(1) Philippī duo, fīlius ac pater, Gordiānō occīsō imperium invāsērunt atque exercitū incolumī reductō ad Ītaliam ex Syriā profectī sunt. Hīs imperantibus mīllēsimus annus Rōmae urbis ingentī lūdōrum apparātū spectāculōrumque celebrātus est. Ambō deinde ab exercitū interfectī sunt, senior Philippus Vērōnae, Rōmae iūnior; annīs quīnque imperāvērunt; inter dīvōs tamen relātī sunt.

    Philippus Emperor, 244249 CE

    Philippī duo: Marcus Iulius Philippus I (Philip the Arab) was an Arabian by birth. After the death of Timesitheus, the father-in-law of Gordianus, he became praetorian prefect, and caused the soldiers to revolt, to slay Gordianus, and to proclaim himself emperor. He proclaimed his son (Philip II) of the same name Caesar, though he was only seven years old (Hazzard).

    Gordiānō occīsō: ablative absolute using a perfect passive participle (AG 419), referring to Gordian III, who died in 244 CE

    exercitū incolumī reductō: ablative absolute using a perfect passive participle (AG 419)

    Hīs imperantibus: ablative absolute using a perfect passive participle (AG 419)

    mīllēsimus annus: this anniversary was marked by the celebration of the Secular Games with unusual magnificence, 248 CE (Hazzard); see ludi. According to the Historia Augusta,

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    "There were thirty-two elephants at Rome in the time of Gordian (of which he himself had sent twelve and Alexander ten), ten elk, ten tigers, sixty tame lions, thirty tame leopards, ten belbi or hyenas, a thousand pairs of imperial gladiators, six hippopotami, one rhinoceros, ten wild lions, ten giraffes, twenty wild asses, forty wild horses, and various other animals of this nature without number. All of these Philip presented or slew at the secular games. All these animals, wild, tame, and savage, Gordian intended for a Persian triumph; but his official vow proved of no avail, for Philip presented all of them at the secular games, consisting of both gladiatorial spectacles and races in the Circus, that were celebrated on the thousandth anniversary of the founding of the City, when he and his son were consuls." (HA Gord. Tres. 33.1–3; Translated by David Magie)

    Rōmae: "at Rome," locative case (AG 427.3)

    Vērōnae: "at Verona," locative case (AG 427.3)

    inter dīvōs: For more information on the deification of Roman emperors, see Apotheosis

    Core Vocabulary | Numbers | Dates


    Philippus, ī, m.

    (1) (M. Iūlius) Philippus I., Roman emperor 244–249 A.D.; (2) (M. Iūlius) Philippus II., son of (1)

    Gordiānus, ī, m.

    (M. Antōnius) Gordiānus, the name of three Roman emperors, father, son, and grandson, 237–244 A.D., 1. Gordiānus, senior., 2. Gordiānus Augustus, son of (1)., 3. Gordiānus Augustus, son of (2).

    invādō, ere, vāsī, vāsus

    to enter; attack; seize, take possession of

    incolumis, e, adj.

    safe, unharmed

    redūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus

    to lead back; draw back; remove

    Ītalia, ae, f.


    Syria, ae, f.

    Syria, a country of Asia, on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea

    lūdus, ī, m.

    play, game; place of training, school

    apparātus, ūs, m.

    equipment, preparation; splendor, pomp

    spectāculum, ī [spectō, to look at], n.

    a show, spectacle

    ambō, ae, ō, adj.


    Vērōna, ae, f.

    an important town in Cisalpine Gaul

    iuvenis, e, adj., comp. iūnior



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