Homer, Iliad VI 297-331

αἳ δ᾽ ὅτε νηὸν ἵκανον Ἀθήνης ἐν πόλει ἄκρῃ,

τῇσι θύρας ὤϊξε Θεανὼ καλλιπάρῃος

Κισσηῒς ἄλοχος Ἀντήνορος ἱπποδάμοιο:

τὴν γὰρ Τρῶες ἔθηκαν Ἀθηναίης ἱέρειαν.300

αἳ δ᾽ ὀλολυγῇ πᾶσαι Ἀθήνῃ χεῖρας ἀνέσχον:

ἣ δ᾽ ἄρα πέπλον ἑλοῦσα Θεανὼ καλλιπάρῃος

θῆκεν Ἀθηναίης ἐπὶ γούνασιν ἠϋκόμοιο,

εὐχομένη δ᾽ ἠρᾶτο Διὸς κούρῃ μεγάλοιο:

πότνι᾽ Ἀθηναίη ἐρυσίπτολι δῖα θεάων305

ἆξον δὴ ἔγχος Διομήδεος, ἠδὲ καὶ αὐτὸν

πρηνέα δὸς πεσέειν Σκαιῶν προπάροιθε πυλάων,

ὄφρά τοι αὐτίκα νῦν δυοκαίδεκα βοῦς ἐνὶ νηῷ

ἤνις ἠκέστας ἱερεύσομεν, αἴ κ᾽ ἐλεήσῃς

ἄστύ τε καὶ Τρώων ἀλόχους καὶ νήπια τέκνα.310

ὣς ἔφατ᾽ εὐχομένη, ἀνένευε δὲ Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη.

ὣς αἳ μέν ῥ᾽ εὔχοντο Διὸς κούρῃ μεγάλοιο,

Ἕκτωρ δὲ πρὸς δώματ᾽ Ἀλεξάνδροιο βεβήκει

καλά, τά ῥ᾽ αὐτὸς ἔτευξε σὺν ἀνδράσιν οἳ τότ᾽ ἄριστοι

ἦσαν ἐνὶ Τροίῃ ἐριβώλακι τέκτονες ἄνδρες,315

οἵ οἱ ἐποίησαν θάλαμον καὶ δῶμα καὶ αὐλὴν

ἐγγύθι τε Πριάμοιο καὶ Ἕκτορος ἐν πόλει ἄκρῃ.

ἔνθ᾽ Ἕκτωρ εἰσῆλθε Διῒ φίλος, ἐν δ᾽ ἄρα χειρὶ

ἔγχος ἔχ᾽ ἑνδεκάπηχυ: πάροιθε δὲ λάμπετο δουρὸς

αἰχμὴ χαλκείη, περὶ δὲ χρύσεος θέε πόρκης.320

τὸν δ᾽ εὗρ᾽ ἐν θαλάμῳ περικαλλέα τεύχε᾽ ἕποντα

ἀσπίδα καὶ θώρηκα, καὶ ἀγκύλα τόξ᾽ ἁφόωντα:

Ἀργείη δ᾽ Ἑλένη μετ᾽ ἄρα δμῳῇσι γυναιξὶν

ἧστο καὶ ἀμφιπόλοισι περικλυτὰ ἔργα κέλευε.

τὸν δ᾽ Ἕκτωρ νείκεσσεν ἰδὼν αἰσχροῖς ἐπέεσσι:325

δαιμόνι᾽ οὐ μὲν καλὰ χόλον τόνδ᾽ ἔνθεο θυμῷ,

λαοὶ μὲν φθινύθουσι περὶ πτόλιν αἰπύ τε τεῖχος

μαρνάμενοι: σέο δ᾽ εἵνεκ᾽ ἀϋτή τε πτόλεμός τε

ἄστυ τόδ᾽ ἀμφιδέδηε: σὺ δ᾽ ἂν μαχέσαιο καὶ ἄλλῳ,

ὅν τινά που μεθιέντα ἴδοις στυγεροῦ πολέμοιο.330

ἀλλ᾽ ἄνα μὴ τάχα ἄστυ πυρὸς δηΐοιο θέρηται.

While Hecuba and the priestess Theano duly make an offering to Athena, Hector heads to the house of Paris. He finds him polishing his armor. Hector rebukes him for staying at home while others die in a war of his making.

