21.  L. Caeciliō Metellō et T. Quīntiō Flāminīnō cōnsulibus Carthāgō in Āfricā iussū senātūs reparāta est, quae nunc manet, annīs duōbus et vīgintī postquam ā Scīpiōne fuerat ēversa. Dēductī eō sunt cīvēs Rōmānī.

22.  Annō sexcentēsimō vīcēsimō septimō ab urbe conditā C. Cassius Longīnus et Sex. Domitius Calvīnus cōnsulēs Gallīs trānsalpīnīs bellum intulērunt et Arvernōrum tunc nōbilissimae cīvitātī atque eōrum ducī Bituītō īnfīnītamque multitūdinem iūxtā Rhodanum fluvium interfēcērunt. Praeda ex torquibus Gallōrum ingēns Rōmam perlāta est. Bituītus sē Domitiō dedit atque ab eō Rōmam dēductus est māgnāque glōriā cōnsulēs ambō triumphāvērunt.

    Ch. 21: The Re-foundation of Carthage (122 BCE)

    Livy, Epitome 60; Plutarch, Gaius Gracchus 11.

    L. Caeciliō Metellō et T. Quīntiō Flāminīnō cōnsulibus: ablative absolute with the verb esse assumed (AG 419a). Quintus Caecilius Metellus Balearicus and Titus Quinctius Flamininus were consuls in 123 BCE (Bird).

    Carthāgō: It was in 122 BCE, through the lex Rubria of 123, that Gaius Gracchus established a colony called Junonia, near the site of Carthage (Bird).

    quae nunc manet: Eutropius is in error. The Carthage of his time was founded by Augustus. He was carrying out the plans of Julius Caesar in this (Hazzard).

    postquam ā Scīpiōne fuerat ēversa: Carthage was destroyed in 146 BCE after the Third Punic War (Brev. 4.10–13).

    Dēductī sunt: The regular term for the founding of a colony (Hazzard) (LS deduco I.B.2)

    eō: = ad eum locum (Hazzard)

    Ch. 22: Triumphs over Transalpine Gauls

    Livy, Epitome 61; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 1.15.

    Annō sexcentēsimō vīcēsimō septimō: C. Cassius Longinus and C. Sextius Calvinus were consuls in 124 BCE so that the computation again appears to indicate that Eutropius' source, presumably Livy's Epitome, was reckoning from 751 BCE as the year of Rome’s foundation (Bird).

    Sex. Domitius Calvīnus: As proconsul (123–122 BCE) Calvinus subjugated the Saluvii of the Riviera and established a settlement at Aquae Sextiae (Aix) near their chief town (Bird).

    Gallīs trānsalpīnīs: dative object of compound verb intulērunt (LS infero I.β). The Gauls of modern France and Switzerland were called trānsalpīnī, to distinguish them from the Gauls of northern Italy, who were called cisalpīnī (Hazzard).

    Arvernōrum: The Arverni were a people of Aquitania, in the modern Auvergne. In early times they were the most powerful people in southern Gaul. They still possessed considerable power in Caesar's time, as he refers to them several times in the Gallic War (Hazzard).

    Bituītō: Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus (cos. 122 BCE) as proconsul in 121 BCE, defeated the Allobroges near Vindalium (between Orange and Avignon). The Arverni, under King Bituitus, came to their assistance, only to be decisively beaten by Q. Fabius Maximus (cos. 121) at the confluence of the Rhone river and Isere. Domitius captured Bituitus by treachery. Gallia Transalpina was subsequently annexed (Bird).

    īnfīnītamque multitūdinem: supply hominum.

    iūxtā Rhodanum fluvium: the Rhone riverFluvium is a late word. The regular term for river is flūmen (Hazzard).

    ex torquibus: the torque or helically twisted collar of bronze, gold or silver with open but almost touching ends was a characteristic neck ornament of such peoples as the ancient Teutons, Gauls, and Britons. The Saint-Remi museum in France has an important collection of iron age examples, such as this one from the fourth century BCE. Gaulish warriors wore them when they marched into battle (Strabo 4.4.5); Manlius Torquatus received his epithet by taking torques from Gauls he killed and wearing them himself (Livy 7.10.11).

    dēductus est: i.e., from Gaul (Hazzard)

    ambō triumphāvērunt: the triumph was held in 120 BCE. For more information on triumphs, see triumphs.

    Core Vocabulary | Numbers | Dates

    Metellus, ī, m.

