12.327-363

"οἱ δ᾽ ἧος μὲν σῖτον ἔχον καὶ οἶνον ἐρυθρόν,

τόφρα βοῶν ἀπέχοντο λιλαιόμενοι βιότοιο.

ἀλλ᾽ ὅτε δὴ νηὸς ἐξέφθιτο ἤια πάντα,

καὶ δὴ ἄγρην ἐφέπεσκον ἀλητεύοντες ἀνάγκῃ,330

ἰχθῦς ὄρνιθάς τε, φίλας ὅ τι χεῖρας ἵκοιτο,

γναμπτοῖς ἀγκίστροισιν, ἔτειρε δὲ γαστέρα λιμός·

δὴ τότ᾽ ἐγὼν ἀνὰ νῆσον ἀπέστιχον, ὄφρα θεοῖσιν

εὐξαίμην, εἴ τίς μοι ὁδὸν φήνειε νέεσθαι.

ἀλλ᾽ ὅτε δὴ διὰ νήσου ἰὼν ἤλυξα ἑταίρους,335

χεῖρας νιψάμενος, ὅθ᾽ ἐπὶ σκέπας ἦν ἀνέμοιο,

ἠρώμην πάντεσσι θεοῖς οἳ Ὄλυμπον ἔχουσιν·

οἱ δ᾽ ἄρα μοι γλυκὺν ὕπνον ἐπὶ βλεφάροισιν ἔχευαν.

Εὐρύλοχος δ᾽ ἑτάροισι κακῆς ἐξήρχετο βουλῆς·

‘κέκλυτέ μευ μύθων κακά περ πάσχοντες ἑταῖροι.340

πάντες μὲν στυγεροὶ θάνατοι δειλοῖσι βροτοῖσι,

λιμῷ δ᾽ οἴκτιστον θανέειν καὶ πότμον ἐπισπεῖν.

ἀλλ᾽ ἄγετ᾽, Ἠελίοιο βοῶν ἐλάσαντες ἀρίστας

ῥέξομεν ἀθανάτοισι, τοὶ οὐρανὸν εὐρὺν ἔχουσιν.

εἰ δέ κεν εἰς Ἰθάκην ἀφικοίμεθα, πατρίδα γαῖαν,345

αἶψά κεν Ἠελίῳ Ὑπερίονι πίονα νηὸν

τεύξομεν, ἐν δέ κε θεῖμεν ἀγάλματα πολλὰ καὶ ἐσθλά.

εἰ δὲ χολωσάμενός τι βοῶν ὀρθοκραιράων

νῆ᾽ ἐθέλῃ ὀλέσαι, ἐπὶ δ᾽ ἕσπωνται θεοὶ ἄλλοι,

βούλομ᾽ ἅπαξ πρὸς κῦμα χανὼν ἀπὸ θυμὸν ὀλέσσαι,350

ἢ δηθὰ στρεύγεσθαι ἐὼν ἐν νήσῳ ἐρήμῃ.’

ὣς ἔφατ᾽ Εὐρύλοχος, ἐπὶ δ᾽ ᾔνεον ἄλλοι ἑταῖροι.

αὐτίκα δ᾽ Ἠελίοιο βοῶν ἐλάσαντες ἀρίστας

ἐγγύθεν, οὐ γὰρ τῆλε νεὸς κυανοπρῴροιο

βοσκέσκονθ᾽ ἕλικες καλαὶ βόες εὐρυμέτωποι·355

τὰς δὲ περίστησάν τε καὶ εὐχετόωντο θεοῖσιν,

φύλλα δρεψάμενοι τέρενα δρυὸς ὑψικόμοιο·

οὐ γὰρ ἔχον κρῖ λευκὸν ἐυσσέλμου ἐπὶ νηός.

αὐτὰρ ἐπεί ῥ᾽ εὔξαντο καὶ ἔσφαξαν καὶ ἔδειραν,

μηρούς τ᾽ ἐξέταμον κατά τε κνίσῃ ἐκάλυψαν360

δίπτυχα ποιήσαντες, ἐπ᾽ αὐτῶν δ᾽ ὠμοθέτησαν.

οὐδ᾽ εἶχον μέθυ λεῖψαι ἐπ᾽ αἰθομένοις ἱεροῖσιν,

ἀλλ᾽ ὕδατι σπένδοντες ἐπώπτων ἔγκατα πάντα.

