῶν (Od. 1.170 etc). Here, it is literally a cry in the wilderness. With εὔχεται understand εἶναι (LSJ s.v. III). The verb usually signifies a proud boast but here seems empty and despairing. ξυνέωσαν: varying on ἐνέωσε in 1243: “To where have the stormy winds hurled us?”
1252: αἴθ(ε): “would that . . .” ἔτλημεν: “dared.” Such unfulfilled wishes are often a part of interventions such as this; see Medea’s speech at 4.32. , ἀφειδέες: without thought for, disregarding.”
1253: διαμπερές: “straight through.” To be taken with πετράων. The Argonauts are not aware that the Clashing Rocks are fixed after their passage through them in Book 2 (528–647).
1254: ἦ τ᾿ ἂν . . . βέλτερον: “it would have been better,” a ‘counterfactual’ wish that draws attention to a pivotal point in the plot; see further (Louden 2007, 190). καὶ ὑπὲρ Διὸς αἶσαν ἰοῦσιν: “even if we were to go against Zeus’ will: a possible reference to 4.584–5.
1255: μέγα δή τι μενοινώοντας: “eager for some great deed.” There is a similar mixture of cases (ἰοῦσιν ~ μενοινώοντας) at 4. 169–70.
1256: τί κεν ῥέξαιμεν: “but now, what are we to do?” The anonymous Argonaut echoes Agamemnon’s words at Il. 19.90. Agamemnon blames the gods; the Argonaut, the elements and the environment. ἐρυκόμενοι ἀνέμοισιν: “if we are held back by . . .”
1257: μένειν: “to remain”: the infinitive depends on the participle in the previous line. τυτθόν περ ἐπὶ χρόνον: “for even a short time (τυτθόν agreeing with χρόνον).
1258: the anonymous commentator concludes with a linguistically rich line: πέζα, meaning “shore-line” is rare (LSJ s.v. Aii2). The exact signification of διωλύγιος is disputed. Here it agrees with ἠπείροιο. The line is balanced by ἀναπέπταται: pf. pass. of ἀναπετάννυμι.
1259: ἀμηχανίῃ κακότητος: “in despair at their evil situation.” ἀμηχανίη is generally a characteristic that marks out Jason alone.
1260: ἰθυντὴρ Ἀγκαῖος: “the helmsman Ancaeus” confirms that the Argonauts are in a dreadful situation. He is an expert, so the use of his name stresses the fact that the situation is dire. ἀκηχεμένοις: pf. pass. participle < ἀχέω.
1261: ὠλόμεθ᾿. . . μόρον: recalling Il. 21.133. δῆθεν: adding a note of irony: “in truth” (implying perhaps, “after all we have been through”). ὑπάλυξις: invoking Il. 22.270 and particularly Od. 23.287.
1262: πάρα δ᾿. . . πημανθῆναι (with heavy spondaic ending): “it remains for us (πάρα δ᾿ ἄμμι) to suffer the very worst (τὰ κύντατα).”
1263: ὑπ᾿ ἐρημαίῃ πεπτηότας: “having fallen upon this desolate place.” πεπτηότας, here translated as though from πίπτω, could be from πτήσσω (LSJ s.v. ii). A. seems to be following Herodotus’ description of Libya.
1264: ἀμπνεύσειαν: aorist. opt. < ἀναπνέω: “were to blow from the land (χερσόθεν). The Argonauts are completely stranded. τεναγώδεα: acc. sing. with ἅλα (next line). It comes first to stress the desolation that they face.
1265: τῆλε περισκοπέων ἅλα πάντοθεν: the adverbs (τῆλε . . . πάντοθεν) and the verb (περισκοπέων) emphasise the fact that, whenever they look, the Argonauts can see no means of escape. ἤλιθα: “to no purpose, uselessly (for us).” The water churns backwards and forwards over the shoals to no purpose.
1266: ξαινόμενον: “fretted, broken up,” presumably as it runs over (ἐπιτροχάει) the shoals (πολιῇσιν . . ψαμάθοισιν; lit. the grey sand).
1267: καί κεν: placed first to stress the fact that they have escaped from an even more wretched fate: “would have been (smashed)”. The Argo has only escaped total destruction because the incoming tide (1269 πλημυρὶς ἐκ πόντοιο) has pushed the ship some distance up the beach of the Syrtes. διὰ . . . κεάσθη: “have been shattered: aor. pass. < (διὰ) . . . κεάζω, a verb denoting a considerable degree of violence; see 4.391.
1268: νηῦς ἱερή: “our sacred ship,” emphasising the important role that the Argo, herself, plays in the poem. In addition, it is presumably Athena’s crafting of the Argo (1.111–4), or perhaps the beam of Dodonian oak (1.527) that she fashioned for its mid-keel, that makes the Argo a “sacred ship”; see further (Murray 2005). πολλὸν πρόσω: “very far from (dry land).”
