Homer, Iliad VI 191-231

ἀλλ᾽ ὅτε δὴ γίγνωσκε θεοῦ γόνον ἠῢν ἐόντα

αὐτοῦ μιν κατέρυκε, δίδου δ᾽ ὅ γε θυγατέρα ἥν,

δῶκε δέ οἱ τιμῆς βασιληΐδος ἥμισυ πάσης:

καὶ μέν οἱ Λύκιοι τέμενος τάμον ἔξοχον ἄλλων

καλὸν φυταλιῆς καὶ ἀρούρης, ὄφρα νέμοιτο.195

ἣ δ᾽ ἔτεκε τρία τέκνα δαΐφρονι Βελλεροφόντῃ

Ἴσανδρόν τε καὶ Ἱππόλοχον καὶ Λαοδάμειαν.

Λαοδαμείῃ μὲν παρελέξατο μητίετα Ζεύς,

ἣ δ᾽ ἔτεκ᾽ ἀντίθεον Σαρπηδόνα χαλκοκορυστήν.

ἀλλ᾽ ὅτε δὴ καὶ κεῖνος ἀπήχθετο πᾶσι θεοῖσιν,200

ἤτοι ὃ κὰπ πεδίον τὸ Ἀλήϊον οἶος ἀλᾶτο

ὃν θυμὸν κατέδων, πάτον ἀνθρώπων ἀλεείνων:

Ἴσανδρον δέ οἱ υἱὸν Ἄρης ἆτος πολέμοιο

μαρνάμενον Σολύμοισι κατέκτανε κυδαλίμοισι:

τὴν δὲ χολωσαμένη χρυσήνιος Ἄρτεμις ἔκτα.205

Ἱππόλοχος δέ μ᾽ ἔτικτε, καὶ ἐκ τοῦ φημι γενέσθαι:

πέμπε δέ μ᾽ ἐς Τροίην, καί μοι μάλα πόλλ᾽ ἐπέτελλεν

αἰὲν ἀριστεύειν καὶ ὑπείροχον ἔμμεναι ἄλλων,

μηδὲ γένος πατέρων αἰσχυνέμεν, οἳ μέγ᾽ ἄριστοι

ἔν τ᾽ Ἐφύρῃ ἐγένοντο καὶ ἐν Λυκίῃ εὐρείῃ.210

ταύτης τοι γενεῆς τε καὶ αἵματος εὔχομαι εἶναι.

ὣς φάτο, γήθησεν δὲ βοὴν ἀγαθὸς Διομήδης:

ἔγχος μὲν κατέπηξεν ἐπὶ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃ,

αὐτὰρ ὃ μειλιχίοισι προσηύδα ποιμένα λαῶν:

ἦ ῥά νύ μοι ξεῖνος πατρώϊός ἐσσι παλαιός:215

Οἰνεὺς γάρ ποτε δῖος ἀμύμονα Βελλεροφόντην

ξείνισ᾽ ἐνὶ μεγάροισιν ἐείκοσιν ἤματ᾽ ἐρύξας:

οἳ δὲ καὶ ἀλλήλοισι πόρον ξεινήϊα καλά:

Οἰνεὺς μὲν ζωστῆρα δίδου φοίνικι φαεινόν,

Βελλεροφόντης δὲ χρύσεον δέπας ἀμφικύπελλον220

καί μιν ἐγὼ κατέλειπον ἰὼν ἐν δώμασ᾽ ἐμοῖσι.

Τυδέα δ᾽ οὐ μέμνημαι, ἐπεί μ᾽ ἔτι τυτθὸν ἐόντα

κάλλιφ᾽, ὅτ᾽ ἐν Θήβῃσιν ἀπώλετο λαὸς Ἀχαιῶν.

τὼ νῦν σοὶ μὲν ἐγὼ ξεῖνος φίλος Ἄργεϊ μέσσῳ

εἰμί, σὺ δ᾽ ἐν Λυκίῃ ὅτε κεν τῶν δῆμον ἵκωμαι.225

ἔγχεα δ᾽ ἀλλήλων ἀλεώμεθα καὶ δι᾽ ὁμίλου:

πολλοὶ μὲν γὰρ ἐμοὶ Τρῶες κλειτοί τ᾽ ἐπίκουροι

κτείνειν ὅν κε θεός γε πόρῃ καὶ ποσσὶ κιχείω,

πολλοὶ δ᾽ αὖ σοὶ Ἀχαιοὶ ἐναιρέμεν ὅν κε δύνηαι.