    Adverse winds strand the Greeks on Thrinakia for a month. Odysseus goes to pray to the gods and falls asleep. Eurylochus convinces the crew to slaughter some cattle to eat.

    The wrong winds blow for a month, food from the ship runs out, and the crew is forced to subsist on birds and fish. Enforced stasis never brings out the best in Homeric heroes (See Aulis), but trouble with winds evokes another, closer parallel. As we hear how the disastrous month plays out, a familiar rhythm surfaces: the Greeks are given a divine imperative, the ignoring of which will be fatal; having warned them sternly, Odysseus eventually falls asleep, leaving his crew on their own; they fail to control themselves; storms at sea and the death of many crew members follow.

    read full essay

    This pattern appears earlier, in the Aeolus episode just before the Greeks arrive at Circe’s island (10.1–79). Other similarities repay attention: like Thrinakia, the island of Aeolus has a magical quality, reflecting the inhabitants’ special status with the gods. Aeolus controls the winds as an agent for Zeus, while divine nymphs look after the herds for Helios. And in both cases, the transgressions of the Greeks interfere with elemental forces in the universe.

    Aeolus’s outburst, when Odysseus asks for help a second time, seems somewhat harsh in the circumstances:

    ἔρρ᾽ ἐκ νήσου θᾶσσον, ἐλέγχιστε ζωόντων:

    οὐ γάρ μοι θέμις ἐστὶ κομιζέμεν οὐδ᾽ ἀποπέμπειν

    ἄνδρα τόν, ὅς κε θεοῖσιν ἀπέχθηται μακάρεσσιν:

    ἔρρε, ἐπεὶ ἄρα θεοῖσιν ἀπεχθόμενος τόδ᾽ ἱκάνεις.

    Away quickly from this island, most shameful creature!

    It is not sanctioned for me to help on his way

    a man who is so hated by the blessed gods.

    Away, I say! This return means you are hateful to the gods!

    Odyssey 10.72–75

    That the crew gave in to the ordinary human failings of envy and resentment does not seem to merit this condemnation of their captain. But the stakes here transcend the ethical realm of human behavior. By unleashing the winds and creating chaos, the sailors disturb something in the regular processes of nature, undermining Aeolus’s divinely sanctioned role as guardian of order on the sea. All the Greek sailors except those on Odysseus’ ship then die at the hands of the Laestrygonians. The disaster on Thrinakia disturbs another kind of order. There are 350 cattle and 350 sheep in the herds, numbers that are never supposed to be changed, by birth or death. The animals are sacred to the deity whose journeys across the sky measure out the days and months, and as we have noted, thinkers as early as Aristotle have seen the number of animals in each herd as reflecting the days of the year. The crew’s attack, then, could be seen as an attack on time itself and as a consequence everyone but Odysseus dies. In each episode, the price for Odysseus falling asleep and failing to control his crew triggers a descent into chaos on a potentially cosmic scale. We will revisit the implications of these parallel events for the overall structure of Books Five through Twelve in a broader discussion below.

    Convinced by Eurylochus, who declares that he would rather drown than starve (350–351), the crew raids the cattle of Helios. The preparations that precede the meal include familiar language (359–361), but the crew’s dire situation forces some creativity in the ritual gestures that usually accompany a feast: instead of sprinkling grain over the meat, they drape leaves; for wine, they substitute water. While these changes seem reasonable enough in a naturalistic sense, symbolically they mark yet again the dangerously transgressive nature of the feast.

    The ill-omened sacrifice of divine cattle had a second life in early Greek literature, in the Homeric Hymn to Hermes, a poem from the Sixth Century BCE. On the day of his birth in a cave on Mount Cyllene in Central Greece, Hermes displays his astounding divine powers by inventing both the lyre and the method—known to future Boy and Girl Scouts—for starting a fire with friction, then stealing the cattle sacred to his big brother Apollo. The work is one of four longer extant hexameter poems probably composed between 700 and 550 BCE, each with a story or stories about a particular Olympian deity. The style of all these poems resembles that of the Iliad and Odyssey to varying degrees, but each closely enough to suggest that these works were part of a tradition of hexameter poetry that spread across the mainland of Greece and the coast of is what now Turkey between the Eighth and the Sixth Centuries BCE. The Hermes hymn is the latest of these narratives, perhaps dating to sometime in the early to mid-Sixth Century.