1269: μεταχρονίην: “raised up”, i.e. afloat.
1270: ἡ μὲν: referring back to πλημυρίς (the swell or the tide). πέλαγόσδε μετέσσυται: “rushes back to (δε) the sea.” οἰόθι δ᾿ ἅλμη: this is a common enough sight on any beach: “only the foam.”
1271: ἄπλοος εἰλεῖται: “is whirled around, on which no-one can sail.” ὕπερ . . . ἔχουσα: “raising,” the verb in tmesis with γαίης depending on it and ὅσσον, modifying
1272: The word order of Ancaeus’ speech continues to be very intricate: πᾶσαν agrees with ἐλπίδα, and ἀπ᾿. . . κεκόφθαι is another example of tmesis, with object and main verb embedded between the prefix and the main part of the infinitive (κεκόφθαι). Hunter (ad loc.) notes that this is the earliest occurrence of ἐλπίδα ἀποκόπτειν (LSJ s.v. A2) but see “hopes were anchors or cablesto the Greeks (see further (Thomson 1938, 62)) so it is a neat extension of this metaphor to speak of being “cut off from hope,”especially when the most important point of reference is the Argo.
1273: ναυτιλίης νόστου τε: “of our voyage and our return.” The basic themes of the Argonautica. δαημοσύνην: “his skill (as a steersman).” This abstract noun occurs first in A. (see 121–2n.). Abstract nouns in –σύνη are uncommon in Homeric poetry and their use somewhat restricted to direct speech (521 examples in direct speech and 90 examples in narrative). Here A. seems to follow the Homeric pattern but generally does not discriminate in the same way.
1274: φαίνοι ἑήν: “let him show.” This is an emendation for transmitted φαίνοιεν / φήνειεν. It makes good sense, though the correption of οι is unusual. πάρα = πάρεστι: see vocab. οἱ: “for him.” ἐπ᾿ οἰήκεσσι θαάσσειν: a picturesque way of describing a possible handing over of responsibility: “sit down at the helm.”
1275: μαιομένῳ κομιδῆς: “lit. if he desires a return home.” οὐ μάλα: “not at all.” Hermann Fränkel’s classic study showed that in Archaic poetry ἧμαρ not only means ‘day’, but the situation which turns into decisive destiny. The epic hero (as many heroes of tragedy and historiography) has his νόστιµον ἦμαρ, his αἴσιμον ἦμαρ, his ἐλεύθερον ἦμαρ, which seals his destiny; see further(Jáuregui et al. 2011, 190).
1276: Ζεὺς ἐθέλει: a fleeting allusion to the ‘plan of Zeus’, mentioned only at significant moments (4.557–61). καμάτοισιν ἐφ᾿ ἡμετέροισι: “after / in return for our troubles. κᾰ́μᾰτος: is another significant word in the Argonautica (1.1). Ancaeus ends on a note of despair to correspond with his opening: ὠλόμεθ᾿(α).
1277: the context is one of total gloom. σὺν δ᾿ ἔννεπον ἀσχαλόωντι: “(the Argonauts) joined in his despair.” ἀσχαλόωντι: pres. part. act. masc. dat. sg. > ἀσχαλάω.
1278: ὅσσοι ἔσαν νηῶν δεδαημένοι: “those who knew anything about navigation (Rieu).” δεδαημένοι: perf. part. masc. nom. pl. <δάω.
1279: παχνώθη κραδίη: “their hearts were frozen with fear,” a variation on ἦτορ παχνοῦται (Il. 17.112), ἐπάχνωσεν φίλον ἦτορ (Hes. Op. 360).
1280: this complex simile marks the depth of the Argonauts’ despair. The parallels for its constituent parts are principally Od. 20.350–7 (Theoclymenus’ vision of impending doom for the suitors); but see also Hdt. 6.27, 7.37, 140, Cic. ND 2.5.14, De Div. 1.97, Tib. 2.5.71–8, Plut. Pyrrhos 31.3 with particular reference to Virg. G. 1.476–83. A modern parallel that conveys the same sense of despair that pervades this whole passage may be Cavafy’s “Waiting for the Barbarians.” It is also possible that A.’s readers might connect this description with what happened at Thebes before its sack by Alexander the Great (Diod. Sic. 17.10.4–5); see further(Dillon 2017, 188).
1280: ἀψύχοισιν ἐοικότες εἰδώλοισιν: “men wander (εἱλίσσονται) ghost-like”, well-summing up the mental state of the Argonauts.
1281: εἱλίσσονται: “roam through (the city),” perhaps with the sense of not knowing what to do like Odysseus at Od. 20.24 ἑλίσσετο ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα.
1281–2: ἢ πολέμοιο / ἢ λοιμοῖο: “war or plague.” The two genitives depend on τέλος.
