Homer, Iliad VI 414-465

ἤτοι γὰρ πατέρ᾽ ἁμὸν ἀπέκτανε δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς,

ἐκ δὲ πόλιν πέρσεν Κιλίκων εὖ ναιετάουσαν415

Θήβην ὑψίπυλον: κατὰ δ᾽ ἔκτανεν Ἠετίωνα,

οὐδέ μιν ἐξενάριξε, σεβάσσατο γὰρ τό γε θυμῷ,

ἀλλ᾽ ἄρα μιν κατέκηε σὺν ἔντεσι δαιδαλέοισιν

ἠδ᾽ ἐπὶ σῆμ᾽ ἔχεεν: περὶ δὲ πτελέας ἐφύτευσαν

νύμφαι ὀρεστιάδες κοῦραι Διὸς αἰγιόχοιο.420

οἳ δέ μοι ἑπτὰ κασίγνητοι ἔσαν ἐν μεγάροισιν

οἳ μὲν πάντες ἰῷ κίον ἤματι Ἄϊδος εἴσω:

πάντας γὰρ κατέπεφνε ποδάρκης δῖος Ἀχιλλεὺς

βουσὶν ἐπ᾽ εἰλιπόδεσσι καὶ ἀργεννῇς ὀΐεσσι.

μητέρα δ᾽, ἣ βασίλευεν ὑπὸ Πλάκῳ ὑληέσσῃ,425

τὴν ἐπεὶ ἂρ δεῦρ᾽ ἤγαγ᾽ ἅμ᾽ ἄλλοισι κτεάτεσσιν,

ἂψ ὅ γε τὴν ἀπέλυσε λαβὼν ἀπερείσι᾽ ἄποινα,

πατρὸς δ᾽ ἐν μεγάροισι βάλ᾽ Ἄρτεμις ἰοχέαιρα.

Ἕκτορ ἀτὰρ σύ μοί ἐσσι πατὴρ καὶ πότνια μήτηρ

ἠδὲ κασίγνητος, σὺ δέ μοι θαλερὸς παρακοίτης:430

ἀλλ᾽ ἄγε νῦν ἐλέαιρε καὶ αὐτοῦ μίμν᾽ ἐπὶ πύργῳ,

μὴ παῖδ᾽ ὀρφανικὸν θήῃς χήρην τε γυναῖκα:

λαὸν δὲ στῆσον παρ᾽ ἐρινεόν, ἔνθα μάλιστα

ἀμβατός ἐστι πόλις καὶ ἐπίδρομον ἔπλετο τεῖχος.

τρὶς γὰρ τῇ γ᾽ ἐλθόντες ἐπειρήσανθ᾽ οἱ ἄριστοι435

ἀμφ᾽ Αἴαντε δύω καὶ ἀγακλυτὸν Ἰδομενῆα

ἠδ᾽ ἀμφ᾽ Ἀτρεΐδας καὶ Τυδέος ἄλκιμον υἱόν:

ἤ πού τίς σφιν ἔνισπε θεοπροπίων ἐῢ εἰδώς,

ἤ νυ καὶ αὐτῶν θυμὸς ἐποτρύνει καὶ ἀνώγει.

τὴν δ᾽ αὖτε προσέειπε μέγας κορυθαίολος Ἕκτωρ:440

ἦ καὶ ἐμοὶ τάδε πάντα μέλει γύναι: ἀλλὰ μάλ᾽ αἰνῶς

αἰδέομαι Τρῶας καὶ Τρῳάδας ἑλκεσιπέπλους,

αἴ κε κακὸς ὣς νόσφιν ἀλυσκάζω πολέμοιο:

οὐδέ με θυμὸς ἄνωγεν, ἐπεὶ μάθον ἔμμεναι ἐσθλὸς

αἰεὶ καὶ πρώτοισι μετὰ Τρώεσσι μάχεσθαι445

ἀρνύμενος πατρός τε μέγα κλέος ἠδ᾽ ἐμὸν αὐτοῦ.

