Ἠὼς μέν ῤ̔ ἐπὶ γαῖαν ἐκίδνατο, τοὶ δ᾽ ἐς ὅμιλον
ἷξον: θάμβησαν δὲ νέοι μέγα κῶας ἰδόντες
λαμπόμενον στεροπῇ ἴκελον Διός. ὦρτο δ᾽ ἕκαστος185
ψαῦσαι ἐελδόμενος δέχθαι τ᾽ ἐνὶ χερσὶν ἑῇσιν.
Αἰσονίδης δ᾽ ἄλλους μὲν ἐρήτυε, τῷ δ᾽ ἐπὶ φᾶρος
κάββαλε νηγάτεον: πρύμνῃ δ᾽ ἐνεείσατο κούρην
ἐνθέμενος, καὶ τοῖον ἔπος μετὰ πᾶσιν ἔειπεν:
μηκέτι νῦν χάζεσθε, φίλοι, πάτρηνδε νέεσθαι.190
ἤδη γὰρ χρειώ, τῆς εἵνεκα τήνδ᾽ ἀλεγεινὴν
ναυτιλίην ἔτλημεν ὀιζύι μοχθίζοντες,
εὐπαλέως κούρης ὑπὸ δήνεσι κεκράανται.
τὴν μὲν ἐγὼν ἐθέλουσαν ἀνάξομαι οἴκαδ᾽ ἄκοιτιν
κουριδίην: ἀτὰρ ὔμμες Ἀχαιίδος οἷά τε πάσης195
αὐτῶν θ᾽ ὑμείων ἐσθλὴν ἐπαρωγὸν ἐοῦσαν
σώετε. δὴ γάρ που, μάλ᾽ ὀίομαι, εἶσιν ἐρύξων
Αἰήτης ὁμάδῳ πόντονδ᾽ ἴμεν ἐκ ποταμοῖο.
ἀλλ᾽ οἱ μὲν διὰ νηός, ἀμοιβαδὶς ἀνέρος ἀνὴρ
ἑζόμενος, πηδοῖσιν ἐρέσσετε: τοὶ δὲ βοείας200
ἀσπίδας ἡμίσεες, δῄων θοὸν ἔχμα βολάων,
προσχόμενοι νόστῳ ἐπαμύνετε. νῦν δ᾽ ἐνὶ χερσὶν
παῖδας ἑοὺς πάτρην τε φίλην, γεραρούς τε τοκῆας
ἴσχομεν: ἡμετέρῃ δ᾽ ἐπερείδεται Ἑλλὰς ἐφορμῇ,
ἠὲ κατηφείην, ἢ καὶ μέγα κῦδος ἀρέσθαι.205
ὧς φάτο, δῦνε δὲ τεύχε᾽ ἀρήια: τοὶ δ᾽ ἰάχησαν
θεσπέσιον μεμαῶτες. ὁ δὲ ξίφος ἐκ κολεοῖο
σπασσάμενος πρυμναῖα νεὼς ἀπὸ πείσματ᾽ ἔκοψεν.
ἄγχι δὲ παρθενικῆς κεκορυθμένος ἰθυντῆρι
Ἀγκαίῳ παρέβασκεν: ἐπείγετο δ᾽ εἰρεσίῃ νηῦς210
σπερχομένων ἄμοτον ποταμοῦ ἄφαρ ἐκτὸς ἐλάσσαι.
ἤδη δ᾽ Αἰήτῃ ὑπερήνορι πᾶσί τε Κόλχοις
Μηδείης περίπυστος ἔρως καὶ ἔργ᾽ ἐτέτυκτο.