1282–3: ὄμβρον / ἄσπετον: floods were considered to be a considerable omen in the ancient world. This (literary) flood influenced Virgil (see above) and, in his turn, Horace; see further (Nisbet and M. 1970, 17).
1283: βοῶν . . . ἔργα: “fields worked by the cattle” (Hes. Op. 46 Virg. G. 1.325 boumque labores). κατὰ μυρία ἔκλυσεν: “which overwhelms.” The aorist is gnomic or generalising, marked by the presence of τε. In A. there are similar examples of hiatus (. . . ία ἔκ . . .) in this position in the line (1.778, 2.660, 4.236, 546, 1502, 1637); see further (Rzach 1881, 65). For the neglect of the digamma (ϝἔργα) see further (Mooney 1912, 418).
1284: ἢ ὅταν: this is the type of mannered ellipse (“or it is like when . . .”) that one expects from an Alexandrian poet. A. is listing the kinds of phenomena that occur when the inhabitants of a city are in despair. For statues sweating with blood and other such portents, see further (James 2005, 372).
1285: αἵματι: a ghastly detail, placed in significant enjambment. μυκαί: a rare word. The equivalent of μυκηθμός LSJ s.v. φαντάζωνται: “are imagined,” (Plato Res. 572.b.1 αἱ ὄψεις φαντάζονται τῶν ἐνυπνίων).
1286: μέσῳ ἤματι: “in the middle of the day.” νύκτ᾿ ἐπάγῃσιν: “draws on night.” An eclipse was an important and significant event in the ancient world; see further (Sofroniou 2013, 211). ἐπάγῃσιν: pres. subj. act. 3rd. sg. <ἐπάγω (Od. 18.137 οἷον ἐπʼ ἦμαρ ἄγῃσι πατήρ).
1287: οὐρανόθεν: “from the heaven.” λαμπρὰ δι᾿ ἠέρος ἄστρα: an elegantly arranged phrase (λαμπρά with ἄστρα): “the bright stars through the heaven.” φαείνω is an epic form of φαίνω (Estienne 1572, 9873).
1288: The gloom of the following lines is in great contrast to talk of shining stars. ὣς τότ᾿ ἀριστῆες: “the heroes”, i.e. the Argonauts. πρόπαρ: governs δολιχοῦ . . . αἰγιαλοῖο: “along the endless beach.
1289: ἤλυον ἑρπύζοντες: “they wander in great distress” (used of Odysseus at Od. 13.220 ἑρπύζων παρὰ θῖνα and Achilles at Il. 23.225). ἐπήλυθε: “came upon,” with the sense of a degree of suddenness. A. is varying a Homeric phrase such as Od. 1.423 μέλας ἐπὶ ἕσπερος ἦλθε.
1290: ἐλεεινά: “piteously,” neuter plural of the adj. used as an adverb. χεροῖν σφέας ἀμφιβαλόντες: “they threw their hands about each other.” In Homer usually with dative of the person (Od. 21.223Ὀδυσῆι . . . χεῖρε βαλόντε).
1291: δακρυόειν ἀγάπαζον: “they tearfully embraced.” δακρυόειν: epic (alternative) neut. sing. of δακρυόεις used as an adverb. δῆθεν: a strengthened form of δή, perhaps with a note of irony attached. As ἄνδιχα . . . ἕκαστος: the collegiate unity of the Argonauts is breaking down in the face of their miserable situation: “each to his own.”
1292: θυμὸν ἀποφθίσειαν: “die.” aor. opt. act. 3rd. pl. < ἀποφθίνω. The use of a plural verb with a sing. subject (ἕκαστος) is not unusual. The phrase is used in a similar context at Il. 16.540 θυμὸν ἀποφθινύθουσι. The end of the line (ἐνὶ ψαμάθοισι πεσόντες, “falling in the sand”) and the next conveys a feeling of great desolation.
1293: βάν: aor. ind. act. 3rd. pl. (epic) < βαίνω. The phrase βῆ ῥ' ἴμεν (and the like) is a common line opener in Homer (Il. 12.299 and often). ἄλλυδις ἄλλος ἑκαστέρω: lit. “this way and that (they went) further,” stressing the way in which the Argonautic unity is breaking down. αὖλιν ἑλέσθαι: “to pick a place for rest.” ἑλέσθαι: aor. inf. mid. infin. <αἱρέω.
1294: ἐν δὲ κάρη πέπλοισι καλυψάμενοι: they cover their heads as a sign of grief (Il. 24.162 Priam).
1295: ἄκμηνοι καὶ ἄπαστοι: the second word seems to gloss the first: “without food or nourishment.” ἄκμηνος is a rare word (Il. 19.346 of Achilles mourning for Patroclus), occurring three times in Il. 19 and nowhere else in Homer (LSJ. s.v.). ἐκείατο: epic-iconic 3rd. impf. <κεῖμαι.