εὖ γὰρ ἐγὼ τόδε οἶδα κατὰ φρένα καὶ κατὰ θυμόν:

ἔσσεται ἦμαρ ὅτ᾽ ἄν ποτ᾽ ὀλώλῃ Ἴλιος ἱρὴ

καὶ Πρίαμος καὶ λαὸς ἐϋμμελίω Πριάμοιο.

ἀλλ᾽ οὔ μοι Τρώων τόσσον μέλει ἄλγος ὀπίσσω,450

οὔτ᾽ αὐτῆς Ἑκάβης οὔτε Πριάμοιο ἄνακτος

οὔτε κασιγνήτων, οἵ κεν πολέες τε καὶ ἐσθλοὶ

ἐν κονίῃσι πέσοιεν ὑπ᾽ ἀνδράσι δυσμενέεσσιν,

ὅσσον σεῦ, ὅτε κέν τις Ἀχαιῶν χαλκοχιτώνων

δακρυόεσσαν ἄγηται ἐλεύθερον ἦμαρ ἀπούρας:455

καί κεν ἐν Ἄργει ἐοῦσα πρὸς ἄλλης ἱστὸν ὑφαίνοις,

καί κεν ὕδωρ φορέοις Μεσσηΐδος ἢ Ὑπερείης

πόλλ᾽ ἀεκαζομένη, κρατερὴ δ᾽ ἐπικείσετ᾽ ἀνάγκη:

καί ποτέ τις εἴπῃσιν ἰδὼν κατὰ δάκρυ χέουσαν:

Ἕκτορος ἥδε γυνὴ ὃς ἀριστεύεσκε μάχεσθαι460

Τρώων ἱπποδάμων ὅτε Ἴλιον ἀμφεμάχοντο.

ὥς ποτέ τις ἐρέει: σοὶ δ᾽ αὖ νέον ἔσσεται ἄλγος

χήτεϊ τοιοῦδ᾽ ἀνδρὸς ἀμύνειν δούλιον ἦμαρ.

ἀλλά με τεθνηῶτα χυτὴ κατὰ γαῖα καλύπτοι

πρίν γέ τι σῆς τε βοῆς σοῦ θ᾽ ἑλκηθμοῖο πυθέσθαι.465

Andromache continues her appeal to Hector: Achilles has killed her whole family. Hector should stay within the walls. Hector refuses. He imagines a time when a Greek has taken her captive, and prays to die before that day.

The viselike grip of Hector’s responsibilities tightens as Andromache drives home her utter dependence on him. Using this emotional leverage, she crosses into his world by giving him tactical advice. Why not pull back to the most defensible place on the city walls? That way he can protect his family while staying near them. The advice seems sensible. [read full essay]

414: ἁμὸν: “our,” i.e. “my,” an archaic form of the 1st pers. plural (ἡμέτερος), which was then understood also as a 1st pers. sg. (Graziosi-Haubold, see Goodell 204). ἀπέκτανε: 2nd aor. > ἀποκτείνω.

415: ἐκπέρσεν: “he utterly laid waste,” aor. > ἐκπέρθω in tmesis; the prefix ἐκ- often suggests completion. πόλινΚιλίκων: see 6.397. εὖ ναιετάοντας: “well-peopled,” “well-built.”

417: σεβάσσατο: “shrink from” + acc., aor. dep. mid. > σεβάζομαι. τό γε: “that in particular,” “that in fact,” namely stripping off Eetion’s armor. θυμῷ: “in his heart,” dat. of place where without preposition.

418: κατέκηε: “burned completely,” aor. > κατα-καίω.

419: ἠδ’: “and.” ἐπὶἔχεεν: impf. > χέω. περὶ δὲ: “and all around (it),” i.e. the mound.

421–2: οἳ δέοἳ μὲν πάντες: “but as for the seven brothers who….” The first οἳ is relative (with ἑπτὰ κασίγνητοι in apposition), the second demonstrative (Stoevesandt).

421: μοι: “to me were” = “I had,” dat. of possession with ἔσαν, impf. > εἰμί, Attic ἦσαν (Goodell 524.a).