    To what in the Odyssey might the hymn poet have been responding? The central act of transgression has an entirely humorous tone in this later work. The baby god uses clever tricks to escape being caught in the act of cattle theft, walking the herd backwards, wearing reversed sandals of his own invention. Though he does sacrifice twelve head of cattle, unlike the crew members in the Odyssey he does not eat any of them. (The ritual meaning of the sacrifice is obscure, though killing twelve from the herd as part of a plan to gain recognition among the Olympian gods seems significant.) Divine retribution in the hymn takes the form of Apollo tracking the baby down in his cave on Mount Cyllene and hauling him off to Olympus. The exchanges between Hermes and Apollo, in the cave and later on Olympus, highlight the precocity of the infant as opposed to his stolid big brother. Zeus finds the baby amusing and declares a truce, which in reality is a triumph for Hermes, who has had as his goal to gain recognition his father Zeus on Olympus for himself and his mother, who have been languishing in obscurity in Arcadia.

    The most significant traits that Odysseus himself shares with Hermes are those of the trickster, a figure found in folktales from all over the world. We will learn in Book Nineteen that Odysseus is the maternal grandson of Autolycus, famous for his skill in thievery and clever oaths, qualities that the god Hermes bestowed on him (19.395–398). Later tradition makes Autolycus the son of Hermes, tying Odysseus yet more closely to the god. Certain features of the trickster paradigm are especially relevant to Odysseus in the Odyssey. The trickster is always an outsider, always transgressive in some way and usually a subversive force. Hermes is a typical trickster in that, as the god of boundaries, he is necessarily transgressive. In Greek literature and myth, he is the guide of souls to the Underworld, the agent for crossing the most permanent of thresholds. In the hymn, he crosses over all kinds of boundaries, from childhood to mature mastery in one day, from Arcadia to Olympus. He drags the divine cattle of Apollo out of their pasture and by killing twelve of them, brings them across the boundary between immortal and mortal.

    The trickster always has the potential for effecting change by penetrating worlds usually closed to him and shaking up the regular order of things. Hermes, by entering the magical world of Calypso in Book Five, thwarts the nymph’s plan to keep Odysseus with her, out of human time. Likewise, Odysseus, every time he enters a new place as an anonymous stranger—including Ithaka, where he gets inside the palace disguised as an old beggar—carries the potential for change. In fact, we could say that he is the principal agent of permanent change in the poem. When the Phaeacians return Odysseus to Ithaka on their ship, they are punished by Poseidon, who turns the ship to stone in the harbor and threatens to bury their city under a mountain (13.128–187). Polyphemus, who had been living a settled life on his own, is rendered helpless when Odysseus blinds him (9.407–414).

    In general, we would expect the trickster to show up when the centrifugal elements of Odysseus’s character are prominent, the restless, rootless wanderer who seeks out new experiences. In the cattle of the sun episode, this alignment is altered. It is the crew, who by transgressing against the injunction of Helios, imperils the return to Ithaka. Odysseus, by trying to enforce the divine imperative, appears in his centripetal persona, working to get back home.

    Further Reading

    Austin, N. 1975. Archery at the Dark of the Moon, 137. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Brown, N. 1948. Hermes the Thief. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

    Hyde, L. 1998. Trickster Makes This World, 203–225. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

    Reinhardt, K. 1942. “The Adventures in the Odyssey.” In Schein, S. 1996. Reading the Odyssey. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 99–102.

    Van Nortwick, T. 2008. The Unknown Odysseus: Alternate Worlds in Homer’s Odyssey, 83–90. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

    327  οἱ δ᾽ ἧος: “but as long as they …”

    328  λιλαιόμενοι βιότοιο: “desiring sustenance” > λιλαίομαι + genitive.

    329  ἐξέφθιτο: pluperfect passive, singular verb with neuter plural subject, > ἐκφθίνω.

    330  ἄγρην: “wild game.”

    330  ἐφέπεσκον: “they started to pursue,” inchoative imperfect, > ἐφέπω.

    330  ἀνάγκῃ: “by necessity.”

    331  φίλας: “their,” modifying χεῖρας.

    331  ἵκοιτο: “came into.” 

    333  ἀνὰ νῆσον: “inland,” “into the interior of the island.”