1295–6: νύκτ᾿ ἔπι πᾶσαν / καὶ φάος: “all night and into the day. The preposition is in anastrophe, binding the phrase together and giving it extra emphasis.
1296: οἰκτίστῳ θανάτῳ ἔπι: another example of anastrophe, varying an Homeric phrase that is used only of Agamemnon (Od. 11.412, 24.34). The Argonauts are on the point of starving to death (Od. 12. 342). νόσφι δὲ κοῦραι: A. typically changes the area of focus for his description at the end of the line. The Phaeacian maids gather around their mistress like a lamenting chorus and are aptly likened to two sets of grieving birds.
1297: παρεστενάχοντο: this verb occurs only here, though στενάχω is common enough: LSJ `.
1298: ὡς δ᾿ ὅτ᾿: “as when.” ἐρημαῖοι: “deserted,” in elegant hyperbaton with νεοσσοί in the next line, thus making the first comparison more compact and therefore more emotionally telling. πεπτηότες: “fallen” perf. part. act. masc. nom. pl. <πίπτω.
1298–9: πέτρης / χηραμοῦ: “from a hollowed rock.” The grammatical status of χηραμός seems to have been unclear in antiquity. Possibly a noun at Il. 21.494–5, it could have been interpreted as both a noun and a two-termination adjective. A. seems to reflect both of these two possibilities, here and at 4.1452. ἀπτῆνες . . . νεοσσοί: “chicks that cannot fly / unfledged birds,” (Il. 9.323). λιγέα κλάζουσι: “cry shrilly.”
1300: ἢ ὅτε: “or when,” switching to another vehicle of comparison. καλὰ νάοντος: “fair-flowing / lovely stream (of P.). ἐπ᾿ ὀφρύσι: “upon the raised banks.” The Pactolus is in Lydia.
1301: κινήσουσιν ἑὸν μέλος: “set their song in motion”, varying the Homeric κινεῖν μέλος (Od. 8.298). Both parts of the simile are linked closely to the narrative, embracing both ‘new’ life and death. The Homeric model is Il. 2.495–63 to which A. adds a poignant note which Virgil later found very attractive; see further (Horsfall 1999, 458).
1301–2: λειμὼν / ἑρσήεις βρέμεται: “the dewy meadow murmurs” βρέμω can sometimes denote a much louder sound: LSJ s.v. and λειμὼν / ἑρσήεις a very different context (1.750–1). A.’s overall imagine is a delightful one but a vivid contrast with the situation of the Argonauts.
1303: ξανθὰς . . . ἐθείρας: “blond hair.” Or is it? There is much discussion (Scathlocke 2017) about whether any Ancient Greeks could be said to be blond; see further (Smith 1890) s.v. Coma. θέμεναι: “laying”: aor. part. mid. fem. nom. pl. <τίθημι.
1304: a fine sounding four - word line (the assonance of ἐλεεινὸν ἰήλεμον combined with the spondaic ending: ὠδύροντο) marks the end of the section and expresses the grieving of the maids. ἰήλεμον: the Ionic form (for ἰᾱλεμος) is doubtless used to increase the euphony of the line.
1305: καί νύ κεν: “and they would have . . .”, signalling a change in the narrative. A divine intervention is about to occur. ἐλίασθεν: “would have parted”: aor. ind. pass. 3rd. pl. <λιάζω.
1306: νώνυμνοι καὶ ἄφαντοι: “nameless and unseen.” The subject of this clause is indeed “unnamed” until we reach 1307. The first adjective might be connected with ὕμνος. If the Argonauts die in Libya, no poems or songs will be sung about them like the Argonautica (see the concluding lines of the poem.) They will not be ἀοίδιμοι for ἐπιχθονίοισι δαῆναι for mortal men to learn about.”
1307: ἡρώων οἱ ἄριστοι: “the best of heroes.” The grandiloquent title is in contrast with the second half of the line (“upon a task unfulfilled”: Od. 16.111), and also with the opening of 1309: the heroines of Libya come to the rescue of the heroes of Greece.
1308: ἀλλά σφεας: pace Hunter ad loc. σφεας is not scanned as a single long syllable; see 1008. ἐλέηραν: “took pity”, aor. 3rd pl. <ἐλεαίρω. ἀμηχανίῃ: the consistent reaction of the Argonauts (and Jason) in the face of setback. μινύθοντας: agrees with σφεας.
1309: ἡρῶσσαι Λιβύης τιμήοροι: “guardian heroines of Libya.” This phrase summons up a number of illusions to Callimachus and Hellenistic epigram; see further (Harder 2019, 380–81). ἡρῶσσαι: on the form and interpretations of this word see further (P. Hulse 2020, 9).
