10. (1) Huic successit Tetricus senātor, quī Aquītāniam honōre praesidis administrāns absēns ā mīlitibus imperātōr ēlēctus est et apud Burdigalam purpuram sūmpsit. Sēditiōnēs multās mīlitum pertulit. Sed dum haec in Galliā geruntur, in Oriente per Odenāthum Persae victī sunt dēfēnsā Syriā, receptā Mesopotamiā. Ūsque ad Ctēsiphōntem Odenāthus penetrāvit.

11. (1) Ita Galliēnō rem pūblicam dēserente Rōmānum imperium in Occidente per Postumum, per Odenāthum in Oriente servātum est. Galliēnus intereā Mediōlānī cum Valeriānō frātre occīsus est imperiī annō nōnō Claudiusque eī successit ā mīlitibus ēlēctus, ā senātū appellātus Augustus. (2) Hic Gothōs Īllyricum Macedoniamque vāstantēs ingentī proeliō vīcit. Parcus vir ac modestus et iūstī tenāx ac reī pūblicae gerendae idōneus, quī tamen intrā imperiī biennium morbō interiit. Dīvus appellātus est. Senātus eum ingentī honōre decorāvit, scīlicet ut in curiā clipeus ipsī aureus, item in Capitōliō statua aurea pōnerētur.

    Reign of Tetricus in Gaul, 271–274 CE. Reign of Odaenathus in Palmyra, 260–267 CE.

    Tetricus: C. Pius Esuvius Tetricus

    honōre praesidis: "with the rank of praeses (governor)" (Bird), see LS praeses II.B

    apud Burdigalam: Burdigala

    per Odenāthum: Septimius Odaenathus was a nobleman from Palmyra, an oasis city situated between Syria and Babylonia which controlled the caravan traffic from Syria to the east (H.A. Val. 4.2; H.A. Gall. 3.3, 10.18, 12.1; H.A. Tyr. trig. 15.1) (Bird). Odaenathus checked the incursions of the Persians and drove Shapur out of Syria. In return for these services Gallienus honored him with the title of Augustus (Hazzard). According to the Historia Augusta,

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    After Valerian was captured, the empire would have crumbled in the East if Odenathus, the chieftain of the Palmyrenes, hadn't taken the reins of the collapsing Roman Empire. (HA Tyr. Trig. 15.1, Trans. Kristin Masters)

    dēfēnsā Syriā: ablative absolute using a perfect passive participle (AG 419)

    receptā Mesopotamiā: ablative absolute using a perfect passive participle (AG 419)

    ūsque ad Ctēsiphōntem: as far as Ctesiphon, capital of the Sasanian Empire

    Claudius Gothicus Emperor, 268-270 CE

    (1) Galliēnō rem pūblicam dēserente: ablative absolute using a present active participle (AG 419)

    in Occidente per Postumum, per Odenāthum in Oriente: see Postumus and Odaenathus. Eutropius recaps the state of affairs in a chiasmus.

    occīsus est: Gallienus was slain by his soldiers while besieging Milan in 268 (Hazzard).

    (2) Hīc Gothōs...vīcit: Claudius Gothicus conquered the Goths at Naisus in Dardania and received the surname Gothicus in consequence (Hazzard). According to his biographer in the Historia Augusta,

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    He was "a scion of his race, who ended the war against the Goths by his own valor, who as victor laid a healing hand upon the public miseries, who, though not the contriver of the plan, nevertheless thrust Gallienus, that monstrous emperor, from the helm of the state, himself destined to rule for the good of the human race, who, finally, had he but tarried longer in this commonwealth, would by his strength, his counsel, and his foresight have restored to us the Scipios, the Camilli, and all those men of old." (Div. Claud. 1.3, Translated by David Magie)

    reī pūblicae gerendae idōneus: "well qualified to administer the state" (Bird), dative gerundive form, as the adjective idōneus takes a dative object (AG 384, 507)

    Dīvus appellātus est: For more information on the deification of Roman emperors, see Apotheosis

    scilicet ut: "in as much as" (see LS scilicet II) followed by a result clause.

    clipeus ipsī aureus: According to his biographer in the Historia Augusta,

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    "I am speaking of the Emperor Claudius, whose manner of life, whose uprightness, and whose whole career in the state have brought him such fame among later generations that after his death the senate and people of Rome bestowed on him unprecedented rewards: in his honor there was set up in the Senate-house at Rome, by desire of the entire senate, a golden clipeus—or clipeum, as the grammarians say—and even at the present time his likeness may be seen in the bust that stands out in relief." (Div. Claud. 3.2–5, Translated by David Magie)

    Core Vocabulary | Numbers | Dates


    succēdō, ere, cessī, cessus

    to come up, advance; succeed, follow 10.