τεύχεα δ᾽ ἀλλήλοις ἐπαμείψομεν, ὄφρα καὶ οἵδε230

γνῶσιν ὅτι ξεῖνοι πατρώϊοι εὐχόμεθ᾽ εἶναι.

The king of Lycia finally appreciated Bellerophon’s divine stock, gave him half his kingdom, and offered his daughter in marriage. After having three children, Bellerophon ended his life as a friendless wanderer. One of Bellerophon's children became Glaucus’ father. Diomedes gladly recalls that his grandfather once hosted Bellerophon, which makes Glaucus and Diomedes guest friends. The two vow to avoid each other on the battlefield.

The scenes leading up to Hector’s visit to Troy are a good example of certain characteristics of Homeric storytelling, crucial to the poem’s impact and yet challenging to describe. This stretch of the story is packed with disparate incidents that flow swiftly by, and yet each element receives the poet’s full attention, its particular details giving it a tone of naturalism—why would the poet tell us all this unless it actually happened? [read full essay]

191: ὅτε δὴ: “just when,” δὴ suggests exactness. ἐόντα: acc. sg. ptc. > εἰμί, modifying an understood Βελλεροφόντην, and governing the predicate θεοῦ γόνον ἠΰν.

192: αὐτοῦ: “on the spot,” “in this very place,” adv. > αὐτός (Goodell 228.b). κατέρυκε: impf. δίδου: “offered in marriage,” = (ἐ)δίδε(σ)ο, 2nd sg.  impf. > δίδωμι. ὅ γε: “he…,” same subject for both verbs. ἥν: = ἑήν, 3rd pers. possessive pronoun ἑός (Goodell 204).

193: δῶκε: aor. > δίδωμι. οἱ: = αῦτῷ, 3rd sg pronoun, dat. ind. obj. τιμῆς: “privilege,” partitive gen.

194: καὶ μέν: “moreover,” introducing a new idea or developing an old one. τάμον: “cut,” i.e. partitioned and distributed, 3rd pl. aor. > τέμνω.

195: ὄφρα: “so that he might have a portion,” purpose clause with pres. mid. opt. in secondary sequence (Monro 307). νέμοιτο: “allot to himself,” pres. mid. > νέμω. The meaning of Homeric νέμομαι ranges from “have as one’s portion,” to “enjoy” or “consume,” to “inhabit” (Graziosi-Haubold).

196: ἣ δ᾽: “and this one,” i.e. the daughter. ἔτεκε: aor. act. > τίκτω (see 6.154).

198: παρελέξατο: “go to bed alongside of,” aor. dep. mid. > παρα-λέχομαι. Λαοδαμείῃ: dat. governed by παρ- of  παρα-λέχομαι (Monro 145.6). μητίετα: nom. sg. of an a-declension adj. (Monro 96).

200: καὶ κεῖνος: “even that one,” “that one too,” i.e. Bellerophon. ἀπήχθετο: “became hateful to” + dat. (see 6.140).  

201: κὰπ: “over,” κατά, assimilated before π-. πεδίον τὸ Ἀλήϊον: “plain, this Aleian one,” the name clearly plays on the verb ἀλάομαι (“wander”) that follows, though Herodotus mentions an Aleian Plain in eastern Cilicia, a region in southern Asia Minor. ἀλᾶτο: impf. > ἀλάομαι.

202: ὃν: “his,” = ἑὸν, 3rd pers. possessive pronoun (Goodell 204). κατέδων: “eating away at,” nom. sg. pres. ptc. > κατ-έδω.

203: οἱ: “his,” = αὐτῷ, 3rd sg. personal pronoun, dative of person or thing affected, which describes the death of Isandros as Bellerophon’s loss (Goodell 523).

204: Σολύμοισι: “with…,” dat. of association with verb of fighting, pres. dep. mid. ptc. μαρνάμενον (see 6.141).

205: τὴν δὲ: “and this one,” Bellerophon’s daughter Laodameia. χολωσαμένη: “having become angry,” inceptive aor. mid. ptc. ἔκτα: root aorist > κτείνω.

206: ἔτικτε: “raised,” i.e. reared, impf. (see 6.154). As elsewhere, Glaucus emphasizes fatherhood (Graziosi-Haubold). ἐκ τοῦ: “from him,” i.e. from Hippolochus. φημι: “I claim,” the verb often makes an assertion rather than a simple statement.