    334  εἴφήνειε: “in the hope that …” (Smyth 2354). φήνειε, 3rd singular aorist optative, > φαίνω.

    335  ἤλυξα: "I sought refuge from," "I slipped away from." 

    336  ὅθ᾽ ἐπὶἦν: “where there was …”

    340  Κέκλυτέ μευ μύθων: κλύω with genitive of thing heard (μύθων) and possessive genitive (μευ). 

    341  στυγεροὶ: supply εἰσί.

    342  λιμῷ: dative of means, > λιμός.

    342  οἴκιστον: supply ἐστί.

    342  ἐπισπεῖν: “to encounter,” aorist infinitive, > ἐφέπω.

    343  ἐλάσσαντες: "herding." 

    344  ῥέξομεν: either future indicative or short-vowel hortatory subjunctive, > ῥέζω. A sacrifice will result in meat for the men to eat.

    345  εἰκενἀφικοίμεθα: εἰ κεν  + optative is rare in the protasis of a conditional (Monro 313); it could be explained as a potential optative (“if we can arrive …”; Smyth 2353a) or possibly “on the chance that we arrive … ” (Smyth 2354)

    346  κεντεύξομεν: “we might build …”; the future indicative with κεν (ἄν) indicates something conditional or possible in the future (Monro 326, Smyth 1793).

    346  νηὸν: “temple” (> Attic, ναός)

    347  κε θεῖμεν: potential optative, > τίθημι.

    348  εἰἐθέλῃ: future more vivid, subjunctive without ἄν/κεν (Smyth 2327a). 

    348  βοῶν: “on account of …,” genitive of cause (Monro 147.1, Smyth 1405) with the verb χολόω.

    349  ἐπὶἕσπωνται: “should fall into line,” “should agree,” 3rd plural aorist subjunctive, > ἐφέπω.

    350  βούλομ᾽: “I would rather … than …,” with infinitives (literally, “I want to … rather than to …”).

    350  πρὸς κῦμα χανὼν: "with mouth open to the wave" (Brill), that is, to drown. 

    350  ἀπὸὀλέσσαι: tmesis, > ἀπόλλυμι, “to lose.”

    350  θυμὸν: “life,” direct object of ἀπολέσσαι.

    352  ἐπὶᾔνεον: “agreed,” tmesis, > ἐπαινέω.

    354  τῆλε: “far from,” with genitive

    355  βοσκέσκονθ᾽: =βοσκέσκοντο. Iterative imperfect, unaugmented. The verb means “to tend” in the active, and “to graze” in the passive (LSJ βόσκω).

    357  δρυὸς: genitive of source (Smyth 1410).

    358  κρῖ: grains of barley were scattered on the altar as part of a sacrificial offering.

    360  κατὰἐκάλυψαν: “covered (them) over,” “wrapped (them),” tmesis, >κατακαλύπτω.

    360  κνίσῃ: “with fat,” dative of means.

    361  δίπτυχα ποιήσαντες: "making a double layer." The fat (κνίση) is wrapped twice around the thighbone to create a double layer of fat. 

    362  οὐδ᾽ εἶχον μέθυ λεῖψαι: either "they didn't have wine to pour as a libation," with an infinitive of purpose, or "they were not able to pour..." It amounts to the the same thing. 

    362  ἱεροῖσιν: “offerings,” > ἱερός.

    σῖτος –ου ὁ: grain; bread

    οἶνος –ου ὁ: wine

    ἐρυθρός –ά –όν: red

    τόφρα: at that very moment, so long; tόφρα … ὄφρα, as long as … until

    ἀπέχω ἀφέξω (or ἀποσχήσω) ἀπέσχον ἀπέσχηκα ––– –––: to keep apart, keep off (+ gen.); (mid.) to restrain oneself, abstain

    λιλαίομαι – – – – –: to desire, to miss; to long for (+ gen. or infin.)