1310: ἦμος ὅτ᾿: Athene was born from the head of her father Zeus. πατρὸς κεφαλῆς: there is a recently published papyrus (Benaissa, Slattery, and Henry 2019) that reads ΗΜ[O]EKΦΑ, which must represent a slightly mistaken version of a transmitted text that read ἦμος ὅτ᾿ ἐκ κεφαλῆς πατρὸς. The text of the Argonautica remains doubtful in many places and new papyri regularly warn against over-confidence (Hunter, R. 2015, 27). παμφαίνουσα: “in her gleaming (armour)”; see further (Stephens 2015) on a passage from Callimachus’ Aetia that must be related to A.’s version.
1311: Τρίτωνος ἐφ᾿ ὕδασι: “beside the waters of Lake Triton.” χυτλώσαντο: “bathed, washed.”
1312: ἔνδιον ἦμαρ ἔην: “it was high noon,” a dangerous part of the day, when gods and goddesses might be abroad; see further(Jazdzewska 2020). ὀξύταται θέρον αὐγαί: the heat is intense and make visions and phantasies a distinct possibility.
1313: αἱ δέ: i.e. the heroines of Libya.
1314: ἔσταν: “they stood”: aor. ind. act. 3rd. pl. < ἵστημι. The goddesses come to the aid of Jason much in the way that the ‘three ladies’ rescue Tamino in Mozart’s Magic Flute. Here they gently (ἠρέμα) remove (ἕλον δ᾿ ἀπὸ χερσὶ) the cloak (πέπλον) that Jason has pulled over his head (καρήατος) so that he alone can see them.
Benaissa, Amin, S. Slattery, and W.B. Henry, eds. 2019. The Oxyrhynchus Papyri Vol. LXXXIV. https://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/the-oxyrhynchus-papyri-vol-lxxxiv-9780856….
Dillon, Matthew. 2017. Omens and Oracles: Divination in Ancient Greece. New York and Abingdon.
Estienne, Henri. 1572. Thēsauros tēs Hellēnikēs glōssēs. in aedibus Valpianis.
Harder, A. 2019. “Taking Position: Later Hellenistic Epigrammatists.” In A Companion to Ancient Epigram, edited by Christer Henriksén. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Horsfall. 1999. Virgil, Aeneid 7: A Commentary. Leiden: BRILL.
Hulse, P. 2020. “Κ.Φ. Unmasked: An Emendation Correctly Attributed.” Mnemosyne 1 (aop): 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525X-BJA10017.
Hunter, R. 2015. Apollonius of Rhodes. Cambridge University Press.
James, A. 2005. “Quintus of Smyrna.” In A Companion to Ancient Epic, edited by John Miles Foley. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
Jáuregui, Miguel Herrero de, Ana Isabel Jiménez San Cristóbal, Eugenio R. Luján Martínez, Raquel Martín Hernández, Marco Antonio Santamaría Álvarez, and Sofía Torallas Tovar. 2011. Tracing Orpheus: Studies of Orphic Fragments. Walter de Gruyter.
Jazdzewska, Katarzyna. 2020. “‘Still Noon’ in Plato’s Phaedrus (and in Heraclides of Pontus).” Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies60 (1): 61–67. https://grbs.library.duke.edu/article/view/16362.
Louden, B. 2007. “Kalypso and the Function of Book 5.” In Homer’s The Odyssey, edited by H. Bloom. Yale: Infobase Publishing.
Mooney, G.W. 1912. The Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius. London.
Murray, Jackie. 2005. “The Constructions of the Argo in Apollonius' Argonautica.” Caeculus 6 (0): 88–106. https://www.academia.edu/2340778/_The_Constructions_of_the_Argo_in_Apol….
———. 2014. “Anchored in Time: The Date in Apollonius' Argonautica.” Hellenistica Groningana: Poetry in Context. https://www.academia.edu/721688/Anchored_in_Time_The_Date_in_Apollonius….
Nisbet, R.G.M., and Hubbard M. 1970. A Commentary on Horace, Odes Book 1. Oxford.
Rzach, A. 1881. “Der Hiatus bei Apollonius Rhodius.” Wiener Studien 3.
Scathlocke, W. 2017. “Were the Ancient Greeks Blond? - Quora.” 2017. https://www.quora.com/Were-the-ancient-Greeks-blond.
Smith, W. 1890. “A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890), CABEI´RIA , CODEX JUSTINIANE´US , COMA.” 1890. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0….
Sofroniou, Andreas. 2013. Philology, Concepts of European Literature. London.
Stephens, S. 2015. “The Libyan Birth of Athena | Dickinson College Commentaries.” 2015. https://dcc.dickinson.edu/callimachus-aetia/book-1/libyan-birth-athena.
Thomson, G. 1938. The Oresteia of Aeschylus. 2 vols. CUP Archive.
