12. (1) Quintillus post eum, Claudīī frāter, cōnsēnsū mīlitum imperātōr ēlēctus est, ūnicae moderātiōnīs vir et cīvilitātis, aequandus frātrī vel praeferendus. Cōnsēnsū senātūs appellātus Augustus septimō decimō diē imperiī occīsus est.

13. (1) Post eum Aurēliānus suscēpit imperium, Dāciā Rīpēnsī oriundus, vir in bellō potēns, animī tamen immodicī et ad crūdēlitātem prōpēnsiōris. <Is> quoque Gothōs strēnuissimē vīcit. Rōmānam diciōnem ad fīnēs prīstinōs variā bellōrum fēlīcitāte revocāvit. Superāvit in Galliā Tetricum apud Catalaunōs ipsō Tetricō prōdente exercitum suum, cuius adsiduās sēditiōnēs ferre nōn poterat; quīn etiam per litterās occultās Aurēliānum ita fuerat dēprecātus, ut inter alia versū Vergiliānō ūterētur: “Ēripe mē hīs, invicte, malīs.”

(2) Zēnobiam quoque, quae occīsō Odenāthō marītō Orientem tenēbat, haud longē ab Antiochīā sine gravī proeliō cēpit ingressusque Rōmam nōbilem triumphum quasi receptor Orientis Occidentisque ēgit praecēdentibus currum Tetricō et Zēnobiā. Quī quidem Tetricus corrēctor Lūcāniae posteā fuit ac prīvātus diūtissimē vīxit; Zēnobia autem posterōs, quī adhūc manent, Rōmae relīquit. 

    Chapter 12: Quintillus Emperor, 270 CE

    post eum: Claudius Gothicus

    Claudīī frater: Quintillus succeeded his brother, ruling for a brief period in 270.

    ūnicae moderātiōnīs vir et cīvilitātis: genitive of quality (AG 345)

    cīvilitātis: "lack of pretension" 

    aequandus frātrī vel praeferendus: "comparable to, or even preferable to his brother" (Bird); both gerundives take a dative object (AG 500.3).

    Chapter 13: Aurelian Emperor, 270-275 CE

    Post eum: Quintillus

    Aurēliānus: Aurelian's reign presents a succession of brilliant exploits, and it seemed for a time that he would restore Rome to her former position. The Goths, Vandals, and the Alamanni were conquered. Zenobia, who had succeeded her husband as ruler of Palmyra, was captured and carried to Rome. Tetricus was crushed near Catalauni. Aurelian commenced many works of public utility, including a new city wall. He was on his way to chastise the Persians when he was killed by some of his officers, a conspiracy having formed against him (Hazzard).

    Dāciā Rīpēnsī oriundus: Dacia Ripensis

    animī tamen immodicī et ad crūdēlitātem prōpēnsiōris: genitive of quality (AG 345)

    ad fīnēs prīstinōs: according to the Epitome de Caesaribus,

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    "He was similar to Alexander the Great or the dictator Julius Caesar, in that he recovered the Roman empire from its invaders in three years, whereas Alexander needed thirteen years to battle his way to India and Gaius Caesar needed ten years to conquer the Gauls, then spent four years warring against his own people." (de Caes. 35.2, Translated by K. Masters)

    apud Catalaunōs: see Catalauni

    ipsō Tetricō prōdente exercitum suum: Ablative absolute using a present active participle (AG 419). "This is chronologically misplaced by Eutropius. Tetricus had found it difficult to maintain himself even though Aurelian was in the east fighting Zenobia. In 273 CE near Châlons his army was easily defeated and Tetricus deserted to Aurelian" (H.A. Aur.  32.3; H.A. Tyr. trig. 24.2) (Bird).

    cuius: exercitum is the antecedent.

    poterat: subject is Tetricus

    fuerat dēprecātus: = deprecatus erat > deprecor, deprecāri "to beg (a person) for mercy" + acc.

    "Ēripe mē hīs, invicte, malīs": Aeneid 6.365 (Hazzard)

    (2) Zēnobiam: Zenobia <wife of Odaenathus>...tried to extend her sway over all Syria, Asia, and Egypt. Aurelian captured Palmyra in 273 CE and took her prisoner. After adorning his triumphal procession, her life was spared and she lived near Tibur for several years (Hazzard).

    occīsō Odenāthō marītō: Ablative absolute using a perfect passive participle (AG 419). "Eutropius underestimates Aurelian’s two major campaigns against Zenobia in 272 and 273 CE and ignores the destruction of Palmyra" (Bird). The Historia Augusta mentions Aurelian's campaign against Palmyra, as excerpted below:

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    Afterwards, the journey turned to Palmyra, in order to fight against her to his labors' end. But on the journey, [Aurelian’s] army was frequently enduring attacks by Syrian robbers, poorly faring, and he was endangered in a siege by being wounded with arrows. (Div. Aurel. 26.1.1, translated by I. Johnson)

    haud longē ab Antiochīā: "Not far from Antioch" (Bird)

    nōbilem triumphum: for more information on triumphs, see triumphs. For Aurelian's triumph, the Historia Augusta relates that,

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    Aurelian's triumph was noteworthy for its grandeur. There were three royal chariots; the one belonging to Odoenathus was eye catching with its gold, silver, and gemstone inlays; another one, given as a gift to Aurelian by a Persian king, was on par with the first one. The third one was designed by Zenobia herself, which she had hoped to use in her triumphant visit to Rome. It ultimately served its purpose, for it did carry her into the city—but it carried her in chains and as one conquered, not conqueror.