This moment sums up the essence of each man: Hector carrying the stains of a war that he did not want and yet still leads to protect his family and city, Paris admiring himself in the mirror of his narcissism, breezily oblivious to the terrible suffering his selfishness has brought down on his people. The relationship of appearance to reality, inner substance to outer show, is an important theme in the Iliad. Both Paris and Helen represent the danger of alluring but potentially destructive beauty. Their glossy presence in Troy forms a counterpoint to Hector’s longsuffering virtue. [read full essay]

297: νηὸν: = ναόν, acc. of direction without preposition. ἵκανον: 3rd pl. impf., subject is αἳ, “these women.”

298: τῇσι: “for them,” = ταύταις, dative of interest. ὤϊξε: aor. >  οἴγνυμι.

300: τὴν: “this one,” Theano. ἔθηκαν: “made (x) (y),” governs a double acc. (Goodell 534), 3rd pl. aor. > τίθημι, Attic ἔθεσαν (Monro 15).

301: αἳ δ᾽: “and these,” Trojan women. ὀλολυγῇ:  dat. of manner (Goodell 526.b). ἀνέσχον: 3rd pl. aor. > ἀν-έχω.

302: ἣ δ᾽: Hecabe. ἑλοῦσα: aor. ptc. > αἱρέω.

304: ἠρᾶτο: impf. dep. > ἀράομαι.

305: πότνι᾽ Ἀθηναίη ῥυσίπτολι: voc. direct address, = (ἐ)ρυσίπτολι. δῖα θεάων: “brilliant among the goddesses,” partitive gen. pl. > θεά (Monro 147.2).

306: ἆξον δὴ: aor. imperative > ἄγνυμι. δὴ lends emphasis to the command (“just…,” or “…now”). αὐτὸν: “Diomedes himself,” (vs. his spear).

307: πρηνέα: “(that he fall) headfirst,” predicative adj., uncontracted acc. masc. sg. > πρηνής. δὸς: “grant that,” 2nd sg. aor. imperative > δίδωμι. πεσέειν: aor. inf. > πίπτω (Monro 85.2). πυλάων: uncontracted gen. pl.

308–9: ὄφραἱερεύσομεν: “so that we may sacrifice,” purpose clause (see 6.230). ἱερεύσομεν: 1st pl. aor. subj. with short thematic vowel (Monro 80).

308: τοι: = σοι, dat. sg. 

309: ἤνῑς: acc. plural indicated by long iota. αἴ κε ἐλεήσῃς: “in the hope that you…,” 2nd sg. aor. subj. > ἐλεέω. In Homeric Greek, conditional clauses with verb in the subjunctive can express a purpose (Monro 293).

312: ὣς ἃι μέν ... δὲ: “while these (women)….”

313: βεβήκει: “turned his step,” “approached,” unaugmented 3rd sg. plpf. act. > βαίνω.

314: τά: “which,” relative pronoun. αὐτὸς: intensive pronoun, i.e. Paris himself. οἳ: “who,” relative pronoun.

315: ἦσαν: 3rd pl. impf.  > εἰμί (Goodell 384). ἐνὶ: = ἐν.

316: οἳ οἱ ἐποίησαν: “these men made for him.” οἳ is demonstrative pronoun, referring to the τέκτονες ἄνδρες; οἱ is dat. of interest.

319: δουρὸς: gen. sg. > δόρυ, with πάροιθε, “at the tip of the shaft” (Stoevesandt).

320: περὶθέε: unaugmented impf. > θέω. περὶ is better taken as an adverb (“all around”) than as tmesis (Graziosi-Haubold). 

321: τὸν: “this one,” Paris. εὗρ’: = εὗρ(ε), aor. > εὑρίσκω. ἕποντα: acc. ptc. > ἕπω, modifies τὸν.

322: τόξ᾽: = τόξα, neuter plural, best translated as singular. ἁφόωντα: "handling," acc. sg. ptc. > ἀφάω. The antecedent is τὸν above.  

324: ἧστο: “was sitting,” 3rd sg. plpf. dep. mid. > perf. ἧμαι, impf. in sense. κέλευεν: unaugmented impf. > κελεύω, with dat. of person.

325: ἰδὼν: nom. sg. aor. ptc. > aor. εἶδον (Goodell 391). ἐπέεσσι: dat. of means > ἔπος. 

326: δαιμόνι᾽: = δαιμόνιε, vocative direct address. ἔνθεο: = ἔνθε(σ)ο, 2nd sg. aor. mid. > ἐν-τίθημι. οὐ μέν καλὰ: “it is not fair that,” καλὰ is adv. acc. and οὐ μέν (= μήν) expresses an emphatic denial (Stoevesandt). θυμῷ: dat. governed by ἐν in compound ἐν-τίθημι (Monro 145.6).

