1) Galliēnus cum adulēscēns factus esset Augustus, imperium prīmum fēlīciter, mox commodē, ad ultimum perniciōsē gessit. Nam iuvenis in Galliā et Īllyricō multa strēnuē fēcit, occīsō apud Mursam Ingenuō, quī purpuram sūmpserat, et Trebelliānō. Diū placidus et quiētus, mox in omnem lascīviam dissolūtus tenendae reī pūblicae habēnās probrōsā ignāviā et dēspērātiōne laxāvit.

(2) Alamannī, vāstātīs Galliīs, in Ītaliam penetrāvērunt. Dācia, quae ā Trāiānō ultrā Dānuvium fuerat adiecta, tum āmissa est. Graecia, Macedonia, Pontus, Asia vāstāta est per Gothōs, Pannonia ā Sarmatīs Quadīsque populāta est, Germānī ūsque ad Hispāniās penetrāvērunt et cīvitātem nōbilem Tarracōnem expūgnāvērunt, Parthī Mesopotamiā occupātā Syriam sibi coeperant vindicāre.

    Gallienus Emperor, 260268 CE

    (1) Galliēnus: Gallienus was Roman Emperor with his father Valerian from October 253 to spring 260, and alone from spring 260 to September 268.

    imperium prīmum fēlīciter, mox commodē, ad ultimum perniciōsē gessit: fēlīcitercommodē, and perniciōsē modify gessit.

    occīsō apud Mursam Ingenuō: ablative absolute using a perfect passive participle (AG 419). Ingenuus, a Roman military commander in Pannonia, rebelled in 260 and was defeated in Mursa on the Danube.

    quī purpuram sūmpserat: quī refers to Ingenuus.

    Trebelliānō: Eutropius mistakenly names the rebellious commander Trebellianus instead of Regalianus (Victor Epit. 32.3; H.A. Tyr. trig. 10.1–2) (Bird).

    Diū placidus et quiētus: placidus and quiētus refers to Gallienus.

    mox in omnem lascīviam dissolūtus tenendae reī pūblicae habēnās probrōsā ignāviā et dēspērātiōne laxāvit: English word order: mox dissolūtus in omnem lascīviam, laxāvit habēnās tenendae reī pūblicae probrōsā ignāviā et dēspērātiōne. tenendae is a genitive gerundive form (AG 507).

    (2) Alamannī...Dācia...Germānī: Eutropius' severe compression of material (or that of his source) has caused chronological displacements here. The Alamanni penetrated Italy as far as Ravenna between 253 and 258. Dacia was attacked by the Goths and Carpi from at least 253 onwards and Transylvania was abandoned by Gallienus, but legions were established in Wallachia. The province was not given up until Aurelian's reign, probably in 271 CE (Bird).

    vāstātīs Gallīīs: ablative absolute using a perfect passive participle (AG 419)

    Graecia, Macedonia, Pontus, Asia vāstāta est per Gothōs: According to Jordanes,

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    "While (Gallienus) was given over to luxurious living of every sort, Respa, Veduc and Thuruar, leaders of the Goths, took ship and sailed across the strait of the Hellespont to Asia. There they laid waste many populous cities and set fire to the renowned temple of Diana at Ephesus, which, as we said before, the Amazons built. Being driven from the neighborhood of Bithynia, they destroyed Chalcedon, which Cornelius Avitus afterwards restored to some extent. Yet even to-day, though it is happily situated near the royal city, it still shows some traces of its ruin as a witness to posterity. After their success, the Goths re-crossed the strait of the Hellespont, laden with booty and spoil, and returned along the same route by which they had entered the lands of Asia, sacking Troy and Ilium on the way. These cities, which had scarce recovered a little from the famous war with Agamemnon, were thus destroyed anew by the hostile sword. After the Goths had thus devastated Asia, Thrace next felt their ferocity." (Get. 20.107–108, trans. Charles C. Mierow)

    cīvitātem: = urbem

    Core Vocabulary | Numbers | Dates


    Galliēnus, ī, m.