    There was another chariot yoked with four stags, which was said to have belonged to the King of the Goths. It is said that Aurelian himself drove this chariot to the Capitoline; once he arrived, he slaughtered the stags, which he then dedicated to Jupiter Optimus Maximus along with the chariot, too.

    Next came twenty elephants, two hundred tamed beasts from Africa and Palestine, which Aurelian paid for with his own finances, so that he would not burden the state with their care. There were also four tigers, giraffes, elks, all sorts of other creatures.

    (Div. Aurel. 33.1–34.6, Translated by K. Masters)

    praecēdentibus currum Tetricō et Zēnobiā: ablative absolute using a present active participle (AG 419)

    prīvātus: "as a private citizen" (i.e., no longer in power)

    corrēctor: "governor"

    Rōmae: "at Rome," locative case (AG 427.3)

    Core Vocabulary | Numbers | Dates


    Quīntillus, ī, m.

    (M. Aurēlius) Quīntillus, brother of the emperor M. Aurelius Claudius 12.

    Claudius, ī, m.

    Claudius II., M. Aurelius Claudius Gothicus, Roman emperor, 268–270 A.D.

    cōnsēnsus, ūs [cōnsentiō], m.

    consent, assent, united opinion; ex commūnī cōnsēnsū, by common consent

    ūnicus, a, um [ūnus], adj.

    only, sole, single; uncommon

    moderātiō, ōnis [moderor], f.

    moderation, self-control

    cīvīlitās, ātis [cīvīlis], f.

    the art of government, politics; courteousness, politeness, affability

    aequō, āre, āvī, ātus [aequus]

    to make even or equal, place on an equality

    praepōnō, ere, posuī, positus

    to set over, put in charge of

    Augustus, ī, m.

    a title of honor given to Octavianus in 27 BC and after him to all the Roman emperors

    Aureliānus, ī, m.

    Lucius Domitius Aureliānus, Roman emperor, 270–275 A.D. 13.

    Dācia, ae, f.

    a country north of the Danube

    rīpēnsis, e [rīpa], adj.

    situated or stationed on the banks of a river; Dācia Rīpēnsis, a province located on the banks of the Danube

    oriundus, a, um [orior], adj.

    descended, sprung from, originating, born

    immodicus, a, um [in + modus], adj.

    beyond bounds, enormous, high; excessive

    crūdēlitās, ātis [crūdēlis, cruel], f.


    prōpēnsus, a, um, adj.

    hanging down; inclined, disposed, prone

    Gothī, ōrum, pl. m.

    the Goths, a Germanic people

    strēnuē [strēnuus], adv., sup. strēnuissimē


    (diciō), ōnis, f.

    dominion, sovereignty, sway, rule

    prīstinus, a, um [prius], adj.

    former, old

    fēlīcitās, ātis [fēlīx], f.

    good fortune, success

    Gallia, ae, f.

    the country of the Gauls; modern France and the territories on the west bank of the Rhine. The northern part of Italy was settled by Gauls, and was called Gallia Cisalpina; hence the pl. Galliae.

    Tetricus, ī, m.

    (C. Pesuvius) Tetricus, one of the Thirty Tyrants

    Catalaunī, ōrum, pl. m.

    a city in Belgic Gaul

    assiduus, a, um [adsideō, to sit by or near], adj.

    continually present, busied; diligent, persistent, faithful; continual, unceasing, unremitting

    sēditiō, ōnis [sed + itiō, from eō], f.

    dissension, rebellion, revolt

    occulō, ere, culuī, cultus

    to cover, cover over; hide, conceal

    dēprecor, ārī, ātus sum [dē + precor, to ask]

    to plead against, plead, avert by prayer; decline

    versus, ūs [vertō], m.

    a line, verse

    Vergiliānus, a, um, adj.

    Vergilian; Vergiliānus versus, a verse from the Aeneid of Vergil

    invīctus, a, um [in + vincō], adj.

    unconquerable, invincible

    malum, ī, n.


    Zēnobia, ae, f.

    queen of Palmyra 2

    Odenāthus, ī, m.

    ruler of Palmyra. He checked the incursions of the Persians, and was honored with the title of Augustus by Gallienus.

    Oriēns, entis [orior], m. (sc. sōl)

    the rising sun, the East, the Orient

    Antiochīa, ae, f.

    the capital city of Syria on the river Orontes

    triumphus, ī, m.

    a triumph, a splendid procession in which the victorious general entered the city accompanied by his soldiers and the spoil and captives he had taken. The procession passed around the Capitoline Hill into the Via Sacra, then into the Forum, and up to the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus.

    receptor, ōris [recipiō], m.

    a harborer, concealer

    Occidēns, tis [occidō], m. (sc. sōl)

    the setting sun, the West, the Occident

    praecēdō, ere, cessī, cessūrus

    to go before

    corrēctor, ōris [corrigō], m.

    a corrector, improver; a land bailiff, governor

    Lūcānia, ae, f.

    a district in southern Italy


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