9.  Īnsequentī annō L. Memmius in Lūsitāniā bene pūgnāvit. Mārcellus posteā cōnsul rēs ibīdem prōsperās gessit.

10. (1) Tertium deinde bellum contrā Carthāginem suscipitur, sexcentēsimō et alterō ab urbe conditā annō, L. Mānliō Cēnsōrīnō et M. Mānīliō cōnsulibus, annō quīnquagēsimō prīmō postquam secundum Pūnicum trānsāctum erat.

(2) Hī profectī Carthāginem oppūgnāvērunt. Contrā eōs Hasdrubal dux Carthāginiēnsum dīmicābat. Famea dux alius equitātuī Carthāginiēnsum praeerat.

(3) Scīpio tunc, Scīpiōnis Āfricānī nepōs, tribūnus ibi mīlitābat. Huius apud omnēs ingēns metus et reverentia erat. Nam et parātissimus ad dīmicandum et cōnsultissimus habēbātur. Itaque per eum multa ā cōnsulibus prōsperē gesta sunt, neque quicquam magis vel Hasdrubal vel Famea vītābant quam contrā eam Rōmānōrum partem committere, ubi Scīpiō dīmicāret.

    Ch. 9: War in Lusitania (153 BCE)

    For details, see Polybius 36.1–6; Appian, Wars in Spain 44–55; Livy, Epitome 48.

    (1) Īnsequentī annō: 153 BCE

    in Lūsitāniā: In 154 BCE the two Roman praetors in western Spain were beaten by the Lusitanians, probably on the upper Tagus. The following year L. Mummius, after an initial defeat, won several victories both in Spain against the Aravaci and in North Africa against a group of Lusitanians. Eutropius (or his source) carefully omits Roman defeats (Bird).

    Mārcellus posteā cōnsul: In 153–152 BCE the consul Fulvius Nobilior was defeated at Numantia but his successor, the consul M. Claudius Marcellus, captured Ocilio and through conciliation (despite the senate's opposition) gave Hispania Citerior eight years of peace (Bird).

    Ch. 10 The Third Punic War Begins (149 BCE)

    For details, see Polybius, Books 36–39; Appian Punic Wars 74–135; Livy, Epitome 49.

    (1) Tertium deinde bellum: The Romans encouraged their ally Masinissa to encroach on the territories of Carthage and to harass her in every way. They were seeking a pretext for war, having fully decided to utterly destroy their hated rival. The story is told that every speech that Cato the Censor made was concluded with the words, "Dēlenda est Carthāgō," "Carthage must be destroyed" (Hazzard).

    sexcentēsimō et alterō ab urbe conditā annō: The Third Punic War began in 149 BCE.

    L. Mānliō Cēnsōrīnō et M. Mānīliō cōnsulibus: L. Marcius Censorinus and M. Manilius were utterly incompetent. On several occasions they were saved from destruction only by the skill of Scipio (Hazzard).

    (2) Carthāginem oppūgnāvērunt: The Carthaginians tried in every way to avert the war. Embassy after embassy was sent to Rome, offering everything that could be asked. When the Romans demanded the surrender of the arms of the city, they were given. But when it was demanded that they should leave their city and should settle somewhere else at a distance of ten miles from the sea, they refused and prepared for the struggle that was inevitable (Hazzard). Florus explained that

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    Deciding upon war, they discussed what was to happen when it was concluded. Cato, with implacable hatred, kept declaring, even when he was consulted on other subjects, that Carthage must be destroyed. Scipio Nasica thought that it ought to be preserved, lest, if the fear of the rival city were removed, prosperity should begin to have a demoralizing effect. The senate decided upon the middle course, namely, that the city should merely be removed to another site; for they could imagine nothing which redounded more to their credit than that Carthage should still exist, but a Carthage which they need not fear (Epit. 1.31.12–18; Trans. E. S. Forster).

    Hasdrubal: see Hasdrubal the Boetharch

    Famea: Himlico Phameas

    equitātuī Carthāginiēnsum praeerat: praesum takes a dative object.