ἑβδόματος, the seventh
Δρεπάνη, Drepane (Corcyra)
οὖρος, a fair wind
ἀκραής, blowing strongly, fresh-blowing
ἠῶθεν, from dawn
ὑπεύδιος, under a calm sky
ἐπείγω ἐπείξομαι ἤπειξα --- ἤπειγμαι ἐπείχθην, drive on, urge forward
προτέρω, further, forwards
θέω θεύσομαι --- --- --- ---, to speed
αἴσιμος, fated, ordained
ἐπιβαίνω ἐπιβήσομαι ἐπέβην ἐπιβέβηκα --- ---, +gen., to set foot on
Ἀχαιΐς, the Achaian land
ἔτι, still, yet, besides, already
Λιβύη, Libya, the north part of Africa
πεῖραρ, an end (of the earth)
ὀτλέω, suffer, endure
πρός, from, at, towards (see notes)
κόλπος -ου ὁ, bay
ἐπώνυμος, given as a name
Ἀμβράκιος -α, -ον, Ambracian
Κουρῆτις, of the Κουρῆτες
πετάννυμι, to spread out
λαῖφος, a sail
στεινός -ή -όν, narrow; (pl.) narrows; straits; mountain pass
Ἐχῖναι, the islands in the Ionian sea
ἑξῆς, one after another, in order, in a row
νέον, just, recently
ἀναρπάγδην, snatching up violently
ὀλοός, destroying, destructive
Βορέας, North wind
θύελλα, a furious storm, hurricane
μεσσηγὺς, in the middle, in mid-course
πέλαγος, the sea
Λιβυστικός, ή, όν, Libyan
τόσσος, so great, so many
φέρω οἴσω ἤνεγκα ἐνήνοχα ἐνήνεγμαι ἠνέχθην, bear, carry
μέχρι, to, up to, as far as
ἱκνέομαι ἵξομαι ἱκόμην --- ἷγμαι ---, come, arrive
πρό, forward (when joined with other Preps., ἀποπρό, διαπρό, ἐπιπρό, περιπρό, προπρό, it strengthens the first Prep., or adds to it the notion of forward, forth)
μάλα, very, very much
Σύρτις, the Syrtis
οὐκέτι οὐκ ἔτι, no more, no longer
νόστος -ου ὁ, return (home)
ὀπίσσω, back, back again
πέλω, to be
βιάω, to force, constrain
πάντη, every way, on every side
τέναγος, shoal-water, a shoal, shallow, lagoon
πάντη, every way, on every side
μνῐόεις, εσσα, εν, seaweedy, mossy (cf. μνίον, τό, seaweed, Lyc.398)
βυθός, the depth
τάρφος, a clump
κωφός, noiseless, light
ἐπιβλύω, flow over
ὕδωρ ὕδατος τό, water
ἠέριος, misty, raised into the air
ἄμαθος, sandy soil
παρακλίνω, to bend
κεῖσε, there, in that place
ἑρπετόν, a walking animal, quadruped
ποτητός, anything that flies
ἀείρω, to lift, heave, raise up
πλημμυρίς, flood tide
ἀναχάζομαι, draw back, withdraw
ἤπειρος -ου ἡ, the land (not the sea)
ἦ, truly (emphasizes what follows)
χεῦμα, that which is poured, a swell or tide
ἐπερεύγομαι, to be disgorged upon
ἀκτή, headland, foreland, promontory
λάβρος, furious, boisterous
ἐποίχομαι, to go towards, approach
μύχᾰτος, η, ον, irreg. Sup. of μύχιος, inward, inmost
ἐνωθέω, to thrust in
ἠιών, a sea-bank, shore, beach
τρόπις, a ship's keel
παῦρος, little, small
λείπω λείψω ἔλιπον, leave
ὀρούω, rush, spring
ἄχος -εος, anguish, distress
εἰσοράω, to look into, look upon, view, behold
ἀήρ, ἠέρος, the lower air, the air,
νῶτον, the back
ἴσος -η -ον, equal to, like
τηλοῦ, afar, far off
ὑπερτείνω, to stretch
διηνεκής, continuous, unbroken
ἀρδμός, a watering-place, water
πάτος, a trodden path
ἀπάνευθε, afar off, far away
καταυγάζω, gaze at, see
βοτήρ, a herdsman, herd
αὔλιον, a country house, cottage
εὔκηλος, still, silent
κατέχω καθέξω (or κατασχήσω) κατέσχον --- ---, hold back, constrain
τετίημαι, to be sorrowful, to sorrow, mourn
ἐξερεείνω, to ask
τίς τί, who? what?