207: πέμπε: unaugmented impf. > πέμπω, which advances the reference time after the aorists which preceded it (Monro 71.1).

208-9: ἀριστεύεινἔμμεναιαἰσχυνέμεν: present infinitives in apposition to πόλλ’ (πολλά) (Monro 85). ἄλλων: “above the rest…,” partitive gen. with ἀριστεύειν, or gen. of separation with ὑπείροχον (Monro 147.2 and 152 respectively).

209: μηδὲ: “and not…”; οἳ: “who…,” relative pronoun (Monro 266); μέγ’: = μέγα, “by far,” neuter sg. adverbial acc. with the predicate ἄριστοι. 

210: ἐγένοντο: aor. dep. mid. > γίγνομαι.

211: γενεῆςαἵματος: gen. of source, predicative after infin. of εἰμί (Goodell 509.a). τοι: “to be sure,” “be assured,” particle perhaps drawn from an ethical dative of the 2nd person personal pronoun (“I tell you”) (Goodell 671.e).

212: βοὴν: “in/at the battle cry,” acc. of respect is common after an adj., here ἀγαθὸς.

214: : “he,” demonstrative. προσηύδα: = προσηύδαε, 3rd sg. inchoative impf. (Monro 70).

215: ἦ ῥά: “truly,” “so it seems,” particles expressing surprise and realization. νύ: = νῦν. ἐσσι: 2nd sg. pres. > εἰμί, Attic εἶ (Monro 12).

217: ξείνισε: unaugmented 3rd sg. aor. > ξεινίζω. ἐνὶ: ἐν. ἐείκοσιν ἤματα: accusative duration of time. ἐρύξας: “keeping (him),” nom sg. aor. ptc.

218: οἳ δὲ καὶ: “these also,” καὶ is an adverb. πόρον: unaugmented 3rd pl. aor. > *πόρω.

219: δίδου: = (ἐ)δίδο-ε, 3rd sg. impf. > δίδωμι. φοίνικι: “with crimson,” specifying dat. with φαεινόν (Goodell 527.b).

221: μιν: “it,” = αὐτό, i.e. the cup. ἰὼν: “when I went away” (to the war), nom. sg. ptc. > εἶμι (Goodell 385).

222: Τυδέα: acc. sg. > Τυδεύς (Goodell 136). μέμνημαι: “I remember,” pf. mid. > μιμνήσκω, with present sense. ἐόντα: = ὄντα, acc. sg. ptc. > εἰμί.

223: κάλλιφ᾽: = κατέλιπε, aor. act. > καταλείπω, elision with aspiration before ὅτ’. Θήβῃσιν: Thebes, written alternatively in Greek with the sg. and pl., was a major city in Boeotia. Diomedes here refers to the Seven against Thebes, a war between the sons of Oedipus over the rule of Thebes, in which Diomedes’ father Tydeus is one of the titular seven who marches from Argos in support of Polynices. ἀπώλετο: aor. mid. > ἀπόλλυμι.

224: τὼ: “therefore.”  Ἄργεϊ μέσσῳ: locative dat., without preposition (Monro 145).

225: σὺ δ᾽: “you (are a guest friend to me),” ellipsis. ὅτε κενἵκωμαι: “whenever I come,” aor. subj. > ἱκνέομαι, subjunctive + κεν/ἄν in a general temporal clause of indefinite frequency (kindred with a present general condition) (Goodell 627). τῶν: “their,” “of those,” i.e. the Lycians’.

226: ἀλεώμεθα: “let us…,” 1st pl. pres. hortatory subj. δι᾽:  διὰ.

227-9: πολλοὶ μὲν ἐμοὶπολλοὶ δ᾽ σοὶ: “(there are) many Trojans and famous allies for me to kill … and (there are) many for you,” understand εἰσίν.

228-9: κτείνεινἐναιρέμεν: infinitives of purpose dependent on datives ἐμοὶ and σοὶ (Goodell 565.a).

228: ὅν κεπόρῃκιχείω: “whomever…,” κε + subjunctive in a general relative clause (Goodell 616.a). πόρῃκιχείω: 3rd sg. aor. subj. > *πόρω and 1st sg. aor. subj. > κιχάνω.