422–5: οἳ μὲνμητέρα δ᾽: “these … but my mother,” pointing a contrast between Achilles’ treatment of her brothers and mother.

422: ἰῷ ἤματι: “on one and the same day.” ἰῷ: neut. dat. sg. > εἷς, μία, ἕν, Attic ἑνί (Goodell 187). ἤματι: dat. of time when. κίον: 3rd pl. aor. of defective verb. Ἄϊδος εἴσω: “into the house of Hades,” = εἰς Ἄϊδος, (anastrophe), εἰς + gen. = “into the house of” (Goodell 507.a).

424: ἐπὶ: “over…,” Achilles killed the brothers as they looked after the flocks of animals.

425: : “who,” relative pronoun.

426: τὴν: μητέρα. δεῦρο: “to here,” i.e. for ransom. ἤγαγε: 2nd aor. > ἄγω.

427: ὄ γε: “he,” Achilles, γε emphasizes the clause. λαβὼν: nom. sg. aor. ptc. > λαμβάνω.

428: βάλ᾽: = βάλε, aor. > βάλλω.

429: μοι: dat of interest (Goodell 523). ἐσσι: 2nd sg. pres. > εἰμί, Attic εἶ.

430: σὺ: supply ἐσσί.

431: ἄγε: “come now,” as often, grabbing one’s attention before an imperative (see 6.340). αὐτοῦ: “here,” “in this very place.” μίμν’: = μίμνε, 2nd sg. imperative > epic, reduplicated μίμνω, Attic μένω.

432: μὴ θήῃς: “don’t make,” “you should not make” + double acc., 2nd sg. aor. act. prohibitive subj. > τίθημι (Goodell 473).

433: στῆσον: “set up,” “make stand,” 1st aor. active causal imperative > ἵστημι.

434: ἀμβατός: “mountable,” = ἀνα-βατός. ἔπλετο: “has proved to be” and thus “is,” aor. > πέλομαι, aor. in form but pres. in sense.

435: τῇ γε: “at that particular point,” dat. place where (Graziosi-Haubold). ἐπειρήσανθ’: “made an attempt,” = ἐπειρήσαντο, aor. mid. > πειράω.

436: ἀμφ’: = ἀμφὶ + acc., of attendants or followers (Monro 183.2). Αἴαντε: dual acc. > Αἴας. There are two Greek heroes named Ajax: son of Oileus and son of Telamon.

437: ἠδ’: = ἠδέ, “and.” Τυδέοςυἱον: Diomedes.

438: : “either … or.” τίς: = τις, followed by an enclitic. σφιν: = αὐτοῖς. ἔνισπε: aor. > ἐν-έπω. εἰδώς: “being knowledgeable about,” “well skilled in” + gen.

439: νυ: = νῦν.

441: καὶ: “also,” adv. μέλει: “are a concern,” neuter pl. subject, not impersonal, as this verb often is. γύναι: vocative sg. in direct address.

443: αἴ κεἀλυσκάζω: “if … I avoid,” protasis in a present general condition (εἰ/αἰ + κε/ἄν + subj. in protasis, pres. indicative αἰδέομαι in apodosis). Hector is describing a general fact, not a hypothetical situation (Goodell 650). κακὸς ὣς: “as a coward,” = ὡς κακός τις. πολέμοιο: gen. of separation with νόσφιν.

444: ἄνωγεν: 3rd sg. pf. with pres. sense. ἐπεί: “since.” μάθον: “internalize” (i.e. learn and make one’s own), unaugmented aor. > μανθάνω (Graziosi-Haubold). ἔμμεναι: inf. > εἰμί, Attic εἶναι, governs predicate nom. ἐσθλὸς.

445: μετὰ: "among," + dat. of accompaniment (rather than dative with verb of fighting). πρώτοισι: “foremost,” “leading,” with Τρώεσσι. 