    Tetricus, ī, m.

    (C. Pesuvius) Tetricus, one of the Thirty Tyrants

    senātor, ōris [senātus], m.

    a senator

    Aquītānia, ae, f.

    a province of Gaul between the Garonne and the Pyrenees

    praeses, sidis [praesideō], m.

    a protector, guard, defender; president

    administrō, āre, āvī, ātus [ad + ministrō, to manage]

    to manage, govern, regulate, carry on (war)

    Burdigala, ae, f.

    a city in Aquitania

    purpura, ae, f.

    purple—color, purple, purple garment

    sēditiō, ōnis [sed + itiō, from eō], f.

    dissension, rebellion, revolt

    perferō, ferre, tulī, lātus

    to carry through; convey, report; endure

    Gallia, ae, f.

    the country of the Gauls; modern France and the territories on the west bank of the Rhine. The northern part of Italy was settled by Gauls, and was called Gallia Cisalpina; hence the pl. Galliae.

    Oriēns, entis [orior], m. (sc. sōl)

    the rising sun, the East, the Orient

    Odenāthus, ī, m.

    The ruler of Palmyra. He checked the incursions of the Persians, and was honored with the title of Augustus by Gallienus.

    Persae, ārum, pl. m.

    the Persians

    Syria, ae, f.

    Syria, a country of Asia, on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea

    Mesopotamia, ae, f.

    Mesopotamia, a division of Asia between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers

    Ctēsiphōn, ōntis, f.

    a city in Assyria, on the Tigris

    penetrō, āre, āvī, ātus [penitus]

    to enter, penetrate

    Galliēnus, ī, m.

    (P. Licinius Valeriānus Egnatius) Galliēnus, Roman emperor 260–268 A.D. 11.

    Occidēns, tis [occidō], m. (sc. sōl)

    the setting sun, the West, the Occident

    Postumus, ī, m.

    (M. Cassiānus) Postumus, one of the Thirty Tyrants

    intereā [inter + is], adv.

    in the meantime, meanwhile

    Mediōlānum, ī, n.

    a city in Cisalpine Gaul, modern Milan

    Valeriānus, ī, m.

    (1) (P.) Licinius Valeriānus, Roman emperor 253–260 A.D.; (2) (P.) Licinius Valeriānus, son of (1)

    Claudius, ī, m.

    the name of one of the oldest and most famous of the Roman gentes. (1.) Claudius I. Tib. Claudius Drusus Nero, Roman emperor, 41–54 A.D.; (2) Claudius II., M. Aurelius Claudius Gothicus, Roman emperor, 268–270 A.D.

    succēdō, ere, cessī, cessus

    to come up, advance; succeed, follow

    Augustus, ī, m.

    a title of honor given to Octavianus in 27 BC and after him to all the Roman emperors

    Gothī, ōrum, pl. m.

    the Goths, a Germanic people

    Īllyricum, ī, n.

    a country east of the Adriatic Sea

    Macedonia, ae, f.

    an extensive country north of Greece, between Thessaly and Thrace

    vāstō, āre, āvī, ātus

    to lay waste, devastate, destroy

    parcus, a, um, adj.

    sparing, frugal, stingy, thrifty

    modestus, a, um [modus], adj.

    keeping due measure, moderate, modest, temperate

    iustum, ī, n.

    that which is proper or sufficient

    tenāx, ācis [teneō], adj.

    holding fast, tenacious; firm, steadfast, persistent

    idōneus, a, um, adj.

    suitable, fit; capable

    biennium, ī [bis + annus], n.

    two years' time

    intereō, īre, īvī (iī), itūrus

    to perish, die

    decorō, āre, āvī, ātus [decus, honor]

    to decorate, distinguish

    Cūria, ae, f.

    the Roman senate house, either the Curia Hostilia, adjoining the Forum, or the Curia Pompeia, built by Pompey in the Campus Martius. In the latter Caesar was murdered.

    clipeus, ī, m.

    a round shield, as distinguished from scutum, an oblong shield

    Capitōlium, ī, n.

    the chief temple of Jupiter in Rome; the hill on which this stood, the Mōns Capitōlīnūs, the citadel as well as the chief sanctuary of Rome

    statua, ae [stō]

    a statue, image


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