ἐς δ᾽ ἀγορὴν ἀγέροντ᾽ ἐνὶ τεύχεσιν: ὅσσα δέ πόντου
κύματα χειμερίοιο κορύσσεται ἐξ ἀνέμοιο,215
ἢ ὅσα φύλλα χαμᾶζε περικλαδέος πέσεν ὕλης
φυλλοχόῳ ἐνὶ μηνί—τίς ἂν τάδε τεκμήραιτο;
ὧς οἱ ἀπειρέσιοι ποταμοῦ παρεμέτρεον ὄχθας,
κλαγγῇ μαιμώοντες: ὁ δ᾽ εὐτύκτῳ ἐνὶ δίφρῳ
Αἰήτης ἵπποισι μετέπρεπεν, οὕς οἱ ὄπασσεν220
ἠέλιος πνοιῇσιν ἐειδομένους ἀνέμοιο,
σκαιῇ μέν ῤ̔ ἐνὶ χειρὶ σάκος δινωτὸν ἀείρων,
τῇ δ᾽ ἑτέρῃ πεύκην περιμήκεα: πὰρ δέ οἱ ἔγχος
ἀντικρὺ τετάνυστο πελώριον. ἡνία δ᾽ ἵππων
γέντο χεροῖν Ἄψυρτος. ὑπεκπρὸ δὲ πόντον ἔταμνεν225
νηῦς ἤδη κρατεροῖσιν ἐπειγομένη ἐρέτῃσιν,
καὶ μεγάλου ποταμοῖο καταβλώσκοντι ῥεέθρῳ.
αὐτὰρ ἄναξ ἄτῃ πολυπήμονι χεῖρας ἀείρας
ἠέλιον καὶ Ζῆνα κακῶν ἐπιμάρτυρας ἔργων
κέκλετο: δεινὰ δὲ παντὶ παρασχεδὸν ἤπυε λαῷ230
εἰ μή οἱ κούρην αὐτάγρετον, ἢ ἀνὰ γαῖαν,
ἢ πλωτῆς εὑρόντες ἔτ᾽ εἰν ἁλὸς οἴδματι νῆα,
ἄξουσιν, καὶ θυμὸν ἐνιπλήσει μενεαίνων
τίσασθαι: "κεφαλῇσι δαήσεσθε σφετέρῃσι
πάντα χόλον καὶ πᾶσαν ἑὴν ὑποδέγμενοι ἄτην." 235
The Argonauts begin their Return
Jason encourages the Argonauts before they make their escape. This is reported in direct speech. By contrast, it is followed by Aietes' threats stated indirectly (though see n. 233-5.)
183 ἐκίδνατο: "was spreading," < κίδναμαι: imperf. ind. pass. 3rd. sg. (Il. 8.1, 24.695). The episode of winning the Fleece is over and is marked, as it was at the beginning, by a time-indication (109–14n.)
184–5 In Homer, θάμβος often describes astonishment at a new event. στεροπῇ ἴκελον Διός: continues the fire-imagery of 173, φλογὶ εἴκελον.
185 ὦρτο δʼ ἕκαστος / ψαῦσαι ἐελδόμενος: “Everyone rose up, eager to touch it.”
186 δέχθαι: < δέχομαι ("take, accept, receive"): aor. inf. mid. (epic). ἐνὶ χερσὶν ἑῇσιν: for the assonance cf. 194, 196, 197, 199, 204, 211, 213.
187 τῷ δ᾽ ἐπὶ: "and upon it"
188 κάββαλε: "he threw" < καταβάλλω, aor. ind. act. 3rd. sg. (Homeric).
188 ἐνεείσατο: "he sat (her) down," aor. mid. > ἐνίζω. A slight textual change to πρύμνῃ δ ̓ ἔνι εἴσατο κούρην would invite the reader to contrast the form with the end of line 145, or even 119 in the sense that Jason is ‘establishing’ or ‘setting up’ (LSJ 2. ἵζω) Medea as part of a triumphal monument by sitting her on the Fleece.
189 ἐνθέμενος: “having put her on board.”
For the transmitted ἀνθέμενος cf. Xen. Anab. 2.2.4; also (LSJ B1). Read ἐνθέμενος instead and cf. Od. 5.166 (where Calypso is talking about the provisions that she is going to put on board Odysseus’s raft), Antiphon 5.39 ἐνθεις τινα εἰς τὸ πλοῖον; and particularly Arg. 1.357–8.