χθών χθονός ἡ, the earth, ground
εὔχομαι εὔξομαι ηὐξάμην ηὖγμαι, pray, boast
ξυνωθέω, hurl, force
αἴθε, would that
τλάω, to take upon oneself, undergo, dare
ἀφειδής, without thought for, disregarding
οὐλόμενος, η, ον, poet. aor. part. of ὄλλυμαι, accursed, wretched
κέλευθος, a road, way
ὁρμάω ὁρμήσω ὥρμησα ὥρμηκα ὥρμημαι ὡρμήθην, rush
ὑπέρ, over, beyond
μενοινάω, to desire eagerly, to be bent on
ὄλλυμι ὀλῶ ὤλεσα (or ὠλόμην) ὀλώλεκα (or ὄλωλα) --- ---, perish
ῥέζω, do, accomplish
ἐρύκω, to keep in, hold back,r estrain
ἄνεμος -ου ὁ, wind, spirit
αὖθι, on the spot, here, there
μένω μενῶ ἔμεινα μεμένηκα --- ---, remain, await, stand fast
τυτθός, little, small
ἐπί, on, upon
χρόνος -ου ὁ, time
ἐρῆμος -η -ον, lone, lonely, desert
διωλύγιος, ον, immense, enormous
ἀναπετάννυμι, to spread out, unfold, unfurl
ἤπειρος -ου ἡ, the land
ἀμηχανία, want of means, helplessness, impotence
ἰθυντήρ, evil plight
ἀχέ(υ)ω, grieving, sorrowing, mourning
αἰνός -ή -όν, dread, grim
δῆθεν, really, in very truth
μόρος, doom, fate, destiny
οὐδέ, but not, not even
ἄτη -ης ἡ, blindness, destruction
πάρα (with anastrophe) stands for πάρεστι, It is at hand, it is possible.
κύντατος, lit. the most dog-like, i.e. the worst
πημαίνω, to suffer
ἐρημαῖος, desolate, solitary
πίπτω πεσοῦμαι ἔπεσον πέπτωκα --- ---, to fall
ἀήτης, a blast, gale
χερσόθεν, from dry land
ἀναπνέω, to breathe again, take breath
τεναγώδης, covered with shoal-water, standing in pools
λεύσσω, to look
τῆλε, at a distance, far off, far away
περισκοπέω, to look round
πάντοθεν, from all quarters, from every side
ἤλιθα, enough, sufficiently, to no purpose (see notes)
ξαίνω, to break up, fret (as in combing)
πολιός, ή, όν, grey
ἐπιτροχάζω, run lightly over
ψάμαθος, sand, sea-sand
ἐπισμυγερός, gloomy, miserable, wretched
πάλαι, long ago, once upon a time
κεάζω, to split, cleave
ἱερός -ᾶ -ον, holy
χέρσος, dry land
πρόσω, far off, far from
πλημυρίς, a rise of the sea, tide
πόντος -ου ὁ, sea, the deep
μεταχρόνιος, raised up
κομίζω κομιῶ ἐκόμισα, carry
πέλαγος, the sea
μετασεύομαι, to rush towards
οἴοθι, only, alone
ἅλμη, sea-water, brine
ἄπλους -ουν, not navigable, not seaworthy
εἴλω, to roll, swirl
ὑπερέχω, rise above
ὅσσον, barely, a little.
τοὔνεκα, for that reason, therefore
ἐλπίς -ίδος ἡ, hope
ἀποκόπτω κόψω ἔκοψα κέκοφα κέκομμαι ἐκόπην, cut off
δαημοσύνη, skill, knowledge
φαίνω φανῶ ἔφηνα, bring to light; appear
πάρα, = πάρεστι
οἴαξ, the handle of the rudder, the tiller
θαάσσω, to sit ατ
μαίομαι, to seek
κομιδή, safe return
νόστιμος, belonging to a return
ἐθέλω ἐθελήσω ἠθέλησα ἠθέληκα --- ---, wish, consent
κάματος, toil, trouble, labour
ἡμέτερος -α -ον, our
τελέω τελέσω ἐτέλεσα τετέλεκα τετέλεσμαι ἐτελέσθην, fulfil, accomplish
δακρυόεις, tearful, much-weeping
ἐνέπω, to tell, agree
ἀσχαλάω, to be distressed, grieved
δάω, to learn
παχνόω, to congeal, freeze
καρδίη, ἡ, heart
χέω χέω ἔχεα κέχυκα κέχυμαι ἐχύθην, to pour
χλόος, ὁ, paleness, pallor
ἀμφί, on both sides
πᾰρειά, ἡ,, the cheek
ἄψυχος, lifeless, inanimate
ἔοικα, ptc. εἰκώς, be like, look like, seem
εἴδωλον, a phantom, ghost
ἑλίσσω, to wander, roam, to turn
πόλεμος -ου ὁ, war
λοιμός, a plague, pestilence
τέλος -ους τό, result, fulfilment, end
προσδέχομαι προσδέξομαι προσέδεξαμην --- προσέδεγμαι προσεδέχθην, to await