328: σέοεἵνεκ᾽: = σοῦ εἵνεκα, “for the sake of you,” i.e. “for your sake.”

329-30: ἂν μαχέσαιοὅν τινάἴδοις: “you would attack (verbally) … whomever you should see,” future-less-vivid conditional relative clause, here with aor. optatives > μάχομαι and > εἶδον (see 6.176).

329: τόδ᾽: “this here,” = τόδε, with ἄστυ. ἀμφιδέδηε: “rages around the city,” intransitive 3rd sg. pf. > ἀμφι-δαίω. ἄλλῳ: “with another,” dat. of association with verb of fighting (see 6.141).

330: που: “I suppose.” μεθιέντα: “letting go of, relenting in pursuit of,” + gen., acc. sg. ptc. > μεθίημι.

331: ἀλλ᾽: = ἀλλὰ “come now,” before an imperative, it marks move from argument to appeal. ἄνα: “up!” “stand up,” preposition used here as a command. μὴθέρηται: “lest … burn,” negative purpose clause (Monro 281.1.a). πυρὸς δηΐοιο: “in hostile fire,” partitive genitive, either in place of an instrumental dat., or analogous to the gen. with verbs of enjoyment (Stoevesandt).

ἱκάνω: to come, arrive

Ἀθήνη and Ἀθηναίη: Athena

ἄκρος -α -ον: uttermost, topmost, highest, at the top, end, edge, or surface of; πόλις ἄκρη, ἄκρη πόλις, 'upper city' (=ἀκρόπολις)

θύρη: door

οἴγω or οἴγνυμι, fut. οἴξω, aor. ᾦξα: to open 

Θεανώ: Theano, wife of Antenor, and priestess of Athena in Troy

καλλιπάρηος: beautiful-cheeked

Κισσηΐς -ΐδος: daughter of Cisses

ἄλοχος -ου ἡ: wife 

Ἀντήνωρ -ορος ὁ: Antenor, son of Aesyetes, husband of Theano

ἱππόδαμος: master of horses

Τρῶες: Trojans300

ἱέρεια: priestess

ὀλολυγή: an outcry of women's voices

ἀνέχω, fut. ἀνέξομαι and ἀνσχήσεσθαι, aor. ἀνέσχον: to hold up, lift, raise; (mid.) to hold up under, be patient, endure, suffer, allow; draw up

ἄρα, ῥά (enclit.), ἄρ, ῥ᾿: so, then, as you know, you know, it seems. Very often it marks an action as natural, or reminds of something recently said. It also marks transitions.

πέπλος -ου ὁ: a robe; The principal female garment, but not made to fit the person. It was a large quadrangular piece of cloth, doubled for the upper part of the body, laid around the person, and fastened by brooches (περόναι) on the shoulders, and down the side. This left the arms bare, but reached to the feet. It was gathered at the waist by a girdle (ζώνη). A πέπλος was used also for the protection of an unused chariot from dust.

γόνυ, gen. γόνατος or γούνατος: knee 

εὔκομος: fair-haired

εὔχομαι, aor. εὔξαντο: to profess, boast, exult, vow, pray; εὐχόμενος, in prayer

ἀράομαι, impf. ἠρᾶτο, aor. ἠρήσατο: to pray

Ζεύς Διός ὁ: Zeus, son of Cronus, the husband and brother of Hera and the wisest and mightiest of the gods.

κόρη or κούρη: maiden, girl, daughter

πότνια: mistress, honored305

ἐρυσίπτολις or ῥυσίπτολις: defender of the city

δῖος -α -ον: divine, noble, illustrious; marvelous, magnificent

θεά -ᾶς ἡ: a goddess

ἄγνυμι, aor. subj. ἄξῃ, aor. partic. ἄξαντε, aor. pass. ἄγη and ἄγεν: to break, shatter

ἔγχος -εος τό: spear, lance

Διομήδης -εος ὁ: Diomedes, son of Tydeus, king of Argos, one of the bravest and mightiest of the Achaeans fighting in Troy

ἠδέ: and

πρηνής: headlong

προπάροιθε: before, in front of

πύλη -ης ἡ: one wing of a pair of double gates; (pl.) gate

ὄφρα: in order that; as long as, until

δυοκαίδεκα: twelve

ἦνις: a year old, yearling

ἤκεστος: untouched by the goad

ἱερεύω, fut. inf. ἱερευσέμεν, aor. ἱέρευσεν: to sacrifice, offer in sacrifice; slaughter, since most of the flesh of the victims was eaten, and on the other hand no flesh was eaten until a part had been sacrificed to the gods.

