Verbal Adjectives

Book Nav

main

410. With the suffix -ο (cp. § 403) are formed some words that may be used as adjectives or nouns at will. As adjectives some have a feminine in -ᾱ (cp. § 404), others are of two endings. Not a few such adjectives (or nouns) are used as the second part of a compound (§ 446.c), though not found separately.

Adjective Verb
λοιπ-ός (ή, -όν)
left, remaining
λείπω (λειπ-)
leave
ἀγωγ-ός
leading, guide (redup.)
ἄγω
drive, lead
-ποι-ός
making (400.d)
ποιέω (ποιε-)
make
-μάχ-ος
fighting
μάχομαι (μαχ-)
fight
-ηγ-ός
leading
ἄγω (ἀγ-)
drive, lead
-φόρ-ος
bearing
φέρω (φερ-)
bear
-ήκο-ος
hearing (27)
ἀκούω (ἀκου-)
hear

411. The verbals in -το-ς and -τέο-ς, made from most verbs, have been briefly described (§§ 352 - 354). Those in -το-ς have a wide range of meaning, usually passive, sometimes active, in some cases resembling a perfect active participle.

Adjective Verb
δυνα-τός
able (act.), possible (pass.)
δύναμαι (δυνα-)
can
πλανη-τός
wandering
πλανάω (πλανα:η-)
wander
τλη-τός enduring, endurable τλάω (τλα:η-)
endure
πισ-τός
trustworthy, faithful
πείθω (πιθ-)
win, trust
κροτη-τός
pounded or rattling
κροτέω (κροτε:η-)
pound
ὕπ-οπ-τος
suspected or suspicious1
ὑπ-όψομαι (ὑπ-οπ-)
shall eye stealthily
ἄ-πρᾱκ-τος
undone or having done nothing
(440)
πρᾱ́σσω (πρᾱγ-)
do

412. Many verbal adjectives, active, passive, or indeterminate, are formed with the suffixes

Suffix Nominative
-νο or -ανο, -(α)νός -όν
-λο -ελο, -(ε)λός -όν
-ρο -ερο, -(ε)ρός -ᾱ́ -όν
Adjective Verb
στυγ-νός
hateful, hated
στυγέω [root στυγ- (στυγε-)]
hate
σεμ-νός (for σεβ-νος)
revered, solemn
σέβομαι (σεβ-)
revere
δει-νός
fearful
δέδοικα (δι-, δει-, δοι-)
fear
τερπ-νός
delightful
τέρπω (τερπ-)
delight
ἱκ-ανός
sufficient, capable
ἱκνέομαι (ἱκ-)
arrive
πιθ-ανός
persuasive
πείθω (πιθ-, πειθ-)
win over
δει-λός (cp. δεινός)
timid
δέδοικα (δι-, δει-, δοι-)
fear
στυφ-ελός
compact
στῡ́φω (στυφ-)
draw together
ἐχθ-ρός
hateful, hating
ἔχθω (ἐχθ-)
hate
λαμπ-ρός
splendid
λάμπω (λαμπ-)
shine
μελετη-ρός
practising, practised
μελετάω (μελετα:η-)
practise
ἰσχῡ-ρός
strong
ἰσχω (ἰσχῡ-)
be strong
βλαβ-ερός
harmful
βλάπτω (βλαβ-)
harm
φαν-ερός
plain
φαίνω (φαν-)
show
στυγ-ερός (cp. στυγνός)
hateful, hated

a. Some nouns formed with like suffixes are closely related to these, and may have been originally adjectives.

Adjective Verb
στεφ-ανός
wreath, crown
στέφωput (στεφ-)
around
δρέπ-ανον
scythe
δρέπω (δρεπ-)
pluck, cull
στή-λη
column, monument
ἵστημι (στα:η-)
set up
φῦ- λον, φῡ-λή
tribe, clan
φῡ́ω
make grow
δῶ-ρον
gift
δίδωμι (δο:ω-)
give

413. Other suffixes that form verbal adjectives are

a. -υ, nominative -υς, εια, -υ.

Adjective Verb
ἡδ-ύς
pleasing
ἥδομαι
am pleased
(ἡδ-)

(In ταχ-ύς (swift), βαρ-ύς (heavy), and others, the root does not appear in Greek as a verb stem.)

b. -εσ, nominative -ης, -ες.

Adjective Verb
ψευδ-ής
false
ψεύδομαι (ψευδ-)
lie

(Many adjectives in -ης are compounds; see §§ 446, 447.)

c. -μον, nominative -μων, -μον.

Adjective Verb
τλή-μων
enduring, wretched
τλάω (τλα:η-)
endure
μνή-μων
mindful
μιμνήσκω
remind
(μνη-)
αἰδή-μων
respectful
αἰδέομαι
respect
ἐπι-λήσ-μων
forgetful
ἐπι-λανθάνομαι (λαθ-, ληθ-)
forget

Here belong also some nouns in -μων.

Noun Verb
ἡγε-μών
leader
ἡγέομαι (ἡγε:η-)
lead

d. -ικο, nominative -ικός, -ή, -όν, often suggesting inclination to or fitness for an action (cp. § 425).

Adjective Verb
ἀρχ-ικός
fit to rule
ἄρχω
rule
(ἀρχ-)
γραφ-ικός
suited to writing or painting
γράφω (γραφ-)
write
or paint

e. -τικο (nominative -τικός, -ή, -όν) developed from -ικο, by use with verbals in -τος.

Adjective Verb
πρᾱκ-τικός
inclined to act
πρᾱ́σσω (πρᾱγ-)
do
λογισ-τικός
skilled in reckoning
λογίζομαι (λογιδ-)
reckon
γυμνασ-τικός
fond of excercise
γυμνάζω
exercise
σκεπ-τικός
disposed to examine
σκέπτομαι
lοοk carefully
(σκεπ-)

f. -ιμο and -σιμο, nominative -(σ)ιμος, -η, -ον:

Adjective Verb
τρόφ-ιμος
nourishing, nourished
τρέφω (τρεφ-)
rear
πλώ-ιμος
navigable
πλέω (πλυ-)
sail
μάχ-ιμος
fit to fight
μάχομαι (μαχ-)
fight
χρή-σιμος
useful
χράομαι (χρα:η-)
use
καύ-σιμος
combustible
κᾱ́ω (καυ-)
burn

414. The various participles are special classes of verbal adjectives.

  • 1. Cp. the two meanings of suspicious in a suspicious man and a suspicious circumstance.

Suggested Citation

Meagan Ayer, ed. Goodell’s School Grammar of Attic Greek. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-10-8. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/grammar/goodell/verbal-adjectives