446: ἐμὸν αὐτοῦ: “of my very own,” genitive of possession with implied κλέος. The neuter possessive adjective ἐμὸν and the genitive intensive pronoun αὐτοῦ are put side by side as equivalent constructions (Goodell 559).

447: τόδε: “the following,” “this here,” anticipating the second line. κατὰ: “in,” “within.”

448: ἔσσεται: “there will be,” fut. deponent > εἰμί, Attic ἔσται. ὅτε ἄν: “when,” ἄν + subjunctive in a future temporal clause, corresponding to a future-more-vivid condition (Goodell 627, Smyth 2401). ὀλώλῃ: intransitive 3rd sg. pf. subjunctive > ὄλλυμι. ἱρὴ: = ἱερὴ, with Ἴλιος, fem. sg.

449: ἐϋμμελίω: = gen. sg. > ἐϋμμελίης (ἐϋμμελίω > ἐϋμμελί-ᾱο), cf. gen. Ἀτρείδαο (Monro 98).

450: Τρώων: “for the Trojans,” objective gen. with ἄλγος, just as σεῦ in 6.454. οὐτόσσον: “is not so much a concern for me,” adverbial internal acc. μέλει: “is a concern” + dat., ἄλγος is subject.

451: Ἑκάβηςκασιγνήτων: objective genitives after ἄλγος, in apposition to Τρῶων.

452-3: κενπέσοιεν: “might fall,” aor. potential opt. (> πίπτω) as a more indefinite alternative to fut. indicative. πολέες: “many,” = πολλοί, 3rd decl. nom. pl. > πολύς. 

453: ὑπό: + dat., “under the influence of,” approximating an instrumental dative (Stoevesandt).

454: ὅσσον: “as much as,” correlative with τόσσον in line 450, supply μέλει ἄλγος from line 450. σεῦ: = σοῦ, objective gen. with ἄλγος. ὅτε κέν: “whenever,” ἄν + pres. pass. subj. > ἄγω in a general temporal clause (see 6.225) (Goodell 627).

455: ἀπούρας: nom. sg. aor. ptc. > ἀπηύρα, root aor. of defective verb (see 6.16–17).

456-7: καί κενὑφαίνοιςκαὶ κενφορέοις: potential opt. ἐοῦσα: fem. nom. sg. ptc. > εἰμί. πρὸς ἄλλης: “at the bidding of another,” “(bidden) by another,” gen. of agent (see 6.57).

457: φορέοις: 2nd sg. pres. opt. > φορέω, frequentative of φέρω. Μεσσηΐδος ἢ Ὑπερείης: “from the Messeis and Hypereia,” gen. of place from which. The names are generic, “Middle and Upper Spring,” as Hector imagines a non-specific location in Greece.

458: πόλλ’: = πολλά, “very," "much” adv. acc., see LSJ s.v. πολύ III.aἐπικείσετ’: = ἐπικείσετ(αι), dep. mid. fut., supply dat. obj. σοι.

459: εἴπῃσιν: “will say,” anticipatory aor. subj. denotes imminent future action (Monro 275b). ἰδὼν: nom. sg. aor. ptc. > εἶδον (see 6.176). κατὰχέουσαν: “pouring down,” tmesis, fem. ptc. modifies missing fem. acc. σε. δάκρυ: collective singular (see 6.405).

460: ἥδε: “this here,” supply ἐστί. ἀριστεύεσκε: “used to,” “was accustomed to be the best,” -σκ- indicates iterative impf. (see 6.15). μάχεσθαι: “at fighting,” explanatory inf. (Goodell 565).

461: Τρώων ἱπποδάμων: “among...” (see 6.208).

462: ὥςἐρέει: “will speak thus,” 3rd sg. fut. > εἴρω, Att. ἐρεῖ, concluding what began in line 459. σοὶ: dat. of possession.

463: χήτεϊ: “for lack of,” “bereft of,” dat. sg. modifying σοὶ. ἀμύνειν δούλιον ἧμαρ: infin. of purpose following closely after ἀνδρός.