    (P. Licinius Valeriānus Egnatius) Galliēnus, Roman emperor 260–268 A.D.

    adulēscēns, entis [adolēscō, to grow up], m.

    young; as substantive, a young man

    Augustus, ī, m.

    a title of honor given to Octavianus in 27 BC and after him to all the Roman emperors

    fēlīciter [fēlīx], adv., comp. fēlicius, sup. fēlicissimē

    luckily, happily

    commodē [commodus], adv.

    fitly, easily, properly, rightly

    perniciōsē [perniciōsus], adv.

    dangerously, destructively

    Gallia, ae, f.

    the country of the Gauls; modern France and the territories on the west bank of the Rhine. The northern part of Italy was settled by Gauls, and was called Gallia Cisalpina; hence the pl. Galliae.

    Īllyricum, ī, n.

    a country east of the Adriatic Sea

    strēnuē [strēnuus], adv., sup. strēnuissimē


    Mursa, ae, f.

    a town in Pannonia

    Ingenuus, ī, m.

    one of the Thirty Tyrants; defeated and slain by Gallienus

    purpura, ae, f.

    purple—color, purple, purple garment

    Trebelliānus, ī, m.

    one of the Thirty Tyrants

    placidus, a, um [placō, to soothe], adj.

    calm, quiet, tranquil

    quiētus, a, um [quiēscō], adj.

    at rest, free from exertion; undisturbed, quiet, peaceful

    lascīvia, ae [lascīvus, sportive], f.


    dissolūtus, a, um [part. of dissolvō, to take apart], adj.

    lax, remiss, negligent, careless

    habēna, ae [habeō], f.

    a holder, halter, rein; only in pl., the reins, direction, management, government

    probrōsus, a, um [probrum], adj.

    shameful, ignominious, infamous

    ignāvia, ae [ignāvus], f.

    idleness, sloth; cowardice, baseness

    dēspērātiō, ōnis [dēspērō], f.

    despair, desperation

    laxō, āre, āvī, ātus

    to loose, spread out, relax

    Alamannī, ōrum, pl. m.

    the Alamanni, a name applied to a confederacy of German tribes living between the Danube, the Rhine, and the Main 2

    vāstō, āre, āvī, ātus

    to lay waste, devastate, destroy

    Ītalia, ae, f.


    penetrō, āre, āvī, ātus [penitus]

    to enter, penetrate

    Dācia, ae, f.

    a country north of the Danube

    Trāiānus, ī, m.

    (M.) Ulpius Crīnītus Trāiānus, Roman emperor 98–117 A.D.

    Dānuvius, ī, m.

    the Danube river

    adiciō, ere, iēcī, iectus

    to throw to, fling; add

    Graecia, ae, f.


    Macedonia, ae, f.

    an extensive country north of Greece, between Thessaly and Thrace

    Asia, ae, f.

    Asia; the Roman province of Asia Minor

    Gothī, ōrum, pl. m.

    the Goths, a Germanic people

    Pannonia, ae, f.

    one of the most important provinces of Rome, lying between the Danube and the Alps

    Sarmatae, ārum, pl. m

    the inhabitants of Sarmatia

    Quādī, ōrum, pl. m.

    a Suabian (Germanic) people

    populō, āre, āvī, ātus

    to plunder, ravage, lay waste

    Germānī, ōrum, pl. m.

    the Germans

    Hispānia, ae, f.

    Spain (including Portugal). It was divided into two provinces, Hispania Citerior and Ulterior; hence the pl. Hispaniae.

    Tarracō, ōnis, f.

    a city in Spain

    expūgnō, āre, āvī, ātus

    to take by storm, capture; overpower, prevail upon

    Parthī, ōrum, pl. m.

    a Scythian people southeast of the Caspian Sea

    Mesopotamia, ae, f.

    Mesopotamia, a division of Asia between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers

    Syria, ae, f.

    Syria, a country of Asia, on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea

    vindicō, āre, āvī, ātus [vīs + dīcō]

    to claim; liberate; avenge, take vengeance on


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