229: ὅν κε: “whomever…,” (see 6.228 above). δύνηαι: = δύνη(σ)αι, 2nd sg. pres. mid. subj.; repeat ἐναιρέμεν as complementary inf.

230 ἐπαμείψομεν: “let us exchange,” + dat. of person, 1st pl. aor. hortatory subjunctive, Attic ἐπαμείψωμεν, here with the short thematic vowel (Monro 80). ὄφρα καὶ οἵδε: “so that these men also…,” “to the end that…,” ὄφρα + subj. without κεν/ἄν in pure purpose clause (Monro 287.1.b).

231: γνῶσιν: 3rd pl. aor. subj. > γιγνῶσκω.

γόνος -ου ὁ: that which is begotten, offspring, a child

ἐύς or ἠύς, ἐύ, gen. ἑῆος: good, brave, noble

αὐτοῦ: (Adv.) at the very place, just here, just there

μιν: him, her, it

κατερύκω: to hold back, detain

οἱ (enclitic, dat. 3rd pers. pron.): (to) him, (to) her 

βασιληίς ‑ηίδος: royal, princely

ἥμισυς ἡμίσεια ἥμισυ: half

Λύκιοι: the Lycians, people of Lycia, a region on the south coast of Asia Minor, between Caria and Pamphylia

τέμενος -εος τό: a piece of land cut off, assigned as a domain to kings and chiefs

ἔξοχος: prominent, preeminent, chief, superior to (+gen.)

φυταλιά: vineyard, orchard land, fruit land195

ἄρουρα: cultivated land, plowed field, wheat field

ὄφρα: in order that; as long as, until

νέμω, aor. νεῖμαν: to distribute; mid. to possess, inhabit, dwell; of cattle, to pasture, graze

δαίφρων: warlike, courageous; wise, sensible, prudent

Βελλεροφόντης: Bellerophon, son of Glaucus, grandson of Sisyphus. His story is told at length in lines 153-201.

Ἴσανδρος: Isander, son of Bellerophon

Ἱππόλοχος: Hippolochus, son of Bellerophon and father of Glaucus.

Λαοδάμεια: Laodamia, daughter of Bellerophon; slain by Artemis

παραλέγομαι: lie down to sleep beside, lie with

μητίετα: (nom. and epic voc.) wisest, sagacious, epithet of Zeus

Ζεύς Διός ὁ: Zeus, son of Cronus, the husband and brother of Hera and the wisest and mightiest of the gods.

ἀντίθεος -η -ον: equal to the gods, godlike

Σαρπηδών -όνος ὁ: Sarpedon, leader of the southern Lycians, bravest of the Trojan allies, slain by Patroclus

χαλκοκορυστής: helmeted with bronze, in bronze armor

ἀπεχθάνομαι: to be hated200

ἤτοι: now surely, truly; = μέν

πεδίον -ου τό: a plain

Ἀλήϊον: land of wandering

ἀλάομαι: to wander, stray

ἑός ἑή ἑόν: his, her own

κατέδω: to eat up, devour

πάτος: a beaten path

ἀλεείνω: to avoid, shun

Ἄρης: Ares, son of Zeus and Hera, God of war and is on the side of the Trojans

ἄατος: insatiable

μάρναμαι: to fight, contend

Σόλυμοι: Solymi, a Lycian tribe

κατακτείνω: to kill, slay, murder

κυδάλιμος: glorious, renowned, famous

χολόω, fut. inf. χολωσέμεν, aor. partic. χολωσάμενος, perf. partic. κεχολωμένον, fut. κεχολώσεται, aor. pass. χολώθη: to anger, vex; mid. and pass. to be angry205

χρυσήνιος: with reins of gold

Ἄρτεμις -ιδος, ἡ: Artemis, daughter of Zeus and Leto, and twin sister of Apollo. Like her brother, she is on the side of the Trojans. Like him, she bears a bow, and she is his counterpart in several respects, sending quiet death to women, as he does to men.