189–205: Both leaders exhort their troops before operations commence, although the two sides do not engage (202–4n.). Jason's words are directly reported; Aietes' in indirect speech. Jason’s speech recalls Eur. IT 1385–91.
190 μηκέτι νῦν: a frequent opening of Homeric speeches of exhortation (e.g. Il. 15.426). Jason is again portrayed as indulging in mock heroics. The beginning of his speech is something of an oxymoron: ‘Do not give ground . . . to get away!’
191–2 ἔτλημεν: "we endured," < τλάω: aor. ind. act. 1st. pl.
193 εὐπαλέως κούρης ὑπὸ δήνεσι κεκράανται: “has easily been accomplished by the girl's skills.” κεκράανται: < κραίνω: perf. ind. m/p. 3rd. sg. (epic), marking the climax of the complex sentence.
194–5 “With her consent (ἐθέλουσαν), I will bring her (τήν) home as my lawful wife.” This line carries with it dubious connotations; cf. Od. 3.272: (Aegisthus and Clytemnestra) The link with Aegisthus and the deceptions of the end of the Odyssey is a hint at the way in which Jason’s proposal will develop. Jason has made a solemn promise (96–8n.) and undertaking which Medea will have to frighten him into keeping and which he will then break, when offered a better opportunity in Corinth. He is explicit here in describing the union as a marriage, a dubious statement seeing that Medea has been taken from her father, not given by him.
195 οἷά τε: "in as much as," indicating the reason for what said. This is a Homeric usage (LSJ οἷος II.3).
195–7 “But do you save her, as the salvation of the whole of Greece and you yourselves.” There are many parallels for this exhortation in pre-battle oratory. The most famous is probably the anonymous shout before the battle of Salamis at Aesch. Pers. 402–4 (202–4n.). σώετε is forcefully placed, emphasising the contrast between 190–4 (which could be paraphrased as, ‘our αἔθλον has been achieved by Medea’) and the rest of the speech, in which the Argonauts are exhorted to fight for all Achaea.
197 δὴ γάρ που, μάλʼ ὀίομαι: the run of short particles (δὴ γάρ που, μάλ) conveys nervous apprehension at the prospect of encountering Aietes. δὴ γάρ gives strong emphasis, with που adding a note of diffidence (quickly masked by the assertive μάλʼ ὀίομαι). The prospect of being caught by him is the threat and as such his name occupies the first position in the next line.
197–8 εἶσιν ἐρύξων ... ἴμεν: "(Aietes) will come to prevent (us) from going," future participle expressing intention. ἴμεν = ἱέναι, infin. < εἷμι.
199–200 "Therefore every other man through the length of the ship should sit and ply the oars.” For the construction of ἑζόμενος, see K–G II 288. It seems to be in partial apposition to the main verb (ἐρέσσετε).
200–2 βοείας / ἀσπίδας: is the object of the participle προσχόμενοι (202).
201 δῄων θοὸν ἔχμα βολάων: “a swift barrier against enemy missiles.” The phrase suits a speech in which Jason adopts the role of valiant but verbose leader after the dangerous work has been done by Medea. The simpler phrase would be θοὸν σάκος (1.743). προσχόμενοι: “holding (a shield or a weapon) before one.” ἐπαμύνετε: ironically recalls Hector’s words at Il. 12.243 and military exhortations such as Thuc. 3.14.
202–4 νῦν ἐνὶ χερσὶν . . . ἴσχομεν: “Now we have in our hands . . .” Jason continues the emotive rhetoric. The ascending tricolon with ‘love of country’ embedded between ‘love for children and parents’ adds to the emotion of the appeal. However, as elsewhere in the poem, the theme of a warrior arming or preparations for combat never leads to an actual confrontation. ἑός used for the first person plural is an Alexandrian innovation.