ἐλεέω, aor. ἐλέησε: to pity, take pity

ἄστυ ἄστεος τό: a city, town310

νήπιος -α -ον: infant, childish 

ἀνανεύω: to refuse, deny

Παλλάς: Pallas (Maiden or Spear-wielding), epithet of Athena.

Ἕκτωρ ‑ορος ὁ: Hector 

δῶμα -ατος τό: a house

Ἀλέξανδρος -ου ὁ: Paris, son of Priam, husband of Helen, and thus the author of the Trojan War.

τεύχω τεύξω ἔτευξα τέτευχα τέτυγμαι ἐτύχθην: to make ready, make, build, work

Τροία: Troy315

ἐριβῶλαξ -ακος: large-clodded, rich-soiled

τέκτων -ονος ὁ: artisan, carpenter

οἱ (enclitic, dat. 3rd pers. pron.): (to) him, (to) her 

θάλαμος: women's apartment, chamber (esp. of married people), storeroom

αὐλή: the court-yard of a house

ἐγγύθι or ἐγγύς: near (+gen.)

Πρίαμος: Priam, son of Laomedon. King of Troy.

εἰσέρχομαι εἰσελεύσομαι εἰσῆλθον εἰσελήλυθα: to go in

φίλος -η -ον: friend; loved, beloved, dear

ἑνδεκάπηχυς: eleven cubits long

πάροιθε: before, in front

λάμπω: to give light, shine, beam, be bright, brilliant, radiant

δόρυ, gen. δόρατος or δουρός: timber, beam, spear

αἰχμή -ῆς ἡ: spear-point320

χάλκεος or χάλκειος: of bronze, bronze, bronze pointed (of a spear)

χρύσε(ι)ος -η -ον: golden, of gold

θέω θεύσομαι: to run

πόρκης: a ferule, a ring which held the spear point to the shaft

περικαλλής -ές: very beautiful

τεῦχος -εος τό: pl. arms, armour

ἕπω: to be busy with

ἀσπίς -ίδος ἡ: shield

θώρηξ -ηκος ὁ: a breastplate, cuirass, armor. Armor for the protection of the upper part of the body.

ἀγκύλος: crooked, curved

τόξον -ου τό: a bow, often pl., referring to the three parts of one bow,—the two ends being made of horn, and the connecting piece (πῆχυς) being of wood. The bowman generally shot from a kneeling posture.

ἁφάω, pres. partic. ἁφόωντα: to handle

Ἀργεῖος -η -ον: of/from Argos, Argive

Ἑλένη: Helen, daughter of Zeus, sister of Castor and Polydeuces, wife of Menelaus, mother of Hermione. Famed for her beauty. Carried off by Paris, son of Priam, to Troy, which was the root cause of the Trojan War. After the capture of Ilios she returned to Sparta with Menelaus.

δμῳή -ής ἡ: female slave, maid

ἧμαι, 2nd sing. ἧσαι, 3rd pl. εἵαται or ἕαται [ἧνται], imp. ἧσο, inf. ἧσθαι, partic. ἥμενος, impf. ἥμην, 3rd pl. impf. εἵατο: to sit

ἀμφίπολος -ον: busied about, busy

περικλυτός: famous, illustrious

νεικε(ί)ω, iterative impf. νεικείεσκε, aor. ἐνείκεσας and νείκεσσεν: to revile, rebuke, chide325

δαιμόνιος: supernatural, marvelous, extraordinary; excellent, admirable; striken by (adverse) fate, miserable, unfortunate

χόλος -ου : anger, rancor, bile 

ἐντίθημι, aor. ἔνθεο: to put in, set in

λαός -οῦ ὁ: the people

φθινύθω, iterative impf. φθινύθεσκε: to waste away, perish, consume

αἰπύς -εῖα -ύ: high, steep, lofty, sheer

μάρναμαι: to fight, contend

ἀϋτή: shout, battle cry

ἀμφιδαίω, perf. ἀμφιδέδηε: to burn, blaze around

μεθίημι, aor. subj. μεθείω, aor. inf. μεθέμεν : to let go, give up, surrender; (intrans.) draw back, give way330

στυγερός: hated, abominated, loathed

τάχα: quickly, presently; perhaps 

δάιος: hostile, destructive; (pl.) enemies

θέρω: to burn

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Suggested Citation

Thomas Van Nortwick and Geoffrey Steadman, Homer: Iliad 6 and 22. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-11-5.http://dcc.dickinson.edu/homer-iliad/homer-iliad-vi-297-331