464: τεθνηῶτα: acc. sg. pf. ptc. > θνήσκω. χυτὴγαῖα: nom. subj. κατὰκαλύπτοι: “may… cover!” opt. of wish (as often with independent clauses in the optative without ἄν) in tmesis, κατά is extensive, “over.”

465: πρὶνπυθέσθαι: “before (I) hear” + gen., governs an aor. infin., which in turn governs a gen. (Goodell 568). γε: “at least,” restrictive and emphatic.

466: οὗ: “his,” = ἑοῦ, possessive pronoun > ἑός. ὀρέξατο: “reached for” + quasi-partitive gen. (Monro 151.c).

ἤτοι: now surely, truly, = μέν

ἁμός: my, (pl.) our

ἀποκτείνω ἀποκτενῶ ἀπέκτεινα ἀπέκτονα: to kill, slay

δῖος -α -ον: divine, noble, illustrious; marvelous, magnificent 

Ἀχιλλεύς ‑έως or -ῆος ὁ: Achilles, son of Peleus and Thetis, leader of the Myrmidons and Hellenes in Thessaly, the mightiest warrior before Troy, and the principal hero of the Iliad.

πέρθω, aor. πέρσεν: sack, destroy415

Κίλιξ ‑ικος ὁ: (pl.) Cilicians, but not the historical nation of that name. In Homer they live in Greater Phrygia near Troy, in two nations. One king, Eetion, Andromache's father, reigned at Theba. Another, Mynes, at Lyrnessus.

ναιετάω: to dwell

Θήβη: Theba, a Cilician town in the Troad (at the foot of Mt. Placus, an eastern spur of Mt. Ida), under the rule of Andromache's father Eetion; it was sacked by Achilles. 

ὑψίπυλος: high-gated

κτείνω, aor. subj. κτείνῃς, aor. (ἔ)κτανε(ν) and ἔκτα, aor. mid. as pass. κτάμενος: to slay, kill

Ἠετίων, -ωνος: Eetion, king of Hypoplacian Theba near Troy, father of Hector's wife Andromache; slain by Achilles on the capture of Theba.

μιν: him, her, it

ἐξεναρίζω, aor. ἐξενάριξε(ν): to strip of armor, despoil; to lay low

σεβάζομαι: to fear, dread, feel misgiving

ἄρα, ῥά (enclit.), ἄρ, ῥ᾿: so, then, as you know, you know, it seems. Very often it marks an action as natural, or reminds of something recently said. It also marks transitions.

κατακαίω aor. κατέκηε: to burn down, consume by fire

ἔντεα ‑έων τά: weapons, armor

δαιδάλεος: richly ornamented

ἠδέ: and

σῆμα -ατος τό: a sign, mark, token, character, monument, mound, portent

χέω, aor. ἔχεεν or ἔχευε, χύντο, perf. κέχυνται, plpf. κέχυτο: to pour, heap (of a funeral mound), throw into a heap; σὺν ὅρκια ἔχευαν, broke (threw into a disorderly heap) the oaths; ἀμφὶ υἱὸν ἐχεύατο πήχεα, threw (her) arms about (her) son; δάκρυ χέων, weeping 

πτελέη: an elm tree

φυτεύω, aor. ἐφύτευσαν: to plant

νύμφη: nymph420

ὀρεστιάς -άδος: of the mountains

κόρη or κούρη: maiden, girl, daughter

Ζεύς Διός ὁ: Zeus, son of Cronus, the husband and brother of Hera and the wisest and mightiest of the gods.

αἰγίοχος -ον: Aegis-bearing, freq. epithet of Zeus. The aegis was the shield of Zeus, made by Hephaestus, described at Iliad 5.738 ff. Athena also holds it (or one).

κασίγνητος: brother

μέγαρον -ου τό: large room, main hall (in the center) of the house; (pl.) dwelling, house, palace.

κίω: to go

ἦμαρ -ατος τό: day

ᾍδης, gen. Ἀίδεω and Ἄϊδος, dat. Ἄϊδι, Ἀϊδωνῆι: Hades, god of the unseen lower world. His realm is the home of the dead, and in the Iliad it is beneath the earth, while in the Odyssey Odysseus sails to it, across Oceanus, and finds in it a faint, ghostly imitation of life on earth.