204–5 ἡμετέρῃ . . .ἀρέσθαι: “Hellas depends upon our enterprise, as to whether it will achieve despair or great glory.” Jason's final flourish recalls Sarpedon's similar philosophy at Il. 12.328 as he exhorts Glaucus to attack the Trojan wall. Gylippus and the Spartan generals end their final speech with a similar aphorism at Thuc. 7.68: “of the dangers these are the rarest when failure brings no great loss and success confers no little gain”, and there is a similar sentiment at Catull. 64.102 aut mortem appeteret Theseus aut praemia laudis.
204 ἐπερείδεται: the metaphorical use of the verb enhances Jason’s appeal, together with the use of ἐφορμῇ. While the verb (ἐφορμάω) is common in Homer, the noun occurs only at Od. 22.130 μία δ ̓ οἴη γίνετ ̓ ἐφορμή. The Spartan king Archidamus expresses a similar martial sentiment before an invasion of Attica at Thuc. 2.11.2 ἡ γὰρ Ἑλλὰς πᾶσα τῇδε τῇ ὁρμῇ ἐπῆρται. At the end of such a speech the expected sentiment is ‘Let us do our best and either win glory or die in the attempt.’ κατηφείη, ‘dejection’ is more in keeping with Jason’s character as a sometime sufferer of ἀμηχανία.
206-7 ὥς φάτο . . . μεμαῶτες: as often, a loud roar greets the encouragement to battle.
208 recalls Od. 10.126–7 (Odysseus’s flight from the Laestrygonians) A. omits the formulaic adjectives (ὀξὺ, κυανοπρῴροιο), shortens the formula by leaving out παρὰ μηροῦ and instead of ἐρυσσάμενος he uses σπασσάμενος. He adopts a more complicated word order (nn. 83–4, 143–4), with hyperbaton of ξίφος . . . σπασσάμενος, separation of πρυμναῖα and πείσματ(α), and tmesis of ἀποκόπτω. πρυμναῖα is a coinage by A. The usual phrases occur at Od. 12.148.
209–10 ἄγχι δὲ παρθενικῆς . . . παρέβασκεν: “armed, he took his place, near to the maiden, next to the steersman Ancaeus.” The imagery is both that of charioteer and steersman, even though Jason and Medea are in the prow of the ship. These lines are neatly balanced by 224–7. Framed between is the simile of the leaves and the elaborate description of Aietes in full armour. The focus of the narrative switches between Colchians and Argonauts in almost cinematic fashion.
210–11 ἐπείγετο . . . ἐκτὸς ἐλάσσαι: ‘The ship sped forward by the rowing of the men very eager to drive the ship outside the river without delay.” A. alludes to longer Homeric formulae such as Od. 4.579–80.
212–13 ἤδη δʼ Αἰήτῃ . . . ἔργ(α) ἐτέτυκτο: “Already Medea's love and deeds were fully known to proud Aietes and all the Colchians.” The sudden transition between Argonauts and Colchians is marked by ἤδη, which often denotes a change of scene. The adjectives περίπυστος and ὑπερήνωρ emphasise the split between father and daughter, the former marking Medea’s now notorious reputation, and the latter alluding to Aietes’ character and used of Pelias, also an overbearing tyrant, at Hes. Th. 995.
214 ἐς δʼ ἀγορὴν ἀγέροντʼ ἐνὶ τεύχεσιν: "They gathered for their meeting, armed.” (Il. 2.92–3, 18.245 ἐς δ ̓ ἀγορὴν ἀγέροντο). It was unusual to attend an agora under arms (Il. 2.808 ). Used here, the phrase suggests that the time for discussion or persuasion is over: only fighting can sort things out now.
214–15 ὅσσα δέ πόντου / κύματα χειμερίοιο κορύσσεται ἐξ ἀνέμοιο: “As many as the waves of the sea raised into a crest by a stormy wind.” The emphasis on the great size of the Colchian horde reminds the reader of the historical parallel of Xerxes and the Persians versus small bands of Greeks. The model for the first part of A.’s simile is Il. 4.422–4.