    (3) Scīpio tunc, Scīpiōnis Āfricānī nepōs: Publius Cornelius Scipio was the youngest son of Aemilius Paullus, the conqueror of Macedonia. When quite a youth he had fought at his father's side at Pydna, and he was afterwards adopted into a still more illustrious family, that of the Scipios. Like his grandfather, the great Africanus, he had early shown a taste for other arts than that of war; and his fondness for literature was cemented by the friendship which he formed, while still a youth, with the historian Polybius. He was inferior in all respects to his grandfather by adoption, the elder Africanus. He is chosen by Cicero in the De Amicitia as one whose friendship was worthy of immorality (Hazzard).

    apud omnēs: hyperbole

    ad dīmicandum: "for battling," gerundive denoting purpose (AG 500.4)

    cōnsultissimus: "wisest in council" (Hazzard)

    habēbātur: "he was considered" (LS habeō II.D)

    per eum: Scipiōnem

    vītābant quam contrā eum Rōmānōrum partem committere ubi Scīpiō dīmicāret: order: vītābant committere [proelium] contra illam partem Rōmānōrum ubi Scīpiō dīmicāret.

    Core Vocabulary | Numbers | Dates

    ibīdem [ibi], adv.

    in the same place, just there

    prōsperus, a, um [prō + spēs], adj.

    according to one's hopes, favorable, prosperous

    Carthāginiēnsis, e, adj.

    Carthaginian; as subst., Carthāginiēnsēs, ium, pl. m., the Carthaginians

    Scīpiō, ōnis, m.

    the name of one of the most illustrious families of Rome, Cornēlius Scīpiō, consul 83 B.C., Cn. Cornēlius Scīpiō, consul 222 B.C., L. (Cornēlius) Scīpiō, consul 259 B.C., P. Cornēlius Scīpiō, consul 218 B.C., P. Cornēlius Scīpiō, consul 191 B.C., P. Cornēlius Scīpiō, praetor 94 B.C., P. Cornēlius Scīpiō Āfricānus, consul 205 BC the conqueror of Hannibal in the First Punic War., P. Cornēlius Scīpiō Āfricānus (Minor), consul 147 B.C. He brought the Third Punic War to a close by capturing and destroying Carthage., L. Cornēlius Scīpiō Asiāgenēs, consul 83 B.C., P. (Cornēlius) Scīpiō Nāsīca, consul 91 B.C.

    Mānīlius, ī, m.

    M. Manilius, consul 149 B.C.


    M., abbreviation of the praenomen Marcus; M'., abbreviation of the praenomen Manius

    Cēnsōrīnus, ī, m.

    L. Mānlius Cēnsōrinus, consul 149 B.C.

    dīmicō, āre, āvī, ātus to fight
    trānsigō, ere, ēgī, āctus

    to carry through, finish, settle, perform

    Carthāgō, inis, f.

    (1) Carthage, a city founded by the Phoenicians on the northern coast of Africa; destroyed by the Romans 146 BC; (2) Carthāgō Nova, a city founded by the Carthaginians on the eastern coast of Spain

    oppugnō, āre, āvī, ātus to assault
    Hasdrubal, alis, m.

    (1) Surnamed Calvus, "the Bald," commander of the Carthaginian expedition to Sardinia in the second Punic war 215 B.C.; (2) Brother of Hannibal, defeated and slain at the battle of the Metaurus 207 B.C.; (3) The leader of the Carthaginians in the third Punic war 149–146 B.C.

    Famea, ae, m.

    the surname of Hamilco, commander of the Carthaginian cavalry in the third Punic war

    equitātus, ūs [equitō, to ride], m. cavalry
    praesum, praeesse, fuī, —

    to be over or before; rule, govern, be in command of

    Pūnicus, a, um, adj.

    Phoenician, Punic; Carthaginian; Pūnicum bellum, Punic War, First, 264–241 B.C.; Second, 218–202 B.C.; Third, 149–146 B.C.

    nepōs, ōtis, m.

    grandson; nephew (late); pl., descendants

    mīlitō, āre, āvī, ātus [mīles] to be a soldier, wage war
    reverentia, ae [re + vereor], f. respect, awe, reverence
    parātus, a, um, adj. prepared, ready
    cōnsultus, a, um [cōnsulō], adj.

    experienced, learned; iūris cōnsultus, a lawyer

    prōsperē [prōsperus], adv. propitiously, successfully
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