εἴσω (ἔσω): to within, into

κατέπεφνον (aor.), subj. καταπέφνῃ: killed, slew 

ποδαρκής ‑ές: agile-footed, swift of foot, epithet of Achilles

εἰλίπος -οδος dat. εἰλιπόδεσσι: crooked-gaited, trailing-footed, epithet of cattle, in contrast with ἀερσίποδες ἵπποι

ἀργεννός: white, lustrous

ὄις ὄιος: sheep

βασιλεύω: to be king or queen, rule, reign425

Πλάκος: a mountain above the city of Theba

ὑλήεις ‑ήεσσα ‑ῆεν: woody, wooded

δεῦρο: here, this way, over here

κτέαρ, dat. pl. κτεάτεσσιν, τό: possessions, property

ἄψ: backwards, back, back again

ἀπολύω, aor. ἀπέλυσε: to release, set free

ἀπερείσιος: countless

ἄποινα: a ransom

Ἄρτεμις -ιδος, ἡ: Artemis, daughter of Zeus and Leto, and twin sister of Apollo. Like her brother, she is on the side of the Trojans. Like him, she bears a bow, and she is his counterpart in several respects, sending quiet death to women, as he does to men.

ἰοχέαιρα: arrow-pourer, shooter of arrows

Ἕκτωρ ‑ορος ὁ: Hector 

ἀτάρ: but, yet

πότνια: mistress, honored

θαλερός: vigorous, flourishing, blooming430

παρακοίτης: husband, spouse

ἄγε: come! come on! well!

ἐλεαίρω: to pity

αὐτοῦ: (Adv.) at the very place, just here, just there 

μίμνω: to stay, stand fast, remain

πύργος -ου ὁ : tower, turreted surrounding wall; (fig.) rampart, defense, defender 

ὀρφανικός: orphaned, fatherless

χήρη: bereft of a husband, widow

λαός -οῦ ὁ: the people

ἐρινεός: the wild fig-tree

ἄμβατος: to be ascended, scaled

ἐπίδρομος: approachable, to be scaled

πέλω and πέλομαι, aor. as pres. ἔπλεο, ἔπλετο: to be

τρίς: thrice, three times435

τῇ: there, at that place

Αἴας ‑αντος ὁ: Ajax

Ἰδομενεύς ‑έως ὁ: Idomeneus, leader of the Cretans, son of Deucalion, grandson of Minos, and great-grandson of Zeus and Europa; highly esteemed by Agamemnon, and by Menelaus.

Ἀτρεΐδης, gen. Ἀτρεΐδαο or Ἀτρεΐδεω: son of Atreus (either Agamemnon or Menelaus) 

Τυδεύς -έος ὁ: Tydeus, son of Oeneus of Calydon, brother of Meleager, father of Diomedes. Having slain some kinsmen, he fled to Argos, where he married a daughter of King Adrastus. He was one of the Seven against Thebes.

ἄλκιμος: brave, courageous, mighty

σφεῖς, σφείων gen., σφίσι(ν) or σφί(ν) dat., σφέας acc.: (pl. 3rd pers. pron.) them

ἐνέπω: to tell, say

θεοπρόπιον: a prophecy, oracle

ἐποτρύνω, aor. subj. ἐποτρύνητον: to rouse, impel, urge on

ἄνωγα (perf. as pres.), impf. ἄνωγον, plpf. as impf. ἠνώγει or ἀνώγειν: to command, order, bid

αὖτε: again, on the other hand, however, but440

κορυθαίολος: crest-waving, gleaming-crested

μέλω, fut. μελήσει and μελήσεται, perf. μέμηλε: to be a care, be an object of concern. (1) The object of concern is put in the nom. and the person who feels the concern in the dat. (2) The verb is impersonal and takes the object of concern in the gen.