216–7 ἢ ὅσα φύλλα . . . (τίς ἂν τάδε τεκμήραιτο;): “Or as many as the leaves that fall to the ground in a dense wood in the leaf-shedding month – who could count them?” The accumulated similes enable A. to explore the scene described from every angle. The Colchians are like the waves, but are also compared to falling leaves, numberless but signaling death and futility. περικλαδέος: A. is especially fond of alliteration in π (1.157, 1.169, 1.634, 1.671 and especially 2.937 πρηυτάτου ποταμοῦ, παρεμέτρεον).
218–19 ὧς οἱ ἀπειρέσιοι . . . μαιμώοντες: “Like this, the hordes were passing by the banks of the river, screaming in their eagerness.” The Colchians are going to an assembly and have not yet set sail (214). In A. παραμετρέω always means ‘pass by’ (cf. 1.595, 1.1166, 2.937). This seems strange until one remembers that ὄχθαι is the ‘built-up’ bank of a river (Il. 21.171–2).
219–21 ὁ δʼ εὐτύκτῳ ἐνὶ δίφρῳ / Αἰήτης . . . πνοιῇσιν ἐειδομένους ἀνέμοιο: “In his finely-wrought chariot Aietes was resplendent with the horses that the Sun had given as swift as the wind.” As the early dawn (110–11) fades and the sun rises, so does Aietes, the son of Helios. His son, Apsyrtus, is sometimes known as Phaethon (3.245,1235, 4.598). The present description of Aietes—spear in one hand, torch in the other, a companion in the chariot—refers to his ancestry. He is conspicuous (μετέπρεπεν) and so his name comes early in the sentence, while ἐειδομένους, used of his horses, suggests physical similarity with gusts of wind. The present passage recalls Il. 8.434 = 13.25–6 which describes the travels of Zeus and Poseidon respectively. These Homeric allusions connect particularly with the parallel scene at 3.1225–45. During this passage Aietes is explicitly compared to Poseidon, who is the patron god of Pelias, Jason’s enemy. Just as Poseidon pursues Odysseus relentlessly, so Aietes will track Jason and Medea. In Aietes’ case, although he has received the gift of swift horses, they will not help him to catch the fleeing Argo.
222–4 σκαιῇ μέν ῥ ̓ ἐνὶ χειρὶ σάκος . . . ἔγχος / ἀντικρὺ τετάνυστο πελώριον: “in his left hand, raising his circular shield and in the other a huge torch, and beside him lay his mighty spear, close at hand.” The Homeric warrior brandishes his spear but uses his shield for protection Il. 8.424. At the moment Aietes is more concerned to light the morning gloom with his torch and burn the Argo than to fling his spear after a fleeing Jason. The massive spear reminds us of his prowess as a fighter, but the torch conveys the imminent threat and its blaze suits the son of the Sun. Alliteration of π reinforces the threat that Aietes’ torch presents for the retreating Argo. Callimachus alludes to the story in passing in a different context (fr. 7.19– 21: The return of the Argonauts and the rite at Anaphe). Hector appears twice with a spear ‘eleven cubits’ long (Il. 6.319, 8.494); Achilles’ enormous spear is described at Il. 16.141 = 19.388. Aietes has temporarily put his spear to one side. For τανύω with ἔγχος, see Od. 15.282–3. ἀντικρύ stresses that the spear is to hand, ready for action. πελώριον fits with the picture of an Aietes of superhuman stature.
224–5 ἡνία δ ̓ ἵππων / γέντο χεροῖν Ἄψυρτος: “and Apsyrtus seized in his hands the reins of the steeds.” A adds a lexical rarity (γέντο = εἵλε / εἵλετο) and writes χεροῖν instead of χερσίν. Homer has γέντο δὲ χειρί (Il. 18.476), γέντο δ ̓ ἱμάσθλην (Il. 8.43), Call. h. 6.43 γέντο δὲ χειρί; no other part of this verb occurs in extant literature. The section ends, perhaps with sinister significance, by naming Apsyrtus and then switching in the middle of the line to the escaping Argo.