    βίοτος –ου ὁ: life, sustenance, livelihood

    ἐκφθίνω ἐκφθίσω ἐξέφθισα ἐξέφθικα ἐξέφθιμαι –: (in pf. middle) to be used up, to have perished

    ἤια –ατος τό: provisions for a journey

    ἄγρα –ας ἡ: hunt; hunting 330

    ἐφέπω ἐφέψω ἔπεσπον ––– ––– –––: to follow, pursue; to frequent, go often to, range over

    ἀλητεύω ἀλητεύσω ἠλήτευσα: to wander, roam about

    ἰχθυς –ύος ὁ/ἡ: fish

    ὄρνις ὄρνιθος ὁ/ἡ: bird, omen

    ἱκνέομαι ἵξομαι ἱκόμην ––– ἷγμαι –––: to come, reach

    γναμπτός –ή –όν: curved, bent

    ἄγκιστρον –ου τό: a fish-hook

    τείρω ––– ––– ––– ––– –––: to wear down, exhaust, weaken

    γαστήρ –τρός ἡ: the paunch, belly

    λιμός –οῦ ὁ/ἡ: hunger

    ἀποστείχω ἀποστείξω ἀπέστιχον: to go, come, walk, proceed

    ὄφρα: while; until; so that; ὄφρα … τόφρα, while … for so long

    εὔχομαι εὔξομαι ηὐξάμην ηὖγμαι: to pray; to make a vow, promise; to declare, affirm; to glory in, boast of (for good reason)

    νέομαι ––– ––– ––– ––– –––: to return (often in present with future sense), go home, go

    ἀλύσκω ἀλύξω ἤλυξα ––– ––– –––: to flee from, shun, avoid, forsake 335

    ἑταῖρος –ου ὁ: comrade, companion

    νίζω νίψω ἔνιψα ––– νένιμμαι ἐνίφθην: to wash the hands

    ὅθι: where

    σκέπας –ους τό: a covering, shelter

    ἄνεμος –ου ὁ: wind

    ἀράομαι ἀράσομαι (Ion. ἀρήσομαι) ἠρησάμην ἤρᾱμαι: to pray to

    Ὄλυμπος –ου ὁ: Mount Olympus

    ἄρα: now, then, next, thus

    γλυκύς γλυκεῖα γλυκύ: sweet, pleasant

    ὕπνος –ου ὁ: sleep

    βλέφαρον –ου τό: eyelid (mostly in plur.)

    χέω χέω ἔχεα or ἔχευα κέχυκα κέχυμαι ἐχύθην: to pour, shed

    Εὐρύλοχος –ου ὁ: Eurylochus, a cousin and companion of Odysseus

    ἑταῖρος –ου ὁ: comrade, companion

    ἐξάρχω ἐξάρξω ἐξῆρξα ἐξῆρχα ἐξῆργμαι ἐξήρχθην: to begin with, make a beginning of

    κλύω ––– κέκλυκα ––– ––– –––: to hear, listen to; to have a reputation, be judged or considered 340

    μῦθος –ου ὁ: spoken thing, speech, plan, story

    ἑταῖρος –ου ὁ: comrade, companion

    στυγερός –ά –όν: hated, abominated, loathed; chilling

    δειλός –ή –όν: wretched, unfortunate, miserable; base, cowardly, vile

    βροτός –οῦ ὁ: mortal

    λιμός –οῦ ὁ/ἡ: hunger

    οἴκτιστος –η –ον: most pitiable, lamentable

    πότμος –ου ὁ: that which befalls one, one's lot, destiny; death

    ἐφέπω ἐφέψω ἔπεσπον ––– ––– –––: to follow, pursue; to frequent, go often to, range over

    ἄγε: come! come on! well!

    ῥέζω ῥέξω ἔρρεξα – – ἐρρέχθην: to do, accomplish; to offer (sacrifice)

    ἀθάνατος –ον: immortal, deathless; (plur.) the gods

    εὐρύς –εῖα –ύ: broad

    Ἰθάκη –ης ἡ: Ithaca, the home of Odysseus, an island on the West coast of Greece 345

    γαίη –ης ἡ: land, region, district

    αἶψα: rapidly, speedily, suddenly

    Ὑπερίων –ονος ὁ: Hyperion, the Sun-god

    πίων –ονος ὁ/ἡ: fat, plump; rich, opulent

    τεύχω τεύξω ἔτευξα τέτευχα τέτυγμαι ἐτύχθην: to make, build, prepare, fasten; to bring about