κτείνω, aor. subj. κτείνῃς, aor. (ἔ)κτανε(ν) and ἔκτα, aor. mid. as pass. κτάμενος: to slay, kill

Τροίη: Troy, otherwise called Ἴλιος or Ilium

ἐπιτέλλω, aor. inf. ἐπιτεῖλαι: to enjoin upon, command

ἀριστεύω: to be the best

ὑπέροχος or ὑπείροχος: preeminent among (+ gen.), eminent, distinguished

αἰσχύνω: to disgrace, bring shame upon

Ἐφύρα: Ephyra, a place (location unclear)210

Λυκία: Lycia, a region on the south coast of Asia Minor, between Caria and Pamphylia 

εὐρύς -εῖα -ύ: wide, broad

γενεά or γενεή: race, stock, family

εὔχομαι, aor. εὔξαντο: to profess, boast, exult, vow, pray; εὐχόμενος, in prayer

γηθέω, aor. γήθησεν: to rejoice, be glad

βοή -ῆς ἡ: a loud cry, shout

Διομήδης -εος ὁ: Diomedes, son of Tydeus, king of Argos, one of the bravest and mightiest of the Achaeans fighting in Troy

ἔγχος -εος τό: spear, lance

καταπήγνυμι, aor. κατέπηξεν: to fix, stick

χθών χθονός ἡ: the earth, ground

πολυβότειρα: nuturing, furtile

ἀτάρ: but, yet

μειλίχιος: kind, friendly

προσαυδάω: to speak to, address

ποιμήν -ένος ὁ: shepherd

λαός -οῦ ὁ: the people

ἄρα, ῥά (enclit.), ἄρ, ῥ᾿: so, then, as you know, you know, it seems. Very often it marks an action as natural, or reminds of something recently said. It also marks transitions.215

πατρῷος or πατρώιος: of one's father, ancestral, hereditary; ξεῖνος πατρώιος, friend by descent, family friend

δῖος -α -ον: divine, noble, illustrious; marvelous, magnificent 

ἀμύμων -ονος: blameless, noble, excellent

ξενίζω or ζεινίζω, aor. (ἐ)ξείνισσε: to receive hospitably, entertain

μέγαρον -ου τό: large room, main hall (in the center) of the house; (pl.) dwelling, house, palace

ἦμαρ -ατος τό: day

ἐρύκω: to keep in, hold back, keep in check, curb, restrain

πόρον aor., πεπρωμένον perf.: gave, furnished; (perf. pass.) is fated 

ξεινήιον: a host's gift

ζωστήρ -ῆρος ὁ: a girdle

φοῖνιξ -ικος: purple

φαεινός -ή -όν: bright, brilliant, radiant

χρύσε(ι)ος -η -ον: golden, of gold220

δέπας -αος τό: a beaker, goblet, chalice

ἀμφικύπελλος: double, two-handled

καταλείπω: to leave behind

δῶμα -ατος τό: a house

Τυδεύς -έος ὁ: Tydeus, son of Oeneus of Calydon, brother of Meleager, father of Diomedes. Having slain some kinsmen, he fled to Argos, where he married a daughter of King Adrastus. He was one of the Seven against Thebes.

τυτθός: little, small

Θῆβαι or Θήβη: Thebes, the principal town of Boeotia, founded by Cadmus

Ἀχαιός: Achaian

φίλος -η -ον: friend; loved, beloved, dear

Ἄργος -εος τό: Argos, home of Diomedes

ἱκνέομαι and ἵκω, fut. ἵξομαι, aor. ἵκετο and ἷξε(ν), aor. subj. ἵκωμαι and ἵκηαι: to come, arrive at, reach

225

ἀλέομαι or ἀλεύομαι, aor. ἀλεύατο, aor. subj. ἀλεώμεθα: to escape, avoid. ἀλευάμενον: in flight

ὅμιλος -ου ὁ: any assembled crowd, a throng of people

Τρῶες: Trojans

κλειτός: renowned, famous (cp κλεινός)

ἐπίκουρος: a helper, ally

κιχάνω, fut. κιχήσεσθαι, aor. κιχήσατο, aor. subj. κιχείω [κιχῶ], aor. partic. κιχήμενον: to find, come to, overtake

ἐναίρω, aor. ἐνήρατο: to slay

τεῦχος -εος τό: (pl.) arms, armour230

ἐπαμείβω, mid. ἐπαμείβομαι, aor. subj. ἐπαμείψομεν: (act.) exchange; (mid.) change; νίκη ἐπαμείβεται ἄνδρας, victory comes now to one, now to another

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Suggested Citation

Thomas Van Nortwick and Geoffrey Steadman, Homer: Iliad 6 and 22. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-11-5.http://dcc.dickinson.edu/homer-iliad/homer-iliad-vi-191-231