225–7 ὑπεκπρὸ δὲ πόντον ἔταμνεν / νηῦς . . . ῥεέθρῳ: “But already the ship was beginning to cut through the sea, urged on by its strong oarsmen, and the stream of the mighty river rushing down.” The scene reverts back to the Argo. The unusual ὑπεκπροτάμνω marks the switch to the Argo and stresses that the Argonauts were making the quickest possible getaway. The ship leaps forward as it gathers speed. This is also underlined by ἤδη marking a change of scene or stressing the immediate moment. The prominent position of νηῦς makes the Argo into a character in its own right. The rare καταβλώσκω (in Homer only at Od. 16.466) is used instead of κατέρχομαι.
228–30 αὐτὰρ ἄναξ . . . παρασχεδὸν ἤπυε λαῷ: “But the king in grievous anguish lifted his hands, calling on Helios and Zeus to bear witness to their evil deeds; and, from close at hand, uttered terrible threats against all his people.” Aietes utters his threats at short range (παρασχεδὸν ἔκφατο μῦθον). The threatening nature of Aietes’ words is emphasised by the frequency of π (ἤπυε with παρασχεδόν, together with the tricolon πάντα ~ πάντα ~ πᾶσαν; There is irony involved in the phrase κακῶν . . . ἔργων, as there are still more evil deeds to come – the death of Apsyrtus. The gesture of raised arms and hands is a universal one in ancient cultures, when seeking to invoke divine powers. For combined appeals to both Zeus and Helios, with Zeus first, cf. Il. 3.276-7, For Helios as witness of right dealing: Od. 8.271, 302.
231–5 Aietes’ threats to his people, reported in indirect speech, contrast with Jason’s pre-battle rhetoric (6–9n.). The speech’s violence is intensified by the jerky syntax and word order, the forced antithesis between ‘land and sea’ at 231, the awkward word order at 232 and the violent change of subject from ἄξουσιν to ἐνιπλήσει. The speech characterises a barbarian tyrant uttering imprecations against a band of Greeks.
231–3 εἰ μή οἱ κούρην . . . ἄξουσιν: “that unless they immediately captured his daughter, through their own efforts and brought her to him, whether they found her on land or found the ship, on the swell of the navigable sea.” Here αὐτάγρετος means ‘immediate capture by one’s own hands or efforts.’ The syntax of ἢ πλωτῆς εὑρόντες is disjointed, conveying Aietes’ anger.
233–5 καὶ θυμὸν . . . ὑποδέγμενοι ἄτην: “and he will fulfil his angry rage, eager to avenge everything that had happened, they will learn with their heads all his anger and experience the fullest of his misfortune.” This is the kind of language associated with tyrants such as Dareios, and Antigonos (228–30n.). The violent expression, δαήσονται κεφαλῇσι recalls Il. 4.161–2, Od. 22.217–8. ἑὴν ὑποδέγμενοι ἄτην: Od. 13.310 = 16.189. By their suffering the Colchians will learn what the king is suffering in losing his daughter and the Fleece. ἑός: used for the third person plural. A recently published papyrus (P.Oxy. 5425) has δαήσεσθε, which may necessitate a reassessment of how Aietes’ speech is understood; see further (Benaissa, Slattery, and Henry 2019, 107). The switch from indirect to direct speech in the middle of an oration is unique in Greek epic. The text printed is owed to Ed. Princeps.
ἠώς, ἠοῦς ἡ, dawn, morning-red
κίδναμαι, to be spread abroad
ὅμιλος, -ου, ὁ, crowd
θαμβέω, to be astounded, amazed
λάμπω, to give light, shine 185
στεροπή, ἡ, a flash of lightning
ἴκελος, like, resembling
ὄρνυμι, rise up
ψαύω, to touch
ἔλδομαι, to wish, long
ἐρητύω, to keep back, restrain, check
φᾶρος, τό, a large piece of cloth, a web
καταβάλλω, to throw down
νηγάτεος, η, ον, new-made
πρύμνη, ἡ, the stern
ἐνίζω, ἐνιζήσω, aor. 1 Med. ἐνεείσατο, to seat oneself; cause to sit.