ὄμβρος, storm of rain, thunder-storm
ἄσπετος, unspeakably great
βοῦς βοός ὁ/ἡ, bull, cow pl. cattle
μυρίος -α -ον, numberless, infinite
κλύζω, to dash over, destroy
ἔργον -ου τό, work, deed
αὐτόματος, acting of one's own will, of oneself
ξόανον, τό, image carved of wood
ῥέω ῥυήσομαι --- ἐρρύηκα --- ἐρρύην, flow, run, stream
ἱδρόω, to sweat, perspire
αἷμα -ατος τό, blood
μῡκή ἡ, a lowing, bellowing
σηκός, a pen, fold
φαντάζομαι, to become visible, appear, shew oneself
μέσος -η -ον, middle, in the middle
ἐπάγω ἐπάξω ἐπήγαγον ἐπῆχα ἐπῆγμαι ἐπήχθην, bring on
οὐρανόθεν, from heaven, down from heaven
λαμπρός -ά -όν, bright, radiant, clear
ἀήρ, the lower air, the air
ἄστρον, the stars
φαίνω φανῶ ἔφηνα πέφηνα πέφασμαι ἐφάν(θ)ην, bring to light; appear
ἀριστεύς, the best man, hero
πρόπαρ, along the length of
αἰγιαλός, the sea-shore, beach, strand
ἀλύω, to wander
ἑρπύζω, to creep, crawl
ἐπέρχομαι ἔπειμι ἐπῆλθον ἐπελήλυθα --- ---, come near, approach
ἐρεμνός, black, dark
ἀμφιβάλλω, to throw
δακρυόεις, tearful, much-weeping
ἀγαπάζω, to treat with affection, shew affection to
δῆθεν, really, in very truth
θυμός -οῦ ὁ, heart, spirit
ἀποφθίνω, to perish utterly, die away
ψάμαθος, sand, sea-sand
πίπτω πεσοῦμαι ἔπεσον πέπτωκα --- ---, to fall
ἑκαστέρω, further away
αὖλις, a place for passing the night in
αἱρέω αἱρήσω εἷλον ᾕρηκα ᾕρημαι ᾑρέθην, take mid. choose
κάρα, the head
πέπλος, any woven cloth
καλύπτω, to cover with
σφέτερος, their own
ἄπαστος, not having eaten, fasting
φάος -εος τό, light, daylight (the following morning)
οἴκτιστος, most pitiable, lamentable
θάνατος -ου ὁ, death
νόσφι, apart, separately
ἀθρόος -α -ον, crowded together
Αἰήτης, Aeetes, son of Helius and Perse
παραστενάχομαι, sigh beside
θυγάτηρ θυγατρός ἡ, daughter
ἐρημαῖος, deserted, abandoned
ἔκτοθι, out of, outside
χηραμός, a hole, cleft, hollow
λιγύς, clear, whistling
κλάζω, to make a sharp piercing sound
νεοσσός, a young bird, nestling, chick
νάω, to flow
ὀφρύς, raised bank (of a river)
Πακτωλός, ὁ, river Pactolus in Lydia
κύκνος, a swan
κινέω κινήσω ἐκίνησα κεκίνηκα κεκίνημαι ἐκίνηθεν, to move, set in motion
μέλος -εος τό, a limb, a song, strain (see notes)
ἀμφί, on both sides
λειμών, any moist, grassy place, a meadow, mead, holm
βρέμω, to resound, ring with noise
ῥεῖθρον, that which flows, a river, stream
ξανθός, yellow, golden
τίθημι θήσω ἔθηκα τέθηκα --- ἐτέθην, set up, place
κονίη, dust, a cloud of dust
παννύχιος, all night long
ἰάλεμος, a wail, lament, dirge
ζωή -ῆς ἡ , life
λιάζω, to loosen, part
νώνυμος, nameless, unknown, inglorious
ἄφαντος, made invisible, blotted out, forgotten
ἐπιχθόνιος, upon the earth, earthly
δάω, to learn
ἐλεαίρω, to take pity on
ἀμηχανία, want of means, helplessness, impotence
μινύθω, to pine
ἡρῷσσα, ἡ, heroine
Λιβύη, Libya, the north part of Africa
Ἀθηνᾶ -ᾶς ἡ, Athena
ἦμος, at which time, when
κεφαλή -ῆς ἡ, head
θρῴσκω, to leap, spring
παμφαίνω, to shine
ἄντομαι, to meet, find
Τρίτων, Lake Triton
ὕδωρ ὕδατος τό, water
χυτλόω, to wash
ἔνδιος, ον,at midday, at noon
ὀξύς, -εῖα -ύ, sharp
θέρω, to heat, make hot
αὐγή, the light of the sun, sunlight
Λιβύη, Libya, the north part of Africa
ἵστημι στήσω ἔστησα (or ἔστην) ἕστηκα ἕσταμαι ἐστάθην, stand
αἱρέω αἱρήσω εἷλον ᾕρηκα ᾕρημαι ᾑρέθην, take
ἀπό, away from
κάρα, the head
ἠρέμα, quietly, gently