    ἄγαλμα –ατος τό: glory, statue, pleasing gift

    ἐσθλός –ή –όν: good

    χολόω χολώσω ἐχόλωσα ––– κεχόλωμαι ἐχολώθην: to make angry, provoke

    ὀρθόκραιρος –α –ον: with straight horns

    ὄλλυμι ὀλῶ ὤλεσα (or ὠλόμην) ὀλώλεκα (or ὄλωλα) ––– –––: to demolish, kill; to lose, suffer the loss of (+ acc.); (mid.) to die, perish, be killed

    ἅπαξ: once, once only 350

    κῦμα –ατος τό: wave

    χάσκω (or χαίνω) χανοῦμαι ἔχανον κέχηνα ––– –––: to gasp, gape

    ὄλλυμι ὀλῶ ὤλεσα (or ὠλόμην) ὀλώλεκα (or ὄλωλα) ––– –––: to demolish, kill; to lose, suffer the loss of (+ acc.); (mid.) to die, perish, be killed

    δηθά: for a long time

    στρεύγομαι – – – – –: (pass.) to be exhausted drop by drop, languish

    ἐρῆμος –η –ον: lone, lonely, desert

    Εὐρύλοχος –ου ὁ: Eurylochus, a cousin and companion of Odysseus

    αἰνέω αἰνέσω ᾔνεσα ᾔνεκα ᾔνημαι ᾔνέθην: to tell, speak of, praise; to agree

    ἑταῖρος –ου ὁ: comrade, companion

    ἐγγύθεν: close, nearby, alongside

    τῆλε: at a distance, far off, far away

    κυανόπρῳρος –ον: with dark-blue prow, dark-prowed

    βόσκω βοσκήσω ἐβόσκησα βεβόσκηκα βεβόσκημαι ἐβοσκήθην: (act.) to feed; (mid.) to feed oneself; (trans.) to feed someone 355

    ἕλιξ –ικος: with curving horns; twisted, curving

    εὐρυμέτωπος –ον: broad-fronted, wide-faced

    περιίστημι περιστήσω περιέστησα (or περιέστην) περιέστηκα περιέσταμαι περιεστάθην: to place round; to stand around

    εὐχετάομαι – – – – –: to boast, pray

    φύλλον –ου τό: a leaf

    δρέπω δρέψω ἔδρεψα/ἔδραπον – – ἐδρέφθην: to pluck, cull

    τέρην –εινα –εν: tender, delicate, soft

    δρῦς –υός ἡ: oak, holm oak

    ὑψίκομος [–η] –ον: with lofty foliage, towering

    κρῖ τό: barley

    λευκός –ή –όν: white; light, bright

    εὔσελμος –ον: well-benched, with good banks of oars

    ἀτάρ (or αὐτάρ): but, yet

    ἄρα: now, then, next, thus

    εὔχομαι εὔξομαι ηὐξάμην ηὖγμαι: to pray; to make a vow, promise; to declare, affirm; to glory in, boast of (for good reason)

    σφάζω σφάξω ἔσφαξα ἔσφακα ἔσφαγμαι ἐσφάχθην: to kill, slaughter

    δέρω δερῶ ἔδειρα – δέδαρμαι ἐδάρθην: to skin, flay

    μηρός –οῦ ὁ: the thigh 360

    ἐκτάμνω, aor. ἐξέταμον or ἔκταμε: to cut out

    κνῖσα –ης ἡ: fat; scent or smoke of burnt sacrifice

    καλύπτω καλύψω ἐκάλυψα κεκάλυμμαι ἐκαλύφθην: to cover

    δίπτυχος –ον: double-folded, doubled

    ὠμοθετέω ὠμοθετήσω ὠμοθέτησα: to place the raw slices

    μέθυ –υος τό: wine, mead

    λείβω ––– ––– ––– ––– –––: to pour, pour forth

    αἴθω ––– ––– ––– ––– –––: to light up, kindle

    σπένδω σπείσω ἔσπεισα ἔσπεισμαι: to pour a libation; (mid.) to make a treaty; to make peace (by pouring a libation with the other party)

    ἐποπτάω ἐποπτήσω ἐπώπτησα ἐπώπτηκα ἐπώπτημαι ἐπωπτήθην: to roast

    ἔγκατα –ων τά: the innards, entrails, bowels

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    Suggested Citation

    Thomas Van Nortwick and Rob Hardy, Homer: Odyssey 9-12. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 20122. ISBN: 978-1-947822-17-7 https://dcc.dickinson.edu/homer-odyssey/xii-327-363