ἀνατίθημι, ἀναθήσω, ἀνέθηκα, ἀνατέθηκα, --- ,ἀνέτέθην, to lay upon, put on board
ἔπος, -ους, τό, word
μηκέτι, no more, no longer 190
χάζω, draw back, recoil
νέομαι, to go
χρεώ, want, need
ἕνεκα, on account of
ἀλεγεινός, ή, όν, hard
ναυτιλίη, ἡ, voyage
τλάω, to take upon oneself, to bear, suffer, undergo
ὀϊζ-ύς, ύος, ἡ, woe, misery
μοχθίζω, to suffer
εὐπᾰλής, ές, easy
δήνεα, τά, counsels, plans
κρᾰνέω, aor. ἔκρᾱνα, pf. pass. κέκρανται, aor. pass. ἐκράνθην, to accomplish, fulfil, bring to pass
ἀνάγω, ἀνάξω, ἀνήγαγον, ἀνῆχα, ἀνῆγμαι, ἀνήχθην, to lead, take
ἄκοιτις, ἡ, a spouse, wife
κουρίδιος, α, ον, wedded 195
ὔμμες, Aeolic and Epic form of ὑμεῖς, you (pl.)
Ἀχαιΐς, ΐδος, ἡ, the Achaian land
οἷά τε, as (see notes: LSJ s.v. οἷος)
ἑσθλός, -ή, -όν, good
ἐπᾰρωγός, ὁ, a helper, aider
σώω, Epic for σῴζω, σώσω, ἔσωσα, σέσωκα, σέσωσμαι, ἐσώθην, save
οἴομαι, οἰήσομαι, impf. ᾤμην, aor. ᾠήθην, think, believe
ἐρύκω, to keep in, hold back, keep in check, curb, restrain
ὅμᾰδος, ὁ, a force
ἀμοιβαδίς, by turns, alternately
ἕζομαι, sit down 200
πηδός, ὁ, the blade of an oar
ἐρέσσω, to row
βόειος, α, ον, of an ox
ἀσπίς, -ίδος, ἡ, shield
ἥμῐσυς, -εια, -υ, half
δήϊος, η, ον, hostile, destructive
ἔχμα, ατος, τό, that which holds, defence, bulwark
βολή, ἡ, a throw, the stroke
προέχω, to hold before
ἐπαμύνω, to come to aid, defend, assist
πάτρη, ἡ, native land
γεραρός, ά, όν, revered, respected
τοκεύς, έως, ὁ, parent
ἴσχω, have, hold
ἐπερείδω, depend, lean on
ἐφορμή, ἡ, enterprise, venture
κατήφεια, ἡ, dejection, sorrow, shame 205
κῦδος, -εος, τό, glory, majesty, might
αἴρω, ἀρῶ, ἦρα, ἦρκα, ἦρμαι, ἤρθην, take, achieve
δὐω, -δύσω, -έδυσα, (or ἔδυν,) δέδυκα, δέδυμαι, εδύθην, put on, dress in
τεῦχος, -εος, τό, arms, weapons
ἀρήϊος, η, ον, warlike
ἰαχέω, to cry, shout, shriek
θεσπέσιον, (adv.) prodigiously, unspeakablyg
μάω, be eager, press on
ξίφος, -ους, τό, sword
κολεός, ὁ, sheath of a sword
σπάω, to draw (a sword)
πρυμναῖος, α, ον, of a ship’s-stern
κόπτω, κόψω, ἔκοψα, κέκοφα, κέκομμαι, ἐκόπην, cut
παρθενική, ἡ, unmarried girl
κορύσσω, to furnish, equip
ἰθυντήρ, ὁ, a guide, pilot
Ἀγκαῖος, ὁ, Ancaeus (an Argonaut)
παραβαίνω, παραβήσομαι, παρέβην, παραβέβαμαι, παρεβάθην, stand beside 210
ἐπείγω, ἐπείξομαι, ἤπειξα, ---, ἤπειγμαι, ἐπείχθην, speed, press hard
εἰρεσίη, ἡ, rowing
σπέρχω, to set in rapid motion