αἰνός -ή -όν: dread, dire, grim

αἰδέομαι and αἴδομαι, aor. pass. partic. αἰδεσθείς: to feel honorable shame or self-respect, revere, be abashed before

Τρῶες: Trojans

Τρῳαί or Τρῳάδες: Trojan women

ἑλκεσίπεπλος: with trailing robes

νόσφι: apart, separate, far from (+ gen.)

ἀλυσκάζω: to escape, avoid; to bolt, withdraw; νόσφιν ἀλυσκάζω πολέμοιο, I get far away from war

ἐσθλός -ή -όν: good, decent, honorable, noble, generous; capable, able; (of things) good, useful; (of words) wise, sensible

ἄρνυμαι, aor. opt. ἄροιο: to strive to win, gain446

κλέος -έος τό: glory

φρήν φρενός ἡ: the midriff; heart, mind

ὄλλυμι, fut. ὀλεῖται, ὀλέσεις, aor. ὤλεσα, ὀλέσ(σ)ῃς, ὄλοντο, οὐλόμενος, perf. ὀλώλῃ: to ruin, destroy, kill, lose; (mid. and perf.) to be destroyed, perish, die

Ἴλιος -ου ἡ: Ilius or Ilium, the city of Ilus, Troy 

Πρίαμος: Priam, son of Laomedon. King of Troy.

ἐϋμμελίης: armed with good ashen spear

τόσ(σ)ος: so great, so vast, so much, so long; adv. τόσ(σ)ον450

ἄλγος -εος τό: pain

ὀπίσω or ὀπίσσω: backwards, in the future

Ἑκάβη: Hecabe, wife of King Priam of Troy

ἄναξ -ακτος ὁ: lord, king, master

κονία or κονίη: dust, a cloud of dust

δυσμενής -ές: hostile, evil-minded; (pl.) enemies

Ἀχαιός: Achaian

χαλκοχίτων ‑ωνος ὁ/ἡ: bronze-clad

δακρυόεις: tearful, weeping455

ἀπαυράω: to take away, rob, deprive

Ἄργος -εος τό: Argos, the home of Diomedes; the realm of Agamemnon; the whole Peloponnese 

ἱστός ‑οῦ ὁ: anything set upright: ship's mast; beam of a loom; loom

ὑφαίνω: to weave

φορέω, iterative impf. φορέεσκον, inf. φορέειν and φορῆναι: bear or carry habitually or repeatedly

Μεσσηίς ‑ηίδος ἡ: middle spring

Ὑπέρεια ‑ας ἡ: High-land, the abode of the Phaeacians before they migrated to Scheria, Od.6.4.2;  name of a spring, Il. 6.547

ἀεκαζόμενος: against one's will, unwilling

κρατερός -ά -όν: strong, powerful, mighty

ἐπίκειμαι, fut. ἐπικείσομαι: to lie upon, rest upon

δάκρυον ‑ου τό, also δάκρυ ‑υος τό: tear 

ἀριστεύω: to be the best460

ἱππόδαμος -ον: tamer of horses, epithet of heroes

Ἴλιος -ου ἡ: Ilius or Ilium, the city of Ilus, Troy 

ἀμφιμάχομαι: to battle around, attack, besiege

εἴρω, fut. ἐρῶ, pf. εἴρηκα, mid. pass. εἴρημαι, ptc. εἰρημένος: speak, say, tell; (mid. pass.) to be said

χῆτος -εος τό: want, lack

ἀμύνω, aor. ἄμυνεν: to ward off, keep off, protect, defend, with dat. of interest or ablatival genitive.

δούλιος: slavish, servile

χυτός: heaped up

γαῖα -ας ἡ: a land, country

καλύπτω, aor. (ἐ)κάλυψε(ν): to cover with

βοή -ῆς ἡ: a loud cry, shout465

ἑλκηθμός -οῦ ὁ: a dragging, seizure

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Suggested Citation

Thomas Van Nortwick and Geoffrey Steadman, Homer: Iliad 6 and 22. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-11-5.http://dcc.dickinson.edu/homer-iliad/homer-iliad-vi-414-465