    (1) C. Caecilius Metellus, consul 113 B.C.; (2) L. Caecilius Metellus, consul 251 B.C.; (3) L. Caecilius Metellus, consul 123 B.C.; (4) (Q. Caecilius) Metellus Macedonicus, consul 143 B.C.; (5) Q. Caecilius Metellus (Numidicus), consul 109 B.C.; (6) Q. Caecilius Metellus Creticus, consul 69 B.C.; (7) L. (Caecilius) Metellus, carried on war against Mithradates; (8) M. (Caecilius) Metellus

    ēvertō, ere, ī, versus

    to overturn, destroy, ruin

    Quīntius, ī, m.

    the name of a Roman gens.

    Flāminīnus, i, m.

    T. Quīntius Flāmininus, consul 123 B.C.

    Carthāgō, inis, f.

    (1) Carthage, a city founded by the Phoenicians on the northern coast of Africa; destroyed by the Romans 146 BC; (2) Carthāgō Nova, a city founded by the Carthaginians on the eastern coast of Spain

    Āfrica, ae, f.

    Africa; often the northern part of the continent, especially the part near Carthage

    (iussus, ūs) [iubeō], m., only in the abl. sing. iussū

    by order of, command

    reparō, āre, āvī, ātus to renew

    abbreviation of the praenomen Titus

    Scīpiō, ōnis, m.

    the name of one of the most illustrious families of Rome, Cornēlius Scīpiō, consul 83 B.C., Cn. Cornēlius Scīpiō, consul 222 B.C., L. (Cornēlius) Scīpiō, consul 259 B.C., P. Cornēlius Scīpiō, consul 218 B.C., P. Cornēlius Scīpiō, consul 191 B.C., P. Cornēlius Scīpiō, praetor 94 B.C., P. Cornēlius Scīpiō Āfricānus, consul 205 BC the conqueror of Hannibal in the First Punic War., P. Cornēlius Scīpiō Āfricānus (Minor), consul 147 B.C. He brought the Third Punic War to a close by capturing and destroying Carthage., L. Cornēlius Scīpiō Asiāgenēs, consul 83 B.C., P. (Cornēlius) Scīpiō Nāsīca, consul 91 B.C.

    iūxtā, adv. and prep. with acc. near
    torquis, is, m.

    a twisted collar, necklace


    abbreviation of the praenomen Gaius

    Cassius, ī, m.

    the name of a Roman gens

    Longīnus, ī, m.

    (1) C. Cassius Longīnus, consul 124 B.C.; (2) C. Cassius (Longīnus), murderer of Caesar


    an abbreviation of the praenomen Sextus

    Calvīnus, ī, m.

    Sex. Domitius Calvīnus, consul 127 B.C.

    Gallus, a, um

    pertaining to Gaul. Gallī, ōrum, pl. m., the Gauls. Gallus, ī, m., a Roman cognomen: (1) C. (Cn.) Cornēlius Gallus, governor of Egypt under Augustus; (2) Gallus Hostīliānus, Roman emperor 251–253 A.D.

    trānsalpīnus, a, um [trāns + Alpēs]

    adj., across the Alps, transalpine

    Arvernī, ōrum, pl. m.

    an important tribe of Celtic Gaul

    Domitius, ī, m.

    a Roman family name. (1) Cn. Domitius, consul 32 B.C.; (2) L. Domitius, a Roman general in the war with Sertorius.

    Bituītus, ī, m.

    a king of the Arverni in Gaul

    īnfīnītus, a, um [in + fīniō], adj.

    unbounded, vast, enormous; numberless; as subst., īnfīnītum, ī, n., a large amount, a large number

    Rhodanus, ī, m. the Rhone
    fluvius, ī [fluō], m. a river
    Gallus, a, um

    pertaining to Gaul. Gallī, ōrum, pl. m., the Gauls. Gallus, ī, m., a Roman cognomen: (1) C. (Cn.) Cornēlius Gallus, governor of Egypt under Augustus; (2) Gallus Hostīliānus, Roman emperor 251–253 A.D.

    perferō, ferre, tulī, lātus

    to carry through; convey, report; endure

    Domitius, ī, m.

    a Roman family name. (1) Cn. Domitius, consul 32 B.C.; (2) L. Domitius, a Roman general in the war with Sertorius.

    ambō, ae, ō, adj. both
    triumphō, āre, āvī, ātus

    to celebrate a triumph

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