ἄμοτον, continually, furiously
ἄφαρ, straightway,at once
ἐκτός, without, outside
ἐλαύνω, ἐλῶ, ἤλασα, ἐλήλακα, ἐλήλαμαι, ἐλάθην, to drive, set in motion
ὑπερήνωρ, -ορος, ὁ, overbearing, arrogant
περίπυστος, ον, widely known
ἔρως, -ωτος, ὁ, love, desire
τεύχω, τεύξω, ἔτευξα, τέτευχα, τέτυγμαι, ἐτύχθην, make
ἀγορή, ἡ, assembly
ἀγείρω, ἤγειρα, ἀγήγερμαι, ἠγέρθην, gather, collect
τεῦχος, -εος, τό, arms, tackle
ὅσος, -η, -ον, as great as, as many as
κῦμα, -ατος, τό, wave 215
χειμέριος, α, ον, wintry, stormy
κορύσσω, rise (with a crest)
ἄνεμος, -ου, ὁ, wind, spirit
φύλλον, τό, a leaf
χαμᾶζε, to the ground, on the ground
περικλαδής, ές, with branches all round
πίπτω, πεσοῦμαι, ἔπεσον, πέπτωκα, --- ---, to fall
ὕλη, ἡ, wood
φυλλοχόος, ον, shedding the leaves.
μείς, μηνός, ὁ, month
ἀπειρέσιος, α, ον, boundless, immense, countless
παραμετρέω, to pass by, pass along
ὄχθη, ἡ, a rising ground, a bank, dyke
κλαγγή, ἡ, any sharp sound
μαιμάω, to be very eager, pant
εὔτυκτος, ον, well-made, well-wrought
δίφρος, ὁ, chariot
μεταπρέπω, to stand out, shine forth 220
ὀπάζω, bestow, give as a gift
Ἠέλιος, -ου, ὁ, the Sun god
πνοιή, ἡ, a blowing, blast, breeze
εἴδομαι, to be visible; (mid.) to resemble
σκαιός, ά, όν, left
σάκος, -εος τό, shield
δῑνωτός, ή, όν, turned, rounded
ἀείρω, to lift, raise up
ἕτερος, -α, -ον, the other of two
πεύκη, ἡ, pine-torch
περιμήκης, ες, very tall
ἔγχος, -ου, τό, spear, lance
ἀντικρύ, over against, right opposite
τανύω, stretch, lie
πελώριος, ον, gigantic
ἡνία, τά, reins
γέντο, he grasped, = ἔλαβεν 225
ὑπεκπροτάμνω, to cut through going forward
κρᾰτερός, ά, όν, strong, stout, mighty, = καρτερός,
ἐπείγω, to drive on, urge forward
καταβλώσκω, to go down or through, poet. for κατέρχομαι
ῥέεθρον, τό, τhat which flows, a river, stream
πολυπήμων, -ον, gen. -ονος, causing manifold woe, baneful
ἐπιμάρτῠρος, ὁ, witness to one's word
κέλομαι, urge, exhort, command 230
παρασχεδόν, beside, near, close at hand
ἠπύω, call, invoke; utter
αὐτάγρετος, -ον, taken by one's own hands or exertions
πλωτός, ή, όν, floating, navigable
οἶδμα, ατος, τό, swell (of the sea)
ἐμπίπλημι, ἐνιπλήσω, fill, fulfil
μενεαίνω, desire earnestly or eagerly
τίνω, to pay the price, τῑσασθαι, aor inf mid
δάω, δαήσομαι to learn
ὑποδέχομαι, to receive, submit to (ὑποδέγμενοι: aor. part.) 235